Derivation of Green
Metrics for Software
Fabrizio Fabbrini*,Giuseppe Lami*, Luigi Buglione**
*Istituto di Scienze eTecnolo...
Why metrics for Greener Software
 The global ICT industry is claimed to account for
approximately two percent of global c...
Background:
Green SW from a Process-centric Perspective
Process
Name
Sustainability Management
Process
Purpose
The purpose...
Systematic Derivation of
Green Metrics
Direct
Effects
Sustainabilit
y Assets
Green
Factors
Green
Metrics
Green Software:
Sustainability Assets
 Many assets responsible for carbon
emissions at software
development and operation...
Green Software:
Sustainability Assets
Direct
Effects
Sustainability
Assets
Green
Factors
Green
Metrics
Green Software:
Direct Effects
 ICT may contribute to CO2 emissions in different ways
 Three level of Effects of ICT in ...
Green Software
Green Factors
 Green Factors (definition):
significant characteristics of a software project able to
influ...
 Entity – Attribute – Measure (E.A.M.) taxonomy mapped on
the bi-dimensional scheme to derive Green Factors
 Each metric...
Green Metrics
ENTITY: People
ATTRIBUTE:
Team Composition
MEASURE ID: Fitness for Role (FfR)
MEASURE
FORMULA:
RP= number of...
Green Metrics
ENTITY: Project
Infrastructure
ATTRIBUTE:
Teleconferences
MEASURE ID: % teleconference meetings (PTM)
MEASUR...
Green Metrics
ENTITY: Project
Infrastructure
ATTRIBUTE:
Tool Efficiency
MEASURE ID: Earned Value (EV)
MEASURE
FORMULA:
ET=...
Green Metrics
ENTITY: Project
Infrastructure
ATTRIBUTE:
Tool Suitability
MEASURE ID: Tool functionalities usage rate (TUR)...
Green Metrics
ENTITY: Project
Infrastructure
ATTRIBUTE:
Dematerialization
MEASURE ID: % of hardcopies of project’s
documen...
Green Metrics
ENTITY:
Institutional
Context
ATTRIBUTE:
Flexi-work
MEASURE ID: % of work time spent at home
(WAH)
MEASURE
F...
Green Metrics
ENTITY:
Institutional
Context
ATTRIBUTE:
Team Location
MEASURE ID: Team Entropy (TLE)
MEASURE
FORMULA:
where...
Green Metrics
ENTITY:
Product
ATTRIBUTE: MEASURE ID: Percentage hazardous waste per
total waste generated (PHW)
Avoidance ...
Green Metrics
ENTITY:
Product
ATTRIBUTE: MEASURE ID: Computational cost of software
(CCS)
Algorithmic/ code
efficiency
MEA...
Green Metrics
ENTITY:
Product
ATTRIBUTE: MEASURE ID: Information Flow Complexity (IFC)
Maintainability MEASURE
FORMULA:
LO...
Green Metrics
ENTITY:
Process
ATTRIBUTE: MEASURE ID: Peaks and Lows (PAL)
Process Efficiency MEASURE
FORMULA:
UCL= Upper C...
Green Metrics
ENTITY:
Process
ATTRIBUTE: MEASURE ID: Schedule Variance (SV)
Process Predictability MEASURE
FORMULA:
BCWP: ...
Green Metrics
ENTITY:
Process
ATTRIBUTE: MEASURE ID: ISO/IEC 15504 Process Attributes
Ratings (PAR)
Process Capability MEA...
Conclusions
 EAM analysis as a simple and effective way to validate an
initial set of metrics
 Set of Metrics provided r...
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Derivation of Green Metrics for Software

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Sustainability of software depends on several factors including the processes deployed to develop, operate, maintain and dispose software systems. To make such sustainability-related processes actually deployable and controllable, specific green metrics and indicators are necessary. In this paper we propose a sound methodological approach to derive green metrics and we provide also a significant set of metrics, derived according to such an approach, able to address different aspects of software sustainability.

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Derivation of Green Metrics for Software

  1. 1. Derivation of Green Metrics for Software Fabrizio Fabbrini*,Giuseppe Lami*, Luigi Buglione** *Istituto di Scienze eTecnologie dell’Informazione – CNR, Pisa (Italy) **Engineering.IT spa Rome (Italy) and Ecole deTechnologie Superieure (ETS) Montreal, Canada 13th International SPICE Conference on Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination in Software, Systems Engineering and Service Management Bremen, 4-6 June 2013
  2. 2. Why metrics for Greener Software  The global ICT industry is claimed to account for approximately two percent of global carbon dioxide (CO2)  Software development has a significant impact on CO2 emissions  Process-centric approach as a possible way to face the question  to deploy and control the sustainability-related processes, the availability of metrics is necessary
  3. 3. Background: Green SW from a Process-centric Perspective Process Name Sustainability Management Process Purpose The purpose of the Sustainability Management Process is to ensure that products, services and life cycle processes meet sustainability objectives. Process Outcomes As a result of the successful implementation of the Sustainability Management process: 1)Principles and criteria for sustainability are established. 2)The scope of the sustainability-related activities for the project is defined. 3)Activities for sustainability are planned and implemented. 4)Tasks and resources necessary to complete the activities for sustainability are sized and estimated. 5)An organization structure for sustainability (responsibilities, roles, reporting channels, interfaces with other projects or OUs …) is established. 6)Activities for sustainability are monitored, sustainability non conformities are reported, analysed, and resolved. 7)Agreement on sustainability policy and requirements for supplied products or services is achieved. 8)Supplier’s activities for sustainability are monitored. Process Name Sustainability Engineering Process Purpose The purpose of the Sustainability Engineering process is to ensure that sustainability is adequately addressed throughout all stages of the engineering processes. Process Outcomes As a result of the successful implementation of the Sustainability Engineering process: 1)Factors affecting sustainability (e.g. resource consumption sources) are identified 2)Sustainability analysis is performed in order to determine the sustainability impact of factors affecting sustainability 3)Sustainability objectives are defined for the product development 4)Green principles are applied to development processes to identify techniques and methods suitable to achieve the sustainability objectives. 5)Techniques and methods for sustainability are applied 6)Impact on sustainability of change requests is analysed
  4. 4. Systematic Derivation of Green Metrics Direct Effects Sustainabilit y Assets Green Factors Green Metrics
  5. 5. Green Software: Sustainability Assets  Many assets responsible for carbon emissions at software development and operation time can be derived  A recent survey identifies 18 key success factors belonging to 4 classes * Success Factors Class Success Factor People & Action Developers Users Top management External agents Project team Social interaction Project Content Project characteristics Project scope, goals, objectives Resources Technology Development Process Requirements determination Project management Use of standard method User participation User training Management of change Institutional Context Organizational properties Environmental conditions* Mc Leod, Mac Donnel, ACM Computing Surveys Vol.43, n. 4; 2011 ** Lami, G. and Buglione, L. IWSM/MENSURA 2012.  In a recent paper ** we identified the following sustainability asset classes SW Sustaianbility Infrastructure People / HR Processes Product Direct Effects Sustainability Assets Green Factors Green Metrics
  6. 6. Green Software: Sustainability Assets Direct Effects Sustainability Assets Green Factors Green Metrics
  7. 7. Green Software: Direct Effects  ICT may contribute to CO2 emissions in different ways  Three level of Effects of ICT in terms of environmental impact: Direct, Indirect and Systemic Effects *  Direct Effects refer to those caused by ICT infrastructures and equipment at production, usage and disposal time. The most relevant are:  Greenhouse Emissions  Power waste  Effort/Time waste  Fuel waste  Material waste production  Paper waste * Saving the Climate @ the Speed of Light”; ETNO – WWF Report; 2008 Direct Effects Sustainability Assets Green Factors Green Metrics
  8. 8. Green Software Green Factors  Green Factors (definition): significant characteristics of a software project able to influence one or more Direct Effect  Green Factors can be derived taking into account DE and SA according to a bi-dimensional scheme Software direct Effects Sustainability Assets People Project infrastructure Processes Institutional context Product Power waste --- Tool efficiency Tool suitability Process Efficiency Process Predictability Process Capability Team location Algorithmic – code efficiency Effort/time waste Team composition Tool efficiency Tool suitability Process Efficiency Process Predictability Process Capability Team location Maintainability Material waste production --- Avoidance of environmentally hazardous materials --- --- Avoidance of environmentally hazardous materials Paper waste --- --- Dematerialization --- --- Fuel waste --- Teleconferences --- Flexi-work Team location --- Direct Effects Sustainability Assets Green Factors Green Metrics
  9. 9.  Entity – Attribute – Measure (E.A.M.) taxonomy mapped on the bi-dimensional scheme to derive Green Factors  Each metric contains the explicit reference to the Entity and Attribute it is based on Derivation of Green Metrics Direct Effects Sustainability Assets Green Factors Green Metrics E. A. M. Entity name Attribute name Measure id. Measure Formula Measure Rational
  10. 10. Green Metrics ENTITY: People ATTRIBUTE: Team Composition MEASURE ID: Fitness for Role (FfR) MEASURE FORMULA: RP= number of competences and skills required by the project role; AP=number of actual competencies and skills of the persons allocated to the project role. FfR=AP/RP RATIONALE: The higher FfR the better. Note: The fitness-for-role of the people involved in a project allows a saving in terms of effort spent
  11. 11. Green Metrics ENTITY: Project Infrastructure ATTRIBUTE: Teleconferences MEASURE ID: % teleconference meetings (PTM) MEASURE FORMULA: NT=Number of teleconferences; NF=Number of face-to-face meetings. PTM= NF /(NT+ NF) RATIONALE: The higher PTM, the more fuel saved. Note: PTM allows for monitoring and control of the number of travels due to meetings related to project’s activities
  12. 12. Green Metrics ENTITY: Project Infrastructure ATTRIBUTE: Tool Efficiency MEASURE ID: Earned Value (EV) MEASURE FORMULA: ET=Actual effort spent using the tool; PE= planned effort using the tool; EV=PE/ET RATIONALE: The smaller EV, the higher the effort saved.
  13. 13. Green Metrics ENTITY: Project Infrastructure ATTRIBUTE: Tool Suitability MEASURE ID: Tool functionalities usage rate (TUR) MEASURE FORMULA: NF= number of functionality allowed by the tool; UF: used functionalities of the tool; TUR=UF/NF RATIONALE: The higher TUR, the more resource savings. Note: TUR can be used to evaluate if the tool is over-dimensioned for the actual needs.
  14. 14. Green Metrics ENTITY: Project Infrastructure ATTRIBUTE: Dematerialization MEASURE ID: % of hardcopies of project’s documents (PHP) MEASURE FORMULA: Z=amount of project’s documents; NDi=number of released versions of the document i; SDV= ND1+ND2+ … + NDZ NH=number of hardcopies of project documents; PHP= NH/SDV RATIONALE: The smaller PHP, the more paper saved
  15. 15. Green Metrics ENTITY: Institutional Context ATTRIBUTE: Flexi-work MEASURE ID: % of work time spent at home (WAH) MEASURE FORMULA: MHO=amount of Man Hours spent at Office by project team; MHH=amount of MAN Hours spent at home by project team; WAH=MHH/(MHH+MHO) RATIONALE: The most appropriate value depends on the specific local conditions
  16. 16. Green Metrics ENTITY: Institutional Context ATTRIBUTE: Team Location MEASURE ID: Team Entropy (TLE) MEASURE FORMULA: where: m=number of project teams; n=number of spatial condition; li=spatial conditions where teamk operates. RATIONALE: TLE describes if team members’ movement results in spatial clusters of workers or not, determining the probability of all members being co- located. ( il kteam ) / (size ( kteam )) i=1 n ∑ k=1 m ∑
  17. 17. Green Metrics ENTITY: Product ATTRIBUTE: MEASURE ID: Percentage hazardous waste per total waste generated (PHW) Avoidance of environmentally hazardous materials MEASURE FORMULA: NHW=Not-treated hazardous waste; THW=Total hazardous waste; PHW=NHW/THW RATIONALE: The lower the PHW, the better
  18. 18. Green Metrics ENTITY: Product ATTRIBUTE: MEASURE ID: Computational cost of software (CCS) Algorithmic/ code efficiency MEASURE FORMULA: NF=number of functionalities implemented by software; NPCi=average CPU cycles required by the functionality ith implemented by software; CCS=NPC1+NPC2+ … + NPCNF RATIONALE: The lower CCS, the more power saved.
  19. 19. Green Metrics ENTITY: Product ATTRIBUTE: MEASURE ID: Information Flow Complexity (IFC) Maintainability MEASURE FORMULA: LOCA= lines of Code of A; FANINA=number of calling subprograms + global variable read in A; FANOUTA=number of called subprograms + global variable set in A; IFCA=LOCA * ( FANINA * FANOUTA)2 RATIONALE: The lower IFC the better.
  20. 20. Green Metrics ENTITY: Process ATTRIBUTE: MEASURE ID: Peaks and Lows (PAL) Process Efficiency MEASURE FORMULA: UCL= Upper Control Level; LCL = Lower Control Level; PAL = amount of work days the effort spent is out of the range [UCL, LCL] RATIONALE: The lower PAL the better.
  21. 21. Green Metrics ENTITY: Process ATTRIBUTE: MEASURE ID: Schedule Variance (SV) Process Predictability MEASURE FORMULA: BCWP: Budgeted Cost of Work Performed; BCWS: Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled  SV=BCWP – BCWS RATIONALE: The closer SV to 0, the better. Note: SV is a typical project-based measure for determining if the activities run are (or not) aligned with plans, for any eventual re- planning.
  22. 22. Green Metrics ENTITY: Process ATTRIBUTE: MEASURE ID: ISO/IEC 15504 Process Attributes Ratings (PAR) Process Capability MEASURE FORMULA: [Refer ISO/IEC 15504 ] RATIONALE: The higher PAR, the better
  23. 23. Conclusions  EAM analysis as a simple and effective way to validate an initial set of metrics  Set of Metrics provided represent a starting point  To be enlarged/completed  To provide a document with details for actual use  To be validated by means of case studies

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