Leveraging Reuse-related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity & Capability Levels
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Leveraging Reuse-related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity & Capability Levels

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During the past 20 years Maturity & Capability Models (MCMs) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby’s idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems ...

During the past 20 years Maturity & Capability Models (MCMs) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby’s idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that reuse-related issues have unfortunately often little importance in the appraisals of the capabilities of software organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals. While MCMs represent a good mean for assessing the status of a set of processes, integrating two or more models with a common area of focus can offer more information and value for an organization. The aim of this paper is to present some information about Reuse best practices and models, keep the best components from each model and – using the LEGO (Living EnGineering prOcess) approach to process improvement - merge those best practices from several types of maturity models into an organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve in an easier and faster way higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

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Leveraging Reuse-related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity & Capability Levels Presentation Transcript

  • 1. www.eng.it Knowledge Leveraging Reuse-related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity & Capability Levels ICSR 2013 - 13° Int. Conference on Software Reuse Pisa (Italy), 18-20 June 2013 Luigi BuglioneBuglione Giuseppe LamiLami Christiane Gresse von WangenheimGresse von Wangenheim Fergal McCafferyMcCaffery Jean C.R. HauckHauck
  • 2. www.eng.it Engineering At a glance www.eng.it
  • 3. www.eng.it ISTI-CNR At a glance www.isti.cnr.it
  • 4. www.eng.it DKIT At a glance Dundalk Institute of Technology is a 90 acre campus situated between Dublin and Belfast (each approximately 50 miles away). The Institute consists of 4 Schools: 1. Business & Humanities 2. Informatics & Creative Arts 3. Engineering 4. Health & ScienceThe Regulated Software Research Group which is part of LERO (the Irish Software Engineering Research Centre) is part of the School of Informatics & Creative Media
  • 5. www.eng.it UFSC At a glance Federal University of Santa Catarina Florianópolis/Brazil [http://www.ufsc.br] • 48 Master courses • 38 PhD courses • 62 Undergraduate courses • EUR 268 million annual budget • 25,737 Undergraduate students • 8,543 Graduate students • 34,280 Students INCoD is to be a reference institute for excellence in research, validation and dissemination to support digital convergence. [http://www.incod.ufsc.br] The Software Quality Group focuses on scientific research, development and transfer of SE models, methods and tools. [http://www.gqs.ufsc.br] [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6E1Z5DEuvk]
  • 6. www.eng.it6 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Reuse Maturity Goals of the presentation  G1. Present some info about Reuse best practices and models  G2. Using the LEGO approach to the Reuse domain  G3. Show a practical LEGO usage about Reuse for leveraging an organizational Business Process Model (BPM)
  • 7. www.eng.it7 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Agenda • Introduction – Some common forms of reuse… • MCMs (Maturity & Capability Models) – Representations & Dimensions – Why do we need choosing a MCM? – Coverage and classification of MCMs • MCMs & Reuse in Horizontal MCMs (H-MCMs) – CMMI-DEV and ISO/IEC 15504 – Other Sources • LEGO and Reuse – The LEGO approach – Applying LEGO to Reuse - Elements of Interest (EoI) – Suggested Improvements • Conclusions & Prospects • Q & A Reuse Maturity
  • 8. www.eng.it8 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Some common forms for Reuse...Introduction
  • 9. www.eng.it9 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa ...also in Estimation...Introduction • Source: PMI’s PMBOK 4, Chapter 6.3 • Source: www.dilbert.com
  • 10. www.eng.it10 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Some (important) questions...MCMs Which definition of reuse do you appy? Is it yours a functional or technical reuse? Have you a Reuse repository? Are you planning to have a QIP-like experience? How much are you mature about Reuse practices?
  • 11. www.eng.it11 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Agenda • Introduction – Some common forms of reuse… • MCMs (Maturity & Capability Models) – Representations & Dimensions – Why do we need choosing a MCM? – Coverage and classification of MCMs • MCMs & Reuse in Horizontal MCMs (H-MCMs) – CMMI-DEV and ISO/IEC 15504 – Other Sources • LEGO and Reuse – The LEGO approach – Applying LEGO to Reuse - Elements of Interest (EoI) – Suggested Improvements • Conclusions & Prospects • Q & A Reuse Maturity
  • 12. www.eng.it12 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Why do we need choosing a MCMs?MCMs
  • 13. www.eng.it13 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Representations - StagedMCMs • ML: 5 • PA: 24 • N.min PA : ML1 (0) • N.max PA : ML3 (13) ML Focus Id. PA Title 5 Optimizing OPM Organizational Performance Management CAR Causal Analysis & Resolution 4 Predictable OPP Organizational Process Performance QPM Quantitative Project Management 3 Defined RD Requirement Development TS Technical Solution PI Product Integration VAL Validation VER Verification OPD Organizational Process Definition OPF Organizational Process Focus OT Organizational Training IPM Integrated Project Management RSKM Risk Management DAR Decision Analysis & Resolution 2 Managed REQM Requirement Management PP Project Planning PMC Project Monitoring & Control SAM Supplier Agreement Management MA Measurement & Analysis PPQA Process & Product Quality Assurance
  • 14. www.eng.it14 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Representations - ContinuousMCMs • PA categories: 4 • PA: 24  22 • N.min PA per Category : Process Management (5) • N.max PA per Category: Project Management (7) Process Categories Maturity Levels Process Management Project Management Engineering Support Optimizing OPM CAR Predictable OPP QPM Defined OPF OPD OT IPM RKSM RD TS PI VER VAL DAR Managed PP PMC SAM REQM CM MA PPQA Initial Ad-hoc processes
  • 15. www.eng.it15 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Representations – Continuous (example)MCMs Special cause (GP.2.2 @ OT) Common cause (GP.2.9 @ +PA) • SourceSource: http://goo.gl/i6IvI
  • 16. www.eng.it16 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa MCMs Classifying MCMs by Dimension • HorizontalHorizontal: MMs going through the whole supply chain  SwEng: ISO/IEC 15504 (SPICE), CMMI, FAA i-CMM, … • VerticalVertical: MMs focusing on a single perspective/group of processes  Test Mgmt: TMM, TPI, …  Project Mgmt: PM-MM, OPM3, …  Requirement Mgmt: .... • DiagonalDiagonal: MMs focused on Organizational/Support processes  People CMM, TSP, PSP, … Source:BuglioneL.,AnEcologicalViewonProcessImprovement:SomeThoughtsfor ImprovingProcessAppraisals,4WCSQ,4th WorldCongressonSoftwareQuality, WashingtonD.C.(USA),15-18September2008
  • 17. www.eng.it17 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Agenda • Introduction – Some common forms of reuse… • MCMs (Maturity & Capability Models) – Representations & Dimensions – Why do we need choosing a MCM? – Coverage and classification of MCMs • MCMs & Reuse in Horizontal MCMs (H-MCMs) – CMMI-DEV and ISO/IEC 15504 – Other Sources • LEGO and Reuse – The LEGO approach – Applying LEGO to Reuse - Elements of Interest (EoI) – Suggested Improvements • Conclusions & Prospects • Q & A Reuse Maturity
  • 18. www.eng.it18 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa CMMI-DEV and ISO 15504 - Reuse ref’sMCMs and Reuse Model CMMI-DEV ISO/IEC 15504-12207 Domain Sw-SE Sw-SE PRM (source) CMMI-DEV v1.3 ISO/IEC 12207 PRM (# Processes) 22 47 Process Categories 4 (Engineering, Process, Project, Support) 9 (Primary: Acquisition, Supply, Operation, Engineering; Organizational: Management, Reuse, Resource & Infrastructure, Process Improvement Management; Support: Supporting) Reuse-related process(es) None (reuse practices are partly dealt with) 3 (REU.1 – Domain Engineering; REU.2 – Reuse Asset Management; REU.3 – Reuse Program Management) PAM ext. Appraisals SCAMPI v1.3 ISO/IEC 15504-2 ISO/IEC 15504-5 PAM reuse-related issues TS-SP.2.1 (Develop Alternative Solutons and Selection Criteria) TS-SP2.4 (Perform Make, Buy or Reuse Analysis) 26 REU.1, REU.2, REU.3 related BPs
  • 19. www.eng.it19 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa MCMs and Reuse Model/ Framework Repr. Type ML (#) Architect-Type Comments/Notes RCMM (Reuse CMM) Staged 5 [1-5] Level-based --- Management tool Staged 6 [0-5] Level-based Series of typical agile reqs verified + 14 BTOPP elements for reusing factors REBOOT approach (and Reuse Maturity Model) Continuous --- --- 23 Key process areas in 5 process categories RMM (Reuse Maturity Model) Staged 5 [1-5] Matrix-based 5 MLs, 10 key reuse drivers 3RMM Staged 5 [1-5] Level-based Several scalability factors and reuse variables RCM (Reuse Capability Model) Staged 4 [1-4] Level-based 4 Critical Success Factor Classes for reuse capability improvement provided RMM (Reuse Maturity Model) Staged 6 [1-6] Level-based Suggestions for integrating reuse practices within the (old) Sw-CMM Lim’s model Staged 5 [1-5] Matrix -based 10 factors of influence (drivers) RiSE Maturity Model Staged 5 [1-5] Matrix-based Macro-goals for each level; 10 Factors of influence (organizational; business, technological; process) Choosing Reuse MCMs - Results
  • 20. www.eng.it20 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Agenda • Introduction – Some common forms of reuse… • MCMs (Maturity & Capability Models) – Representations & Dimensions – Why do we need choosing a MCM? – Coverage and classification of MCMs • MCMs & Reuse in Horizontal MCMs (H-MCMs) – CMMI-DEV and ISO/IEC 15504 – Other Sources • LEGO and Reuse – The LEGO approach – Applying LEGO to Reuse - Elements of Interest (EoI) – Suggested Improvements • Conclusions & Prospects • Q & A Reuse Maturity
  • 21. www.eng.it21 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa LEGO and Reuse The LEGO Approach 1. MCM Repository 2. Process Architecture 4. Appraisal Method3. Mappings & Comparisons 1. Identify goals 2. Query the MCM repository 3. Include new elements 4. Adapt & Adopt Source: Buglione L., Gresse von Wangenheim C., Hauck J.C.R., Mc Caffery F., The LEGO Maturity & Capability Model Approach, Proceedings of 5WCSQ, 5th World Congress on Software Quality, Shanghai (China), Oct 31- Nov 4 2011
  • 22. www.eng.it22 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Applying LEGO to ReuseExperiencing LEGO... Here the four LEGO steps and related activities and outcomes: 1.1. Identify GoalsIdentify Goals  Improve the estimation capability and results by a refinement in the overall management of requirements (business, technical)  Assumed the target BPM (Business Process Model) to improve is generically the ISO/IEC 15504 REU.x process group 1.1. Query the MCM repositoryQuery the MCM repository  Considered REU.x as the summation of all REU processes  Filtered the list of available Reuse-based MCMs from the MCM repository  Next table (EoI – Element of Interest) is a filter of the elements by each of the Reuse MCMs considered 1.1. Include new elements into the target BPMInclude new elements into the target BPM  Next table (Suggested Improvements) lists the possible EoI matched with the requested MCMs (both SPs and GPs) 1.1. Adapt & AdoptAdapt & Adopt  Map each practice of the improved process to the related internal QMS process(es)  Validate the mapping results before using it in the daily activities
  • 23. www.eng.it23 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Step 2 - EoI: Elements of Interest (11/2) Model/ Framework Elements of Interest (EoI) Management Tool • The study considers a series of characteristics typical to the Agile Development/Management domain • It considers also from a continuous perspective a Level 0 for ‘no reuse’ • It considers 15 reuse factors linked to the maturity levels by categories (business; domain; organizational; process; people; technology) • Appendix G presents a mapping between the 15 factors and CMMI-DEV process areas (w/strength) • Appendix H presents a summary of the 15 factors scaled by maturity level (suggestion) REBOOT Reuse Maturity Model • Deal with organizational and technical aspects of reuse • 23 Key process areas in 5 categories (organization; Project Management; Dev. Process; Library; Metrics) RMM •10 key drivers considered, using a matrix-based representation/approach • Particularly stressed the people/organization drivers, as well as the legal/contractual issues • To be inserted into a level-based structure LEGO and Reuse
  • 24. www.eng.it24 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Step 2 - EoI: Elements of Interest (22/2) Model/ Framework Elements of Interest (EoI) 3RMM • Information on Environments (Repository, Software, Information) + Administrative Management RCM • 21 Critical Success Factors corresponding to issues most critical to improving reuse capability • Intended for self-assessment and planning purposes Lim’s model • Particular attention to the following factors Motivation/culture; planning for reuse; metrics; legal issues; reuse inventory (assets) RiSE Maturity Model • Representation of the influence factors using a matrix-based view, retrieving also from past experiences and models • Particular interest for the following factors: Organization (Software reuse education, Rewards and Incentives; Independent team) Business (Product family approach) Technology (Repository system usage) Processes (Quality Models, Measurement, Origin of the reused asset) LEGO and Reuse
  • 25. www.eng.it25 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Step 3 - Suggestions for Improvement (11/2) ISO/IEC 15504 REU.2REU.2 process Suggested Improvements BP 01 - Define and document an asset management strategy • People-related aspects, as necessary skills and experience, are to be addressed in the asset management strategy [Management Tool – Factor 2] • The asset management strategy should consider and differentiate the aspects related to the asset development for reuse respect to those related to asset development with reuse [REBOOT] BP02 - Establish a classification scheme for assets • The integration between the asset classification scheme and the Configuration Management rules is to be addressed [Management Tool – Factor 10] BP 03 - Define criteria for assets • Possible measurements, to be used as a basis for the definition of criteria for assessment, are to be identified and documented [RiSE MM – Process Factors; RCM] • The determination of asset value should be the basis for the criteria definition [RCM] BP04 - Establish the asset storage and retrieval mechanisms • The technology support for storage and retrieval is to be defined [RiSE MM - Technological Factors] BP 05 - Identify reusable assets. • The integration between the asset identification and the Configuration Management rules is to be defined [Management Tool – Factor 10] BP06 - Accept reusable assets • The technological support for classification and record of assets as well as for their provision to the intended users is to be addressed [Management Tool – Factor 13; RiSE MM -Technological Factors] • Assets integrability is an issues to be addressed [RCM] BP 07 - Operate asset storage • The technological support for storage of assets is to be addressed [Management Tool – Factor 13; RiSE MM -Technological Factors] BP08 - Record use of assets • - BP 09 - Notify re-users of asset status • The notification should rely on established communication channels and an adequate organizational support [Management Tool – Factor 4 and 15] BP10 - Retire assets • The technical aspects of the withdrawal from the repository are to be addressed [Management Tool – Factor 13] LEGO and Reuse
  • 26. www.eng.it26 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Step 3 - Suggestions for Improvement (22/2) ISO/IEC 15504 REU.3REU.3 process Suggested Improvements BP 01 - Define organizational reuse strategy • The top management support is to be explicitly given at organizational reuse strategy definition time [Management Tool – Factor 2] • People-related aspects, as necessary skills and experience, are to be addressed in the reuse strategy [Management Tool – Factor 2] • The organizational reuse strategy should consider and differentiate the aspects related to the asset development for reuse as respect to those related to asset development with reuse [REBOOT] • The reuse organizational reuse strategy should indicate whether and at what extent the product Families approach is adopted [RiSE MM – Business Factors] • The training and education initiatives and activities should be included within the reuse program items [RiSE MM – Business Factors] BP 02 - Identify domains for potential reuse • - BP 03 - Assess reuse capability • The assessment of the reuse capability of the organization should include cost benefits analysis [Management Tool – Factor 6] BP 04 - Assess domains for potential reuse • A measurement scheme should be provided to support of the evaluation of the level of similarities among products in a certain domain [Management Tool MM – Factor 1] BP 05 - Evaluate reuse proposals • A measurement scheme should be provided to support of the evaluation of suitability of reusable items [RiSE MM – Process Factors; RCM] BP 06 - Implement the reuse program • --- BP 07 - Collect and manage learning • Details on the way learning is stored in the repository are to be provided [Management Tool – Factor 13] • The integration between the learning storage and the communication channels for spreading such a knowledge is to be addressed [Management Tool – Factor 4] BP 08 - Get feedback from reuse • Communication tool support is to be addressed [Management Tool – Factor 15] BP 09 - Monitor reuse • Monitoring is to be included in the reuse planning [Management Tool – Factor 5; RiSE MM – Organizational Factors] LEGO and Reuse
  • 27. www.eng.it27 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Agenda • Introduction – Some common forms of reuse… • MCMs (Maturity & Capability Models) – Representations & Dimensions – Why do we need choosing a MCM? – Coverage and classification of MCMs • MCMs & Reuse in Horizontal MCMs (H-MCMs) – CMMI-DEV and ISO/IEC 15504 – Other Sources • LEGO and Reuse – The LEGO approach – Applying LEGO to Reuse - Elements of Interest (EoI) – Suggested Improvements • Conclusions & Prospects • Q & A Reuse Maturity
  • 28. www.eng.it28 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa • Software Reuse  “Adopt and adapt” artifacts  Art or science?  Functional vs Technical Reuse • Reuse as a process and not an activity  Models and techniques assuming it’s a structured and planned process  It’s a process to be properly organized across/within the whole SLC  ...while often seen as a ‘technical’ activity  not estimated in a clear way • Starting models for observing best reuse practices  MCMs = Maturity & Capability Models  MCMs help an organization to progress slightly towards higher capability levels  ‘One size (model) doesn’t fits all’  study how to merge more models, ‘stealing’ the best practices for adapting them (reusing!) into our own BPM  CMMI-DEV and ISO/IEC 15504 (aka SPICE) vs other Reuse models Conclusions & ProspectsReuse Maturity
  • 29. www.eng.it29 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa • ‘LEGO’ (Living EnGineering prOcess) approach  http://slideshare.re/nssLR8 [5WCSQ, Shangai, Nov 2011]  Choose and integrate the ‘pieces of the puzzle’ you need for your goals  the target is your QMS, not the model(s) you’re using • Applying LEGO to Reuse  CMMI-DEV doesn’t have specific reuse-PAs, while SPICE yes (REU.x)  Particular attention could be devoted to REU.2 and REU.3, to be hybridized with several Reuse-like MCMs, adding ‘bricks’ for reinforcing the initial process(es)  Several refinements about reuse scope and type, helping in reducing estimation errors from the initial identification of the amount of activities to work on and improving the communication among stakeholders  towards a SCRUM-like partnership between client and provider • Next Steps  Apply the hybrid REU processes to real case studies as the initial meta- model  Still search other reuse-based MCMc for furtherly reinforce REU.x processes  Look also to PAs (process attributes) and not only to BPs (Base Practices)  ...why do not try? Conclusions & ProspectsReuse Maturity ““Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes.Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. Art is knowing which ones to keep.”Art is knowing which ones to keep.” (Scott Adams)
  • 30. www.eng.it30 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Lessons learned... URL: www.dilbert.com Reuse Maturity
  • 31. www.eng.it31 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Q && A Grazie per la vostra attenzioneGrazie per la vostra attenzione!! Reuse Maturity Thanks for your attentionThanks for your attention!!
  • 32. www.eng.it32 ICSR 2013 - Pisa, June 19, 2013 © 2013 Buglione, Lami, Gresse, McCaffery, Hauck Rossa Our Contact DataReuse Maturity Luigi Buglione Engineering.IT/ETS luigi.buglione@eng.it Fergal McCaffery DKIT fergal.mccaffery@dkit.ie C. Gresse von Wangenheim UFSC gresse@gmail.com Giuseppe Lami ISTI/CNR giuseppe.lami@isti.cnr.it Jean Carlo R. Hauck UFSC jeanhauck@gmail.com