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Nuclear submarine tecnology


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Nuclear submarine tecnology

  2. 2. SUBMARINE – WHAT IS IT ? • Submarines lurk deep beneath the surface of ocean and is ready to strike at a moment’s notice. • Powered by nuclear engines and they can sail for years without refueling. • U-boat shaped watercraft vessel.
  3. 3. TYPES OF SUBMARINE • Submarines can be classified into two types. • 1. Military submarines • 2. Research submarines.  Military submarines are extensively used for naval operations of militaristic nature.  Research submarines are used for deep sea studies. Military submarines prior to the cold war era used a combination of diesel engines and electric batteries for propulsion.
  4. 4. WHAT’S NEW ABOUT NUCLEAR SUBMARINES • • • • Powered by a nuclear reactor. Refueling is done in long ranges of time. Operate at high speed for long duration. Frees the submarine from the need to surface frequently.
  5. 5. HISTORY OF NUCLEAR SUBMARINES • USS Nautilus,1st nuclear submarine was launched in 1954 by USA. • Developed by group of scientists and engineers at the Naval Reactor Branch of Atomic Energy Commission under the leadership of Captain Hyman.
  9. 9. TECHNICAL PARTS • INNER HULL: Protects crew by preventing water pressure bearing down on submarine. • OUTER HULL: Provides streamlined shape. • Both are made up of an alloy of nickel, molybdenum and chromium to sustain great pressure(HY-80).
  10. 10. 1.PROPELLER  The Propeller is powered by the steam driven turbine and generates.  The steam is created by the nuclear reactor
  11. 11. 2. RUDDER  The Rudder is Vertically aligned and By moving it, the ship can be directed side to side.  Stem planes are horizontally aligned,so that moving them will guide the sub upward or downward
  12. 12. OUTER PARTS • RUDDER: helps in side movements • STERN PLATES: supports in up-down movement. • PROPELLAR: Powered by steam driven turbines and generators
  13. 13. 3.BALLAST AND TRIM TANKS Located in the front and left (rearward) Section of the craft help control the depth of the Ship by taking on or releasing water.
  14. 14. TANKS • BALLAST TANKS:Helps in controlling depth of submarine. TRIM TANKS:Required to keep the submarine equally balanced
  15. 15. WATER AND ATMOSPHERE CONTROL  This purifies salt water for purpose of drinking and engine needs .  The crew’s breathing air by ridding it of carbon dioxide and impurities
  16. 16. . TORPPED ROOM This is where all the torpedoes Are stored and loaded into torpedo Tubes to prepare them for launching
  17. 17. 6. MANEVERING ROOM  The control center for the main operating systems of the vessels  The turbines generates and nuclear reactor.
  18. 18. CREW QUARTERS/MESS The crew Is housed and fed in very tight, efficient quarters usually located in the middle level of the ship’s forward compartment.
  19. 19. CONTROL AND ATTACK CENTER  The nerve center of the submarine, the control room/attack center contains the operational controls for all navigational, sonar communication and weapons systems on the submarine.  From here the officer of the Deck will direct the activities of the vessel.
  20. 20. 14.VERTICAL LAUNCH SYSTEM Modem submarines also carry a Complement of missiles to attack land Based targets.
  22. 22. DEFINATIONS • Atomic submarine: warship that travels and fights under water. Aft diving plane: operating like a helm to maintain vertical position. Stem propulsion system: steam-driven apparatus that propels a submarine. Escape hatch: sealed chamber between the air and the water used for passing between the interior and exterior of a submarine in emergencies. Access hatch: sealed chamber between the air and the water used for mooring. Refectory: room reserved for personnel. Antenna: apparatus that receives waves. Snorkel: tube used to expel gases and take in fresh air. Periscope: optical device used to see an object hidden by an obstacle. Turret: guns' location. Torpedo room: place where torpedoes are stored. Guidance sonar: submarine radar based on the reflection of sound waves. It is used for navigation. Ballast: tanks that are filled with water to dive and emptied to climb. Battery: device that generates electric current. Torpedo: explosive-filled warhead used under water. Radio antenna: apparatus that receives radio waves. Nuclear reactor: device in which nuclear reactions take place. Auxiliary electric motor: emergency electric engine. Rudder: small wing. Lower rudder: apparatus used to turn a boat. Propeller: two- or three-bladed propulsion apparatus.
  23. 23. How do Nuclear Submarines Work?   Nuclear submarines are powered by nuclear reactors. Inside nuclear reactors, a neutron is deployed in order to split uranium atoms.  The atomic structure of uranium, once split, forms a huge amount of heat and gamma radiation. This heat emitted, is in turn used to heat water.  The reactor is surrounded by a hollow coil.  Water is circulated in the hollow coil, at an extremely high pressure, which prevents it from converting to steam.  Water is circulated in the hollow coil, at an extremely high pressure, which prevents it from converting to steam.
  24. 24. 7. NUCLEAR REACTOR  A nuclear reactor is essentially a glorified steam engine.  The nuclear reactor is usually located in the rear portion of the submarine.
  27. 27. NITTY–GRITTY NUCLEAR • Within the nuclear reactor, a neutron is used to split an atom of uranium, producing energy in the form of gamma radiation and heat. A coil filled with circulating water is superheated as it's routed past the reactor. This water is under extremely high pressure, which prevents it from boiling. Inside self-contained piping, the water is directed through a secondary source of water, where it's heated again. Here, the water is converted to steam and is piped toward the turbine that generates power for the submarine. The steam is condensed again in special cooling tubes, and the resulting water flows back into the steam generator. Inside the generator, it's reheated and the process repeats. This method requires no oxygen, so the submarine doesn't need to maintain or refresh a supply of air from above the surface.
  28. 28. Graph between SSBN & SSN Patrols
  30. 30. ADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR-POWERED SUBMARINES OVER CONVENTIONAL SUBMARINES ? 1. The nuclear subs are truly independent of the surface for as long as their food (and the sanity of the crew) holds out. 2. The nuclear reactor provided all the energy we needed and let us operate up to (in my case) 10 weeks continuously submerged. 3. The nuclear reactor also let us operate at high speeds for long periods of time. 4. A diesel submarine would probably not have made the trip because they may not have had enough fuel to go over and back
  31. 31. DISADVANTAGES 1. A nuclear power plant is noisier than a sub running on batteries. • Our radiation dose dropped when we went to sea, in spite of the reactor being run at sea and shut down in port.
  32. 32. RELEVANCE FOR OUR COUNTRY 1. A nuclear submarine is a survivable second strike capability against an adversary's first strike. 2. The recently inducted nuclear submarine in India is a new military challenge in the 21st century in South Asian region for Pakistan and China. 3. India has launched its first nuclear submarine named "INS Arihant (destroyer of the enemies)“ which carries the capability of twelve ballistic missiles . It is expected to be fully used by Indian Navy by 2011. 4. 5 India has become the 6th country for having the nuclear submarine for credible second-strike. India hopes to have a fleet of 10 nuclear submarines in 20 years.
  33. 33. REFERENCES :Books :1. Run Silent, Run Deep (Classics of Naval Literature) by Edward Latimer Beach 2. United States Submarines by David Hinkle 3. The Submarine: A History by Tom Parrish 4. U.S. Submarines Through 1945: An Illustrated Design History by Norman Friedman Websites referred :1. 1. 2. 3. 4.
  34. 34. THANK YOU