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    Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib Document Transcript

    • PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information.PDF generated at: Tue, 18 Jan 2011 15:01:52 UTCLISTED FOOD &FERTILIZER ADDITIVESAND ITS SPECIFICATIONS(reduced copy)Collected and arranged from Wikipedia byagronomist Khalid Gharib , EGYPT, 2011FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • ContentsArticles1- WHAT IS FOOD ADDITIVE ? 1Food additive 12 - FOOD ADDITIVES LIST (E-number) 6E number 63 - ANTI-CAKING AGENTS 28Anticaking agent 28Monocalcium phosphate 30Dicalcium phosphate 33Tricalcium Phosphate 35Monomagnesium phosphate 38Dimagnesium phosphate 39Sodium ferrocyanide 40Potassium ferrocyanide 42Sodium silicate 45Potassium silicate 52Calcium silicate 54Magnesium trisilicate 57Talc 58Talcum powder 62Aluminium silicate 66Calcium aluminosilicate 66Potassium aluminium silicate 67Sodium aluminosilicate 69Sodium metasilicate 70Silicon dioxide 76Bentonite 85Mannitol 90Sodium bicarbonate 96Magnesium carbonate 104Magnesium oxide 108Zinc silicate 112FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Polydimethylsiloxane 115Magnesium stearate 119Stearic acid 121Calcium stearate 124Dimethyl polysiloxane 1264 - COATING AGENTS 130Food coating 130Glazing agent 137Beeswax 137Candelilla wax 141Carnauba wax 142Shellac 144Microcrystalline wax 149Crystalline wax 151Lanolin 154Colophonium 157Paraffin 160Petroleum wax 163Paraffin wax 166Rice bran wax 169Spermaceti 170Wax ester 171Fatty acid 1725 - OTHER ADDITIVES 179Acidity regulator 179Food coloring 180Emulsifier 184Thickener 189Color retention agent 191Antifoaming agent 192Antioxidant 196Humectant 217Preservative 218Stabilizer (chemistry) 219Sweeteners 219Flavor 226FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • ReferencesArticle Sources and Contributors 231Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 237Article LicensesLicense 240FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • 11- WHAT IS FOOD ADDITIVE ?Food additiveFood additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste and appearance. Some additiveshave been used for centuries; for example, preserving food by pickling (with vinegar), salting, as with bacon,preserving sweets or using sulfur dioxide as in some wines. With the advent of processed foods in the second half ofthe 20th century, many more additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin.NumberingTo regulate these additives, and inform consumers, each additive is assigned a unique number, termed as "Enumbers", which is used in Europe for all approved additives. This numbering scheme has now been adopted andextended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to internationally identify all additives[1], regardless of whetherthey are approved for use.E numbers are all prefixed by "E", but countries outside Europe use only the number, whether the additive isapproved in Europe or not. For example, acetic acid is written as E260 on products sold in Europe, but is simplyknown as additive 260 in some countries. Additive 103, alkanet, is not approved for use in Europe so does not havean E number, although it is approved for use in Australia and New Zealand. Since 1987, Australia has had anapproved system of labelling for additives in packaged foods. Each food additive has to be named or numbered. Thenumbers are the same as in Europe, but without the prefix E.The United States Food and Drug Administration listed these items as "Generally recognized as safe" or GRAS; theyare listed under both their Chemical Abstract Services number and Fukda regulation under the US Code of FederalRegulations.• See list of food additives for a complete list of all the names.• See E number for the numbers.CategoriesFood additives can be divided into several groups, although there is some overlap between them.AcidsFood acids are added to make flavors "sharper", and also act as preservatives and antioxidants. Common foodacids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic acid.Acidity regulatorsAcidity regulators are used to change or otherwise control the acidity and alkalinity of foods.Anticaking agentsAnticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from caking or sticking.Antifoaming agentsAntifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in foods.AntioxidantsAntioxidants such as vitamin C act as preservatives by inhibiting the effects of oxygen on food, and can bebeneficial to health.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food additive 2Bulking agentsBulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affecting its nutritionalvalue.Food coloringColorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation, or to make food look more attractive.Color retention agentsIn contrast to colorings, color retention agents are used to preserve a foods existing color.EmulsifiersEmulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion, as in mayonnaise, ice cream, andhomogenized milk.FlavorsFlavors are additives that give food a particular taste or smell, and may be derived from natural ingredients orcreated artificially.Flavor enhancersFlavor enhancers enhance a foods existing flavors. They may be extracted from natural sources (throughdistillation, solvent extraction, maceration, among other methods) or created artificially.Flour treatment agentsFlour treatment agents are added to flour to improve its color or its use in baking.Glazing agentsGlazing agents provide a shiny appearance or protective coating to foods.HumectantsHumectants prevent foods from drying out.Tracer gasTracer gas allow for package integrity testing to prevent foods from being exposed to atmosphere, thusguaranteeing shelf life.PreservativesPreservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food due to fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms.StabilizersStabilizers, thickeners and gelling agents, like agar or pectin (used in jam for example) give foods a firmertexture. While they are not true emulsifiers, they help to stabilize emulsions.SweetenersSweeteners are added to foods for flavoring. Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy(calories) low, or because they have beneficial effects for diabetes mellitus and tooth decay and diarrhea.ThickenersThickeners are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without substantiallymodifying its other properties.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food additive 3SafetyWith the increasing use of processed foods since the 19th century, there has been a great increase in the use of foodadditives of varying levels of safety. This has led to legislation in many countries regulating their use. For example,boric acid was widely used as a food preservative from the 1870s to the 1920s,[2] [3]but was banned after World WarI due to its toxicity, as demonstrated in animal and human studies. During World War II the urgent need for cheap,available food preservatives led to it being used again, but it was finally banned in the 1950s.[2]Such cases led to ageneral mistrust of food additives, and an application of the precautionary principle led to the conclusion that onlyadditives that are known to be safe should be used in foods. In the USA, this led to the adoption of the Delaneyclause, an amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938, stating that no carcinogenic substancesmay be used as food additives. However, after the banning of cyclamates in the USA and Britain in 1969, saccharin,the only remaining legal artificial sweetener at the time, was found to cause cancer in rats. Widespread public outcryin the USA, partly communicated to Congress by postage-paid postcards supplied in the packaging of sweetened softdrinks, led to the retention of saccharin despite its violation of the Delaney clause.[4]In September 2007, research financed by Britain’s Food Standards Agency and published online by the Britishmedical journal The Lancet, presented evidence that a mix of additives commonly found in children’s foods increasesthe mean level of hyperactivity.[5]The team of researchers concluded that “the finding lends strong support for thecase that food additives exacerbate hyperactive behaviors (inattention, impulsivity and overactivity) at least intomiddle childhood.” That study examined the effect of artificial colors and a sodium benzoate preservative, and foundboth to be problematic for some children. Further studies are needed to find out whether there are other additives thatcould have a similar effect, and it is unclear whether some disturbances can also occur in mood and concentration insome adults. In the February 2008 issue of its publication, AAP Grand Rounds, the American Academy of Pediatricsconcluded that a low-additive diet is a valid intervention for children with ADHD:“Although quite complicated, this was a carefully conducted study in which the investigators went to great lengths toeliminate bias and to rigorously measure outcomes. The results are hard to follow and somewhat inconsistent. Formany of the assessments there were small but statistically significant differences of measured behaviors in childrenwho consumed the food additives compared with those who did not. In each case increased hyperactive behaviorswere associated with consuming the additives. For those comparisons in which no statistically significant differenceswere found, there was a trend for more hyperactive behaviors associated with the food additive drink in virtuallyevery assessment. Thus, the overall findings of the study are clear and require that even we skeptics, who have longdoubted parental claims of the effects of various foods on the behavior of their children, admit we might have beenwrong.”In 2007, Food Standards Australia New Zealand published an official shoppers guidance with which the concerns offood additives and their labeling are mediated.[6]There has been significant controversy associated with the risks and benefits of food additives. Some artificial foodadditives have been linked with cancer, digestive problems, neurological conditions,ADHD, heart disease orobesity.[7]Natural additives may be similarly harmful or be the cause of allergic reactions in certain individuals. Forexample, safrole was used to flavor root beer until it was shown to be carcinogenic. Due to the application of theDelaney clause, it may not be added to foods, even though it occurs naturally in sassafras and sweet basil.[8]Extreme caution should be taken with sodium nitrite which is mainly used a food coloring agent. Sodium nitrite isadded to meats to produce an appealing and fresh red color to the consumer. Sodium nitrite can produce cancercausing chemicals such as nitrosamines, and numerous studies have shown a link between nitrite and cancer inhumans that consume processed and cured meats.[9]Blue 1, Blue 2, Red 3, and Yellow 6 are among the food colorings that have been linked to various health risks. Blue1 is used to color candy, soft drinks, and pastries and there has been some evidence that it may cause cancer. Blue 2can be found in pet food, soft drinks, and pastries, and has shown to cause brain tumors in mice. Red 3, mainly usedin cherries for cocktails has been correlated with thyroid tumors in rats and humans as well. Yellow 6, used inFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food additive 4sausages, gelatin, and candy can lead to the attribution of gland and kidney tumors and contains carcinogens, but inminimal amounts.[10]Standardization of its derived productsISO has published a series of standards regarding the topic and these standards are covered by ICS 67.220.[11]See also• Color retention agent• Delaney clause• Dietary supplement• Food fortification• Food labeling regulations• Food processing• Food supplements• Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives• List of food additives• List of food additives, Codex Alimentarius• Organic fertilizer• Sugar substituteReferences[1] Codex Alimentarius. "Class Names and the International Numbering System for Food Additives." (http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/7/CXG_036e.pdf). .[2] Bucci, Luke (1995). Nutrition applied to injury rehabilitation and sports medicine. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 151. ISBN 0-8493-7913-X.[3] Rev. Lyman Abbott (Ed.) (1900). The Outlook (Vol. 64). Outlook Co.. pp. 403.[4] Assessment of technologies for determining cancer risks from the environment. Darby, PA, USA: DIANE publishing. 1981. pp. 177.ISBN 142892437X.[5] McCann, D; Barrett, A; Cooper, A; Crumpler, D; Dalen, L; Grimshaw, K; Kitchin, E; Lok, K et al. (2007). "Food additives and hyperactivebehaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial." (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17825405?ordinalpos=7&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum). Lancet 370 (9598): pp. 1560–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61306-3. PMID 17825405..[6] Food Standards Australia New Zealand (2007). "Choosing the Right Stuff - the official shoppers’ guide to food additives and labels,kilojoules and fat content" (http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/newsroom/publications/choosingtherightstuff/). . Retrieved 3 May 2009.[7] http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/the-truth-about-seven-common-food-additives[8] Fennema, Owen R. (1996). Food chemistry. New York, N.Y: Marcel Dekker. pp. 827. ISBN 0-8247-9691-8.[9] http://www.sixwise.com/newsletters/06/04/05/12-dangerous-food-additives-the-dirty-dozen-food-additives-you-really-need-to-be-aware-of.htm[10] http://www.sixwise.com/newsletters/06/04/05/12-dangerous-food-additives-the-dirty-dozen-food-additives-you-really-need-to-be-aware-of.htm[11] International Organization for Standardization. "67.220: Spices and condiments. Food additives" (http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_ics/catalogue_ics_browse.htm?ICS1=67&ICS2=220). . Retrieved 23 April 2009.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food additive 5Additional sources• U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (1993). Everything Added to Food in the United States. Boca Raton, FL:C.K. Smoley (c/o CRC Press, Inc.).• The Food Labelling Regulations (1984)• Advanced Modular Science, Nelson, Food and Health, by John Adds, Erica Larkcom and Ruth MillerExternal links• Food Trades Juicy Secrets (http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/13788/Food-trade-s-juicy-secrets) by JohnTriggs in the Daily Express July 17, 2007• Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS) i.e. Castor oil, etc. (http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html)• EU legislation on food additives (http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sfp/flav_index_en.html)• CSPIs guide to food additives (http://www.cspinet.org/reports/chemcuisine.htm), ( PDF (http://www.cspinet.org/new/pdf/additives.pdf))• Food Standards Australia and New Zealand page on food additives (http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/foodmatters/foodadditives.cfm)• Evaluation of certain Food Additives and Contaminants; Sixty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO ExpertCommittee on Food Additives (http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_922.pdf)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • 62 - FOOD ADDITIVES LIST (E-number)E numberE numbers are number codes for food additives that have been assessed for use within the European Union (the "E"prefix stands for "Europe").[1]They are commonly found on food labels throughout the European Union.[2]Safetyassessment and approval are the responsibility of the European Food Safety Authority.[3]The numbering schemefollows that of the International Numbering System (INS) as determined by the Codex Alimentarius committee[4]though only a subset of the INS additives are approved for use in the European Union. E numbers are alsoencountered on food labelling in other jurisdictions, including the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of theGulf, Australia, New Zealand and Israel. The "E" prefix is omitted in Australia and New Zealand. They areincreasingly, though rarely, found on North American packaging, especially in Canada on imported Europeanproducts.In casual language in the UK and Ireland, "E number" is used as a pejorative term for artificial food additives, andproducts may promote themselves as "free of E numbers" even though most of the natural ingredients containcomponents that also have an E number such as vitamin C (E300) or lycopene (E160d). Because vitamin C has an Enumber (actually several E numbers, 300-305, for different chemical forms of the vitamin), it is impossible to live ona diet without any substances that have E numbers. "Free of E numbers" then simply means that pure forms of thesubstances are not intentionally added, even though identical substances certainly exist naturally in many foods.Classification by numeric range100–199Colours100–109 yellows (see the full list)110–119 orange120–129 reds130–139 blues & violets140–149 greens150–159 browns & blacks160–199 gold and others200–299Preservatives200–209 sorbates210–219 benzoates220–229 sulphites230–239 phenols & formates (methanoates)240–259 nitrates260–269 acetates (ethanoates)270–279 lactates280–289 propionates (propanoates)290–299 othersFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 7300–399Antioxidants & acidity regulators300–305 ascorbates (vitamin C)306–309 Tocopherol (vitamin E)310–319 gallates & erythorbates320–329 lactates330–339 citrates & tartrates340–349 phosphates350–359 malates & adipates360–369 succinates & fumarates370–399 others400–499Thickeners, stabilisers & emulsifiers400–409 alginates410–419 natural gums420–429 other natural agents430–439 polyoxyethene compounds440–449 natural emulsifiers450–459 phosphates460–469 cellulose compounds470–489 fatty acids & compounds490–499 others500–599pH regulators & anti-caking agents500–509 mineral acids & bases510–519 chlorides & sulphates520–529 sulphates & hydroxides530–549 alkali metal compounds550–559 silicates570–579 stearates & gluconates580–599 others600–699Flavour enhancers620–629 glutamates630–639 inosinates640–649 others700–799Antibiotics700–713900–999Miscellaneous900–909 waxes910–919 synthetic glazes920–929 improving agents930–949 packaging gases950–969 sweeteners990–999 foaming agents1100–1599Additional chemicalsNew chemicals that do not fall into standard classification schemesNB: Not all examples of a class fall into the given numeric range. Moreover, many chemicals, particularly in theE400–499 range, have a variety of purposes.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 8Full listE100–E199 (colours)Code Name(s) Purpose StatusE100 Curcumin, turmeric food colouring(yellow-orange)Approved in the EU[5]E101 Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), formerly called lactoflavin(Vitamin G)food colouring(yellow-orange)Approved in the EU[5]E101a Riboflavin-5-Phosphate food colouring(yellow-orange)Approved in the EU[5]E102 Tartrazine (FD&C Yellow 5) food colouring (lemonyellow)Approved in the EU[5]E103Alkannin[6] food colouringE104 Quinoline Yellow WS food colouring (dull orgreenish yellow)Approved in the EU[5]Undergoing a voluntaryphase-out in the UK.E105 Fast Yellow AB food colouring(yellow)N/AE106 Riboflavin-5-Sodium Phosphate food colouring(yellow)N/AE107 Yellow 2G food colouring(yellow)N/AE110 Sunset Yellow FCF (Orange Yellow S, FD&C Yellow6)food colouring(yellow-orange)Approved in the EU.[5]Banned in Finland and Norway.Products in the EU require warnings and its use is beingphased-out.E111 Orange GGN food colouring(orange)N/AE120 Cochineal, Carminic acid, Carmine (Natural Red 4) food colouring(crimson)Approved in the EU.[5]E121 Citrus Red 2 food colouring (darkred)ForbiddenE122 Carmoisine, Azorubine food colouring (red tomaroon)Approved in the EU.[5]Undergoing a voluntaryphase-out in the UK. Currently banned in Canada, Japan,Norway, USA and Sweden. EU currently evaluatinghealth risks.E123 Amaranth (FD&C Red 2) food colouring (darkred)Approved in the EU.[5]E124 Ponceau 4R (Cochineal Red A, Brilliant Scarlet 4R) food colouring (red)Approved in the EU.[5]E125 Ponceau SX, Scarlet GN food colouring (red) N/AE126 Ponceau 6R food colouring (red) N/AE127 Erythrosine (FD&C Red 3) food colouring (red)Approved in the EU.[5]E128 Red 2G food colouring (red) ForbiddenE129 Allura Red AC (FD&C Red 40) food colouring (red)Approved in the EU.[5]Banned in Denmark, Belgium,France, Switzerland and Sweden. Undergoing a voluntaryphase out in the UK. Permitted in the USA.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 9E130 Indanthrene blue RS food colouring (blue) N/AE131 Patent Blue V food colouring (darkblue)Approved in the EU.[5]E132 Indigo carmine (indigotine, FD&C Blue 2) food colouring(indigo)Approved in the EU.[5]E133 Brilliant Blue FCF (FD&C Blue 1) food colouring(reddish blue)Approved in the EU.[5]E140 Chlorophylls and Chlorophyllins: (i) Chlorophylls (ii)Chlorophyllinsfood colouring (green)Approved in the EU.[5]E141 Copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllins(i) Copper complexes of chlorophylls (ii) Coppercomplexes of chlorophyllinsfood colouring (green)Approved in the EU.[5]E142 Green S food colouring (green) Approved in the EU.[5]E143 Fast Green FCF (FD&C Green 3) food colouring (seagreen)N/AE150a Plain caramel food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E150b Caustic sulphite caramel food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E150c Ammonia caramel food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E150d Sulphite ammonia caramel food colouring N/AE151 Black PN, Brilliant Black BN food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E152 Black 7984 food colouring N/AE153 Carbon black, Vegetable carbon food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E154 Brown FK (kipper brown) food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E155 Brown HT (chocolate brown HT) food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E160a Alpha-carotene, Beta-carotene, Gamma-carotene food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E160b Annatto, bixin, norbixin food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E160c Paprika oleoresin, Capsanthin, capsorubin food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E160d Lycopene food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E160e Beta-apo-8-carotenal (C 30) food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E160f Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8-carotenic acid (C 30) food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E161a Flavoxanthin food colouring N/AE161b Lutein food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E161c Cryptoxanthin food colouring N/AE161d Rubixanthin food colouring N/AE161e Violaxanthin food colouring N/AE161f Rhodoxanthin food colouring N/AE161g Canthaxanthin food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E161h Zeaxanthin food colouring N/AFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 10E161i Citranaxanthin food colouring N/AE161j Astaxanthin food colouring N/AE162 Beetroot Red, Betanin food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E163 Anthocyanins food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E164 Saffron food colouring N/AE166 Sandalwood red food colouring N/AE170 Calcium carbonate, Chalk food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E171 Titanium dioxide food colouring (purewhite)Approved in the EU.[5]E172 Iron oxides and iron hydroxides food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E173 Aluminium food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E174 Silver food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E175 Gold food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E180 Pigment Rubine, Lithol Rubine BK food colouringApproved in the EU.[5]E181 Tannin food colouring N/AE182 Orcein, Orchil food colouring N/AE200–E299 (preservatives)Code Name(s) Purpose StatusE200 Sorbic acid preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E201 Sodium sorbate preservative N/AE202 Potassium sorbate preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E203 Calcium sorbate preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E209 Heptyl p-hydroxybenzoate preservative N/AE210 Benzoic acid preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E211 Sodium benzoate preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E212 Potassium benzoate preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E213 Calcium benzoate preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E214 Ethylparaben (ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 11E215 Sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E216 Propylparaben (propyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservativeE217 Sodium propyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservativeE218 Methylparaben (methyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E219 Sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E220 Sulphur dioxide preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E221 Sodium sulphite preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E222 Sodium bisulphite (sodium hydrogen sulphite) preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E223 Sodium metabisulphite preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E224 Potassium metabisulphite preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E225 Potassium sulphite preservative N/AE226 Calcium sulphite preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite (preservative) firming agentApproved in theEU.[5]E228 Potassium hydrogen sulphite preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E230 Biphenyl, diphenyl preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E231 Orthophenyl phenol preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E232 Sodium orthophenyl phenol preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E233 Thiabendazole preservative N/AE234 Nisin preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E235 Natamycin, Pimaracin preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E236 Formic acid preservative N/AE237 Sodium formate preservative N/AE238 Calcium formate preservative N/AE239 Hexamine (hexamethylene tetramine) preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 12E240 Formaldehyde preservative ForbiddenE242 Dimethyl dicarbonate preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E249 Potassium nitrite preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E250 Sodium nitrite preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E251 Sodium nitrate (Chile saltpeter) preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E252 Potassium nitrate (Saltpetre) preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E260 Acetic acid (preservative) acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E261 Potassium acetate (preservative) acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E262 Sodium acetates (i) Sodium acetate (ii) Sodium hydrogen acetate (sodiumdiacetate)preservative, acidityregulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E263 Calcium acetate (preservative) acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E264 Ammonium acetate preservative N/AE265 Dehydroacetic acid preservative N/AE266 Sodium dehydroacetate preservative N/AE270 Lactic acid (preservative) (acid) antioxidantApproved in theEU.[7]E280 Propionic acid preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E281 Sodium propionate preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E282 Calcium propionate preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E283 Potassium propionate preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E284 Boric acid preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E285 Sodium tetraborate (borax) preservativeApproved in theEU.[5]E290 Carbon dioxide acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E296 Malic acid (acid) acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 13E297 Fumaric acid acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E300–E399 (antioxidants, acidity regulators)Code Name(s) Purpose StatusE300 Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E301 Sodium ascorbate antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E302 Calcium ascorbate antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E303 Potassium ascorbate antioxidant N/AE304 Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid (Ascorbylpalmitate)antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E305 Ascorbyl stearate antioxidant N/AE306 Tocopherols (natural) antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E307 Alpha-tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E308 Gamma-tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E309 Delta-tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E310 Propyl gallate antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E311 Octyl gallate antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E312 Dodecyl gallate antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E313 Ethyl gallate antioxidantE314 Guaiac resin antioxidant N/AE315 Erythorbic acid antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E316 Sodium erythorbate antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E317 Erythorbin acid antioxidant N/AE318 Sodium erythorbin antioxidant N/AE319 tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E320 Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E321 Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) antioxidantApproved in the EU.[8]E322 Lecithin emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E323 Anoxomer antioxidant N/AE324 Ethoxyquin antioxidant N/AE325 Sodium lactate acidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E326 Potassium lactate (antioxidant) acidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E327 Calcium lactate acidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E328 Ammonium lactate acidity regulator N/AFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 14E329 Magnesium lactate acidity regulator N/AE330 Citric acid acid, acidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E331 Sodium citrates (i) Monosodium citrate (ii) Disodiumcitrate (iii) Sodium citrate (trisodium citrate)acidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E332 Potassium citrates (i) Monopotassium citrate (ii)Potassium citrate (tripotassium citrate)acidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E333 Calcium citrates (i) Monocalcium citrate (ii)Dicalcium citrate (iii) Calcium citrate (tricalciumcitrate)acidity regulator,firming agent,sequestrantApproved in the EU.[7]E334 Tartaric acid (L(+)-) (acid)Approved in the EU.[7]E335 Sodium tartrates (i) Monosodium tartrate (ii),Disodium tartrateacidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E336 Potassium tartrates (i) Monopotassium tartrate(cream of tartar) (ii) Dipotassium tartrateacidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E337 Sodium potassium tartrate acidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E338 Orthophosphoric acid acidApproved in the EU.[7]E339 Sodium phosphates (i) Monosodium phosphate (ii)Disodium phosphate (iii) Trisodium phosphateantioxidantApproved in the EU.[7]E340 Potassium phosphates (i) Monopotassium phosphate(ii) Dipotassium phosphate (iii) TripotassiumphosphateantioxidantApproved in the EU.[7]E341 Calcium phosphates (i) Monocalcium phosphate (ii)Dicalcium phosphate (iii) Tricalcium phosphateanti-caking agent,firming agentApproved in the EU.[7]E342 Ammonium phosphates: (i) monoammoniumphosphate (ii) diammonium phosphateN/AE343 Magnesium phosphates (i) monomagnesiumphosphate (ii) Dimagnesium phosphateanti-caking agentApproved in the EU.[7]This additive is under discussionand may be included in a future amendment to the Directiveon miscellaneous additives.E344 Lecitin citrate acidity regulator N/AE345 Magnesium citrate acidity regulator N/AE349 Ammonium malate acidity regulator N/AE350 Sodium malates (i) Sodium malate (ii) Sodiumhydrogen malateacidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E351 Potassium malate acidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E352 Calcium malates (i) Calcium malate (ii) Calciumhydrogen malateacidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E353 Metatartaric acid emulsifierApproved in the EU.[7]E354 Calcium tartrate emulsifierApproved in the EU.[7]E355 Adipic acid acidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E356 Sodium adipate acidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E357 Potassium adipate acidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E359 Ammonium adipate acidity regulator N/AFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 15E363 Succinic acid acidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E365 Sodium fumarate acidity regulator N/AE366 Potassium fumarate acidity regulator N/AE367 Calcium fumarate acidity regulator N/AE368 Ammonium fumarate acidity regulator N/AE370 1,4-Heptonolactone acidity regulator N/AE375 Niacin (nicotinic acid), Nicotinamide colour retention agent N/AE380 Triammonium citrate acidity regulatorApproved in the EU.[7]E381 Ammonium ferric citrate acidity regulator N/AE383 Calcium glycerylphosphate acidity regulator N/AE384 Isopropyl citrate acidity regulator N/AE385 Calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate,(Calcium disodium EDTA)sequestrantApproved in the EU.[7]E386 Disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate (DisodiumEDTA)sequestrantN/AE387 Oxystearin stabiliser N/AE388 Thiodipropionic acidE389 Dilauryl thiodipropionateE390 Distearyl thiodipropionate N/AE391 Phytic acid N/AE392 Extracts of rosemaryApproved in 2010[10]E399 Calcium lactobionate N/AE400–E499 (thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers)Code Name(s) Purpose StatusE400 Alginic acid (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E401 Sodium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E402 Potassium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E403 Ammonium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E404 Calcium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E405 Propane-1,2-diol alginate (Propylene glycol alginate) (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E406 Agar (thickener) (gelling agent) stabiliserApproved in the EU.[9]E407 Carrageenan (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E407a Processed eucheuma seaweed (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E408 Bakers yeast glycan N/AE409 Arabinogalactan N/AFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 16E410 Locust bean gum (Carob gum) (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E411 Oat gum (thickener) stabiliser N/AE412 Guar gum (thickener) stabiliserApproved in the EU.[9]E413 Tragacanth (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E414 Acacia gum (gum arabic) (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E415 Xanthan gum (thickener) stabiliserApproved in the EU.[9]E416 Karaya gum (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E417 Tara gum (thickener) stabiliserApproved in the EU.[9]E418 Gellan gum (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E419 Gum ghatti (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier N/AE420 Sorbitol (i) Sorbitol (ii) Sorbitol syrup (emulsifier) (sweetener) humectantApproved in the EU.[11]E421 Mannitol (anti-caking agent) sweetenerApproved in the EU.[11]E422 Glycerol (emulsifier) sweetenerApproved in the EU.[7]E424 CurdlanE425 Konjac (i) Konjac gum (ii) Konjac glucomannane emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]May not be used inconfectionery owing to choking risk.E426 Soybean hemicelluloseApproved inthe EU.[9]E427 Cassia gumApproved in 2010[10]E429 Peptones N/AE430 Polyoxyethene (8) stearate (emulsifier) stabiliser N/AE431 Polyoxyethene (40) stearate emulsifierApproved in the EU.[7]E432 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (polysorbate 20) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E433 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monooleate (polysorbate 80) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E434 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate (polysorbate 40) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E435 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monostearate (polysorbate 60) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E436 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan tristearate (polysorbate 65) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E440 Pectins (i) pectin (ii) amidated pectin emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E441 Gelatine (emulsifier) gelling agent N/AE442 Ammonium phosphatides emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E443 Brominated vegetable oil N/AE444 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E445 Glycerol esters of wood rosins emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E446 Succistearin N/AFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 17E450 Diphosphates (i) Disodium diphosphate (ii) Trisodium diphosphate (iii)Tetrasodium diphosphate (iv) Dipotassium diphosphate (v) Tetrapotassiumdiphosphate (vi) Dicalcium diphosphate (vii) Calcium dihydrogendiphosphateemulsifierApproved in the EU.[7]E451 Triphosphates (i) Sodium triphosphate (pentasodium triphosphate) (ii)Pentapotassium triphosphateemulsifierApproved in the EU.[7]E452 Polyphosphates (i) Sodium polyphosphates (ii) Potassium polyphosphates (iii)Sodium calcium polyphosphate (iv) Calcium polyphosphates (v) AmmoniumPolyphosphateemulsifierApproved in the EU.[7]E459 Beta-cyclodextrin emulsifierApproved in the EU.[7]E460 Cellulose (i) Microcrystalline cellulose (ii) Powdered cellulose emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E461 Methyl cellulose emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E462 Ethyl cellulose emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E464 Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, = hypromellose emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E465 Ethyl methyl cellulose emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E466 Carboxymethyl cellulose, Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E467 Ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose N/AE468 Crosslinked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Croscarmellose) emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]This additive isunder discussion and may be included in afuture amendment to the Directive onmiscellaneous additivesE469 Enzymically hydrolysed carboxymethylcellulose emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E470a Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids (emulsifier) anti-cakingagentApproved in the EU.[9]E470b Magnesium salts of fatty acids (emulsifier) anti-cakingagentApproved in the EU.[9]E471 Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (glyceryl monostearate, glyceryldistearate)emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E472a Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E472b Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E472c Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E472d Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E472e Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fattyacidsemulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E472f Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E472g Succinylated monoglycerides emulsifier N/AE473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E474 Sucroglycerides emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 18E476 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E477 Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids, propylene glycol esters of fatty acids emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E478 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1 emulsifier N/AE479b Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides offatty acidsemulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E480 Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate emulsifier N/AE481 Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E482 Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E483 Stearyl tartrate emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E484 Stearyl citrate emulsifier N/AE485 Sodium Stearoyl Fumarate emulsifier N/AE486 Calcium Stearoyl Fumarate emulsifier N/AE487 Sodium laurylsulphate emulsifier N/AE488 Ethoxylated Mono- and Di-Glycerides emulsifier N/AE489 Methyl Glucoside - Coconut Oil Ester emulsifier N/AE490 Propane-1,2-diol N/AE491 Sorbitan monostearate emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E492 Sorbitan tristearate emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E493 Sorbitan monolaurate emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E494 Sorbitan monooleate emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E495 Sorbitan monopalmitate emulsifierApproved in the EU.[9]E496 Sorbitan trioleat emulsifier N/AE497 Polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene polymers N/AE498 Partial polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oil N/AE500–E599 (acidity regulators, anti-caking agents)Code Name(s) Purpose StatusE500 Sodium carbonates (i) Sodium carbonate (ii) Sodium bicarbonate (Sodium hydrogencarbonate) (iii) Sodium sesquicarbonate (acidity regulator)raising agentApproved in theEU.[7]E501 Potassium carbonates (i) Potassium carbonate (ii) Potassium bicarbonate (Potassiumhydrogen carbonate)acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E503 Ammonium carbonates (i) Ammonium carbonate (ii) Ammonium bicarbonate (Ammoniumhydrogen carbonate)acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E504 Magnesium carbonates (i) Magnesium carbonate (ii) Magnesium bicarbonate Magnesiumhydrogen carbonateacidity regulator,anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E505 Ferrous carbonate acidity regulator N/AFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 19E507 Hydrochloric acid acidApproved in theEU.[7]E508 Potassium chloride (gelling agent) seasoningApproved in theEU.[7]E509 Calcium chloride (sequestrant) firming agentApproved in theEU.[7]E510 Ammonium chloride, ammonia solution (acidity regulator) improving agent N/AE511 Magnesium chloride firming agentApproved in theEU.[7]E512 Stannous chloride antioxidantApproved in theEU.[7]E513 Sulphuric acid acidApproved in theEU.[7]E514 Sodium sulphates (i) Sodium sulphate (ii) acidApproved in theEU.[7]E515 Potassium Sulphates (i) Potassium Sulphate (ii)Approved in theEU.[7]E516 Calcium sulphateApproved in theEU.[7]E517 Ammonium sulphate improving agentApproved in theEU.[7]E518 Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts), (acidity regulator) firming agent N/AE519 Copper(II) sulphate preservative N/AE520 Aluminium sulphate firming agentApproved in theEU.[7]E521 Aluminium sodium sulphate firming agentApproved in theEU.[7]E522 Aluminium potassium sulphate acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E523 Aluminium ammonium sulphate acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E524 Sodium hydroxide acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E525 Potassium hydroxide acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E526 Calcium hydroxide (acidity regulator) firming agentApproved in theEU.[7]E527 Ammonium hydroxide acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E528 Magnesium hydroxide acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 20E529 Calcium oxide (acidity regulator) improving agentApproved in theEU.[7]E530 Magnesium oxide (acidity regulator) anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E535 Sodium ferrocyanide (acidity regulator) anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E536 Potassium ferrocyanide anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E537 Ferrous hexacyanomanganate anti-caking agentE538 Calcium ferrocyanide anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E539 Sodium thiosulphate antioxidant N/AE540 Dicalcium diphosphate (acidity regulator) emulsifier N/AE541 Sodium aluminium phosphate (i) Acidic (ii) Basic emulsifierApproved in theEU.[7]E542 Bone phosphate (Essentiale Calcium Phosphate, Tribasic) anti-caking agent N/AE543 Calcium sodium polyphosphate emulsifier N/AE544 Calcium polyphosphate emulsifier N/AE545 Ammonium polyphosphate emulsifier N/AE550 Sodium Silicates (i) Sodium silicate (ii) Sodium metasilicate anti-caking agent N/AE551 Silicon dioxide (Silica) anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E552 Calcium silicate anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E553a (i) Magnesium silicate (ii) Magnesium trisilicate anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E553b Talc anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E554 Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium aluminium silicate) anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E555 Potassium aluminium silicate anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E556 Calcium aluminosilicate (calcium aluminium silicate) anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E557 Zinc silicate anti-caking agentE558 Bentonite anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E559 Aluminium silicate (Kaolin) anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E560 Potassium silicate anti-caking agent N/AE561 Vermiculite N/AFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 21E562 Sepiolite N/AE563 Sepiolitic clay N/AE565 4-HexylresorcinolApproved in theEU.[8]E566 Natrolite-phonolite N/AE570 Stearic acid (Fatty acid) anti-caking agentApproved in theEU.[7]E572 Magnesium stearate, calcium stearate (emulsifier) anti-caking agent N/AE574 Gluconic acid acidity regulatorApproved in theEU.[7]E575 Glucono delta-lactone (acidity regulator) sequestrantApproved in theEU.[7]E576 Sodium gluconate sequestrantApproved in theEU.[7]E577 Potassium gluconate sequestrantApproved in theEU.[7]E578 Calcium gluconate firming agentApproved in theEU.[7]E579 Ferrous gluconate food colouringApproved in theEU.[7]E580 Magnesium gluconate N/AE585 Ferrous lactate food colouringApproved in theEU.[7]E586 4-Hexylresorcinol antioxidant N/AE598 Synthetic calcium aluminates N/AE599 Perlite N/AE600–E699 (flavour enhancers)Code Name(s) Purpose StatusE620 Glutamic acid flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E621 Monosodium glutamate(MSG) flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E622 Monopotassium glutamate flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E623 Calcium diglutamate flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E624 Monoammonium glutamate flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E625 Magnesium diglutamate flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E626 Guanylic acid flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E627 Disodium guanylate, sodium guanylate flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E628 Dipotassium guanylate flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 22E629 Calcium guanylate flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E630 Inosinic acid flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E631 Disodium inosinate flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E632 Dipotassium inosinate flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E633 Calcium inosinate flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E634 Calcium 5-ribonucleotides flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E635 Disodium 5-ribonucleotides flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E636 Maltol flavour enhancer N/AE637 Ethyl maltol flavour enhancer N/AE640 Glycine and its sodium salt flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E641 L-leucine flavour enhancer N/AE642 Lysine hydrochloride flavour enhancer N/AE650 Zinc acetate flavour enhancerApproved in the EU.[7]E700–E799 (antibiotics)Code Name(s) Purpose StatusE700 BacitracinE701 Tetracyclines N/AE702 Chlortetracycline N/AE703 Oxytetracycline N/AE704 OleandomycinE705 Penicillin-G-potassiumE706 Penicillin-G-sodiumE707 Penicillin-G-procaineE708 Penicillin-G-benzathyneE710 Spiramycins N/AE711 Virginiamicins N/AE712 FlavophospholipolE713 Tylosin N/AE714 MonensinE715 AvoparcinE716 SalinomycinE717 AvilamycinFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 23E900–E999 (miscellaneous)Code Name(s) Purpose StatusE900 Dimethyl polysiloxane (anti-foaming agent) anti-caking agentApproved in the EU.[7]E901 Beeswax , white and yellow glazing agentApproved in the EU.[7]E902 Candelilla wax glazing agentApproved in the EU.[7]E903 Carnauba wax glazing agentApproved in the EU.[7]E904 Shellac glazing agentApproved in the EU.[7]E905 ParaffinsApproved in the EU.[7]E905a Mineral oil anti-foaming agent N/AE905b Petrolatum N/AE905c Petroleum wax (i)Microcrystalline wax (ii) Paraffin wax glazing agent N/AE906 Gum benzoic flavour enhancer N/AE907 Crystalline wax glazing agent N/AE908 Rice bran wax glazing agent N/AE909 Spermaceti wax glazing agent N/AE910 Wax esters glazing agent N/AE911 Methyl esters of fatty acids glazing agent N/AE912 Montan acid esters glazing agentApproved in the EU.[7]E913 Lanolin, sheep wool grease glazing agent N/AE914 Oxidized polyethylene wax glazing agentApproved in the EU.[7]E915 Esters of colophony glazing agent N/AE916 Calcium iodateE917 Potassium iodateE918 Nitrogen oxidesE919 Nitrosyl chlorideE920 L-cysteine improving agentApproved in the EU.[7]E921 L-cystine improving agent N/AE922 Potassium persulphate improving agentE923 Ammonium persulphate improving agentE924 Potassium bromate improving agent N/AE924b Calcium bromate improving agentE925 Chlorine preservative, bleach, improvingagentE926 Chlorine dioxide (preservative) bleachE927a Azodicarbonamide improving agent N/AE927b Carbamide (urea) improving agentApproved in the EU.[7]E928 Benzoyl peroxide (improving agent) bleach N/AFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 24E929 Acetone peroxideE930 Calcium peroxide (improving agent) bleach N/AE938 Argon packaging gasApproved in the EU.[7]E939 Helium packaging gasApproved in the EU.[7]E940 Dichlorodifluoromethane packaging gas Rarely usedE941 Nitrogen (packaging gas) propellantApproved in the EU.[7]E942 Nitrous oxide propellantApproved in the EU.[7]E943a Butane propellantApproved in the EU.[7]E943b Isobutane propellantApproved in the EU.[7]E944 Propane propellantApproved in the EU.[7]E945 Chloropentafluoroethane propellant N/AE946 Octafluorocyclobutane propellant N/AE948 Oxygen packaging gasApproved in the EU.[7]E949 Hydrogen packaging gasApproved in the EU.[7]E950 Acesulfame potassium sweetenerApproved in theEU.[11]E951 Aspartame sweetenerApproved in theEU.[11]E952 Cyclamic acid and its sodium and calcium salts, also known asCyclamatesweetenerApproved in theEU.[11]E953 Isomalt, Isomaltitol sweetenerApproved in theEU.[11]E954 Saccharin and its sodium, potassium and calcium salts sweetenerApproved in theEU.[11]E955 Sucralose (Trichlorogalactosucrose) sweetenerApproved in theEU.[11]E956 Alitame sweetener N/AE957 Thaumatin (sweetener) flavour enhancerApproved in theEU.[11]E958 Glycyrrhizin (sweetener) flavour enhancer N/AE959 Neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (sweetener) flavour enhancerApproved in theEU.[11]E960 Stevioside sweetener N/AE961 Neotame sweetenerApproved in 2010[10]E962 Aspartame-acesulfame salt (sweetener) stabiliserApproved in theEU.[11]E965 Maltitol (i) Maltitol (ii) Maltitol syrup (sweetener) (stabiliser) humectantApproved in theEU.[11]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 25E966 Lactitol sweetenerApproved in theEU.[11]E967 Xylitol sweetenerApproved in theEU.[11]E968 Erythritol humectantApproved in theEU.[11]E999 Quillaia extract foaming agentApproved in the EU.[7]E1000–E1599 (additional chemicals)Code Name(s) Purpose StatusE1000 Cholic acid emulsifier N/AE1001 Choline salts emulsifier N/AE1100 Amylase stabiliser, flavour enhancer N/AE1101 Proteases ((i)Protease, (ii)Papain, (iii)Bromelain, (iv)Ficin) stabiliser, flavour enhancer N/AE1102 Glucose oxidase antioxidant N/AE1103 Invertase stabiliserApproved in theEU.[9]E1104 Lipases N/AE1105 Lysozyme preservative N/AE1200 Polydextrose stabiliser, thickening agent,humectant, carrierApproved in theEU.[7]E1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone stabiliserApproved in theEU.[7]E1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (carrier) stabiliserApproved in theEU.[7]E1203 Polyvinyl alcoholApproved in2010[10]E1204 PullulanApproved in theEU.[7]E1400 Dextrin (Dextrins, roasted starch white and yellow) (stabiliser) thickening agent N/AE1401 Modified starch ((Acid-treated starch) stabiliser) thickening agent N/AE1402 Alkaline modified starch (stabiliser) thickening agent N/AE1403 Bleached starch (stabiliser) thickening agent N/AE1404 Oxidized starch (emulsifier) thickening agentApproved in theEU.[7]E1405 Enzyme treated starch N/AE1410 Monostarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening agentApproved in theEU.[7]E1411 Distarch glycerol (thickening agent) emulsifier N/AFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 26E1412 Distarch phosphate esterified with sodium trimetasphosphate; esterified withphosphorus oxychloride (stabiliser)thickening agentApproved in theEU.[7]E1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening agentApproved in theEU.[7]E1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate (emulsifier) thickening agentApproved in theEU.[7]E1420 Starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride (stabiliser) thickening agentApproved in theEU.[7]E1421 Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetate (stabiliser) thickening agent N/AE1422 Acetylated Distarch Adipate (stabiliser) thickening agentApproved in theEU.[7]E1423 Acetylated distarch glycerol thickening agent N/AE1430 Distarch glycerine (stabiliser) thickening agent N/AE1440 Hydroxy propyl starch (emulsifier) thickening agentApproved in theEU.[7]E1441 Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerine (stabiliser) thickening agent N/AE1442 Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening agentApproved in theEU.[7]E1443 Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerol N/AE1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate (emulsifier) (stabiliser) thickening agentApproved in theEU.[7]E1451 Acetylated oxidised starch (emulsifier) thickening agentApproved in theEU.[7]E1452 Starch aluminium octenyl succinateApproved in theEU.[7]E1501 Benzylated hydrocarbons N/AE1502 Butane-1, 3-diol N/AE1503 Castor oil resolving agent N/AE1504 Ethyl acetate flavour solvent N/AE1505 Triethyl citrate foam stabiliserApproved in theEU.[7]E1510 Ethanol N/AE1516 Glyceryl monoacetate flavour solvent N/AE1517 Glyceryl diacetate or diacetin flavour solvent N/AE1518 Glyceryl triacetate or triacetin humectantApproved in theEU.[7]E1519 Benzyl alcohol N/AE1520 Propylene glycol humectantApproved in theEU.[7]E1521Polyethylene glycol 8000[12]Approved in2010[10]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • E number 27E1525 Hydroxyethyl cellulose thickening agent N/ANotes[1] UK Food Standards Agency (http://www.eatwell.gov.uk/foodlabels/understandingenumbers/)[2] European Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONSLEG:1995L0002:20060815:EN:PDF)[3] Food Additives and Ingredients Association (http://www.faia.org.uk/faq2_4.php), no date, Frequently Asked Questions, accessed 6March 2010[4] Codex Alimentarius. "Noms de Categorie et Systeme International de Numerotation des Additifs Alimentaires" (http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/7/cxg_036f.pdf). . Retrieved 2 April 2009.[5] Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers (http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/enumberlist), FoodStandards Agency, 26 November 2010[6] Additives (http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/_srcfiles/Additives alpha.pdf), Food Standards Australia New Zealand[7] Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers (http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/enumberlist#h_7),Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010[8] Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers (http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/enumberlist#h_4),Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010[9] Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers (http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/enumberlist#h_6),Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010[10] New additives approved for use (http://www.food.gov.uk/news/newsarchive/2010/nov/additives), Food Standards Agency, Friday 26November 2010[11] Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers (http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/enumberlist#h_5),Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010[12] New Zealand Food Safety Authority. "Identifying Food Additives" (http://www.nzfsa.govt.nz/consumers/chemicals-nutrients-additives-and-toxins/food-additives.pdf). . Retrieved 16 January 2010.See also• Hydrolyzed protein• List of food additives• List of food additives, Codex AlimentariusExternal links• Codex Alimentarius (http://www.codexalimentarius.net/gsfaonline/CXS_192e.pdf)• E-codes and ingredients search engine with details/suggestions for Muslims (http://www.guidedways.com/halalfoodguide.php)• Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers (http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/enumberlist)• Food Additives in the European Union (http://www.foodlaw.rdg.ac.uk/additive.htm)• Halal Status for E-Numbers (http://www.knowledge.hdcglobal.com/hdc/ingredient_ranges.php?id_topic=1)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • 283 - ANTI-CAKING AGENTSAnticaking agentAn anticaking agent is an additive placed in powdered or granulated materials, such as table salt, to prevent theformation of lumps, easing packaging, transport, and consumption.An anticaking agent in salt is denoted in the ingredients, for example, as "anti-caking agent (554)", which is sodiumaluminosilicate, a man-made product. This product is present in many commercial table salts as well as dried milks,egg mixes, sugar products, and flours. In Europe, sodium ferrocyanide (535) and potassium ferrocyanide (536) aremore common anticaking agents in table salt. Natural anticaking agents used in more expensive table salt includecalcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate.Some anticaking agents are soluble in water; others are soluble in alcohols or other organic solvents. They functioneither by adsorbing excess moisture, or by coating particles and making them water repellent. Calcium silicate(CaSiO3), a commonly used anti-caking agent, added to e.g. table salt, adsorbs both water and oil.Anticaking agents are also used in non-food items such as road salt[1], fertilisers[2], cosmetics[3], syntheticdetergents[4], and in manufacturing applications.List of anticaking agentsThe following anticaking agents are listed in order by their E number.• E341 Tricalcium Phosphate• E500 Sodium bicarbonate• E535 Sodium ferrocyanide• E536 Potassium ferrocyanide• E538 Calcium ferrocyanide• E542 Bone phosphate• E550 Sodium silicate• E551 Silicon dioxide• E552 Calcium silicate• E553a Magnesium trisilicate• E553b Talcum powder• E554 Sodium aluminosilicate• E555 Potassium aluminium silicate• E556 Calcium aluminosilicate• E558 Bentonite• E559 Aluminium silicate• E570 Stearic acid• E900 PolydimethylsiloxaneFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Anticaking agent 29References[1] "Anticaking Admixtures to Road Salt" (http://www.transportation.org/?siteid=55&pageid=948). Transportation.org. . Retrieved2010-06-17.[2] "Fertilizer compositions containing alkylene oxide adduct anticaking agents" (http://www.google.com/patents?vid=USPAT4356020).Google.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-17.[3] "Talc Information" (http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/HBI/26). Cosmeticsinfo.org. . Retrieved 2010-06-17.[4] "Synthetic Detergents: Introduction to Detergent Chemistry" (http://www.chemistry.co.nz/introduction.htm). Chemistry.co.nz.2006-12-15. . Retrieved 2010-06-17.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Monocalcium phosphate 30Monocalcium phosphateMonocalcium phosphateIdentifiersCAS number 7758-23-8[1] PubChem 24454[2]PropertiesMolecular formula CaH4P2O8Molar mass 234.05 g/molDensity 2.22 g/cm3Melting point 109 °CBoiling point 203 °C (decomposes)Solubility in water 2 g/100 mLHazardsEU Index Not listedNFPA 704Flash point Non-flammableRelated compoundsOther anions Calcium pyrophosphateOther cations Magnesium phosphateDicalcium phosphateTricalcium phosphateStrontium phosphate(what is this?)   (verify)[3]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesMonocalcium phosphate is a chemical compound with the formula Ca(H2PO4)2. It is commonly found as themonohydrate, Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Monocalcium phosphate 31UsesFertilizerPhosphorus is an essential nutrient and therefore is a common component of agricultural fertilizers. Tricalciumphosphate Ca3(PO4)2, a major component of phosphate rock such as phosphorite,[4]apatite, and other phosphateminerals, is too insoluble to be an efficient fertilizer. Therefore it can be converted into the more solublemonocalcium phosphate, generally by the use of sulfuric acid H2SO4. The result is hydrated to turn the calciumsulfate into the dihydrate gypsum and sold as superphosphate of lime. Alternately phosphate rock may be treatedwith phosphoric acid to produce a purer form of monocalcium phosphate and is sold as triple phosphate.SuperphosphateSuperphosphate is a fertilizer produced by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid on powdered phosphate rock.[5]3 Ca3(PO4)2(s) + 6 H2SO4(aq) → 6 CaSO4(aq) + 3 Ca(H2PO4)2(aq)"In 1840, Justus Von Liebig wrote, The crops on the field diminish or increase in exact proportion to the diminutionor increase of the mineral substances conveyed to it in manure. Von Liebig was the first to discover that phosphateof lime in bone meal could be rendered more readily available to plants by treatment with sulfuric acid. Sir JohnBennett Lawes about the same time discovered that phosphate rock underwent the same reaction and could be usedas a source ingredient. In the 1840s, scientists found that coprolites could be dissolved in sulfuric acid to producewhat became known as superphosphate. Bennett Lawes was the first to manufacture superphosphate at his factory inDeptford, England in 1842."[6]Limestone pinnacles left on Nauru afterphosphate mining.A large market for superphosphate was created in the second half ofthe 20th century by the development of aerial topdressing in NewZealand which allowed superphosphate to be spread economically overlarge areas.Superphosphate can be created naturally in large quantities by theaction of guano, or bird feces, resulting in deposits around sea birdcolonies which can be mined. The most famous mining site is theisland of Nauru in the South Pacific from which much of the "soil" wasmined, creating temporary wealth for the inhabitants.Triple superphosphateTriple superphosphate is a fertilizer produced by the action of concentrated phosphoric acid on ground phosphaterock.[5]Ca3(PO4)2(s) + 4 H3PO4(aq) → 3 Ca2+(aq) + 6 H2PO41-(aq) → 3 Ca(H2PO4)2(aq)The active ingredient of the product, monocalcium phosphate, is identical to that of superphosphate, but without thepresence of calcium sulfate that is formed if sulfuric acid is used instead of phosphoric acid. The phosphorus contentof triple superphosphate (17 - 23% P; 44 to 52% P2O5) is therefore greater than that of superphosphate (7 - 9.5% P;16 to 22% P2O5). Triple superphosphate was the most common phosphate (P) fertilizer in the USA until the 1960s,when ammonium phosphates became more popular. It is produced in granular and nongranular form and is used bothin fertilizer blends (with potassium and nitrogen fertilizers) and by itself.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Monocalcium phosphate 32Leavening agentCalcium dihydrogen phosphate is also used in the food industry as a leavening agent to cause baked goods to rise.Because it is acidic, when combined with an alkali ingredient – commonly sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) orpotassium bicarbonate – it reacts to produce carbon dioxide and a salt. The carbon dioxide gas is what leavens thebaked good. When combined in a ready-made baking powder, the acid and alkali ingredients are included in the rightproportions such that they will exactly neutralize each other and not significantly affect the overall pH of theproduct.References[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=7758-23-8[2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=24454[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Amonocalcium_phosphate?diff=cur&oldid=386478054[4] "Phosphate Rock" (http://www.mii.org/Minerals/photophos.html#sources). Mineral Information Institute. . Retrieved 2009-07-08.[5] McMurry, John; Fay, Robert C. (2004). Chemistry (4 ed.). Prentice Hall. pp. 841–2.[6] "About Yara: History" (http://fert.yara.co.uk/en/about_us/history/index.html). Yara International ASA. . Retrieved 2009-07-08.• Yara corporate History (http://fert.yara.co.uk/en/about_us/history/index.html) Accessed May 2007• Havlin, J.L., J.D. Beaton, S.L. Tisdale, and W.L. Nelson. 2005. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. 7th edn. PearsonPrentice Hall, N.J.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Dicalcium phosphate 33Dicalcium phosphateDicalcium phosphateIdentifiersCAS number 7757-93-9[1]  , 7789-77-7 (dihydrate)PubChem 104805[2]ChemSpider 10605753[3] UNII L11K75P92J[4] PropertiesMolecular formula CaHPO4Molar mass 136.06 g/molDensity 2.929 g/cm3Solubility in water 0.02 g/100 mLHazardsEU Index Not listedNFPA 704Flash point Non-flammableRelated compoundsOther anions Calcium pyrophosphateOther cations Magnesium phosphateMonocalcium phosphateTricalcium phosphateStrontium phosphate(what is this?)   (verify)[5]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesDicalcium phosphate, also known as calcium monohydrogen phosphate, is a dibasic calcium phosphate. It isusually found as the dihydrate, with the chemical formula of CaHPO4• 2H2O, but it can be thermally converted tothe anhydrous form. It is practically insoluble in water, with a solubility of 0.02 g per 100 mL at 25 °C. It containsabout 29.5 percent calcium in its anyhydrous form.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Dicalcium phosphate 34PreparationDicalcium phosphate may be formed by the reaction of stoichiometric quantities of calcium oxide and phosphoricacid:CaO + H3PO4→ CaHPO4+ H2O.UsesDicalcium phosphate is mainly used as a dietary supplement in prepared breakfast cereals, dog treats, enriched flour,and noodle products. It is also used as a tableting agent in some pharmaceutical preparations, including someproducts meant to eliminate body odor. It is used in poultry feed.References[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=7757-93-9[2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=104805[3] http://www.chemspider.com/10605753[4] http://fdasis.nlm.nih.gov/srs/srsdirect.jsp?regno=L11K75P92J[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Adicalcium_phosphate?diff=cur&oldid=401987152FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Tricalcium Phosphate 35Tricalcium PhosphateTricalcium PhosphateIdentifiersCAS number 7758-87-4[1] PubChem 516943[2]ChemSpider 22864[3] UNII K4C08XP666[4] PropertiesMolecular formula Ca3O8P2Molar mass 310.18 g mol−1Appearance White amorphous powderDensity 3.14 g/cm3Melting point Liquifies under high pressure at 1670 K (1391 °C)ThermochemistryStd enthalpy offormation ΔfHo298−982.3 kcal/mol (α-form)−984.9 kcal/mol (β-form)HazardsEU Index Not listedNFPA 704Flash point Non-flammableRelated compoundsOther anions Calcium pyrophosphateOther cations Magnesium phosphateDicalcium phosphateMonocalcium phosphateStrontium phosphate(what is this?)   (verify)[5]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesTricalcium phosphate is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid with the chemical formula Ca3(PO4)2. It is also known astribasic calcium phosphate or "bone ash" (calcium phosphate being one of the main combustion products of bone).FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Tricalcium Phosphate 36It has an alpha and a beta crystal form, the alpha state being formed at high temperatures. As rock, it is found inWhitlockite.General caseThe name calcium phosphate refers to minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates(PO43-), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O74-) and occasionally hydrogen or hydroxide ions.Especially, the common mineral apatite has formula Ca5(PO4)3X, where X is F, Cl, OH, or a mixture; it ishydroxyapatite if the extra ion is mainly hydroxide. Much of the "tricalcium phosphate" on the market is actuallypowdered hydroxyapatite.Natural occurrenceIt is found in nature as a rock in Morocco, Israel, Philippines, Egypt, and Kola (Russia) and in smaller quantities insome other countries. The natural form is not completely pure, and there are some other components like sand andlime which can change the composition. In terms of P2O5, most calcium phosphate rocks have a content of 30% to40% P2O5in weight.The skeletons and teeth of vertebrate animals are composed of calcium phosphate, mainly hydroxyapatite.UsesTricalcium phosphate is used in powdered spices as an anti-caking agent.Calcium phosphate is an important raw material for the production of phosphoric acid and fertilizers, for example inthe Odda process.Calcium phosphate is also a raising agent (food additives) E341. Is a mineral salt found in rocks and bones, it is usedin cheese products.It is also used as a nutritional supplement[6]and occurs naturally in cow milk, although the most common andeconomical forms for supplementation are calcium carbonate (which should be taken with food) and calcium citrate(which can be taken without food).[7]There is some debate about the different bioavailabilities of the differentcalcium salts.It is commonly used in porcelain and dental powders, and medically as an antacid or calcium supplement, althoughcalcium carbonate is more common in this regard.It can be used as a tissue replacement for repairing bony defects when autogenous bone graft is not feasible orpossible.[8] [9] [10]It may be used alone or in combination with a biodegradable, resorbable polymer such aspolyglycolic acid.[11]It may also be combined with autologous materials for a bone graft.[12] [13]Porous beta-Tricalcium phosphate scaffolds are employed as drug carrier systems for local drug delivery in bone.[14]Another practical application of the compound is its use in gene transfection. The calcium ions can make a cellcompetent to allow exogenous genes to enter the cell by diffusion. A heat shock afterwards then invokes the cell torepair itself. This is a quick and easy method for transfection, albeit a rather inefficient one.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Tricalcium Phosphate 37References[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=7758-87-4[2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=516943[3] http://www.chemspider.com/22864[4] http://fdasis.nlm.nih.gov/srs/srsdirect.jsp?regno=K4C08XP666[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Atricalcium_phosphate?diff=cur&oldid=401641515[6] Bonjour JP, Carrie AL, Ferrari S, Clavien H, Slosman D, Theintz G, Rizzoli R (March 1997). "Calcium-enriched foods and bone mass growthin prepubertal girls: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial" (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=507944). J. Clin. Invest. 99 (6): 1287–94. doi:10.1172/JCI119287. PMID 9077538. PMC 507944.[7] Straub DA (June 2007). "Calcium supplementation in clinical practice: a review of forms, doses, and indications" (http://ncp.sagepub.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17507729). Nutr Clin Pract 22 (3): 286–96. doi:10.1177/0115426507022003286. PMID 17507729. .[8] Paderni S, Terzi S, Amendola L (September 2009). "Major bone defect treatment with an osteoconductive bone substitute". MusculoskeletSurg 93 (2): 89–96. doi:10.1007/s12306-009-0028-0. PMID 19711008.[9] Moore DC, Chapman MW, Manske D (1987). "The evaluation of a biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic for use in grafting long-bonediaphyseal defects". Journal of Orthopaedic Research : Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society 5 (3): 356–65.doi:10.1002/jor.1100050307. PMID 3040949.[10] Lange TA, Zerwekh JE, Peek RD, Mooney V, Harrison BH (1986). "Granular tricalcium phosphate in large cancellous defects". Annals ofClinical and Laboratory Science 16 (6): 467–72. PMID 3541772.[11] Cao H, Kuboyama N (September 2009). "A biodegradable porous composite scaffold of PGA/beta-TCP for bone tissue engineering". Bone46 (2): 386–95. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2009.09.031. PMID 19800045.[12] Erbe EM, Marx JG, Clineff TD, Bellincampi LD (October 2001). "Potential of an ultraporous beta-tricalcium phosphate synthetic cancellousbone void filler and bone marrow aspirate composite graft". European Spine Journal : Official Publication of the European Spine Society, theEuropean Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society 10 Suppl 2: S141–6.doi:10.1007/s005860100287. PMID 11716011.[13] Bansal S, Chauhan V, Sharma S, Maheshwari R, Juyal A, Raghuvanshi S (July 2009). "Evaluation of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalciumphosphate mixed with bone marrow aspirate as a bone graft substitute for posterolateral spinal fusion" (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2762171). Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 43 (3): 234–9. doi:10.4103/0019-5413.49387.PMID 19838344. PMC 2762171.[14] Kundu, B; Lemos A; Soundrapandian C; Sen PS; Datta S; Ferreira JMF; Basu D (2010). "Development of porous HAp and β-TCP scaffoldsby starch consolidation with foaming method and drug-chitosan bilayered scaffold based drug delivery system" (http://www.springerlink.com/content/92659025267n6482/). J Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 21 (11): 2955–69. doi:10.1007/s10856-010-4127-0. PMID 20644982. .FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Monomagnesium phosphate 38Monomagnesium phosphateMonomagnesium phosphate[1]IdentifiersCAS number 13092-66-5[2], (Anhydrous)15609-87-7 (Dihydrate)PropertiesMolecular formula H4MgO8P2Molar mass 218.28 g mol−1Appearance White, odorless, crystalline powderExcept where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesMonomagnesium phosphate is one of the forms of magnesium phosphate. It is a magnesium acid salt of phosphoricacid with the chemical formula Mg(H2PO4)2.As a food additive, it is used as an acidity regulator and has the E number E343.References[1] Monomagnesium phosphate (http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/jecfa-additives/specs/monograph5/additive-507-m5.pdf), FAO JECFAMonographs 5 (2008)[2] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=13092-66-5FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Dimagnesium phosphate 39Dimagnesium phosphateDimagnesium phosphateIdentifiersCAS number 7757-86-0[1], 7782-75-4 (trihydrate)PropertiesMolecular formula HMgO4PMolar mass 120.28 g mol−1Density 2.13 g/cm3 trihydrateHazardsR-phrases R36, R37, R38NFPA 704Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesDimagnesium phosphate is a compound with formula MgHPO4. It is a magnesium acid salt of phosphoric acid.It can be formed by reaction of stoichiometric quantities of magnesium oxide with phosphoric acid.MgO + H3PO4→ MgHPO4+ H2O.It is one of the compounds that have E number E343 .See also• Magnesium phosphateReferences[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=7757-86-0FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium ferrocyanide 40Sodium ferrocyanideSodium ferrocyanide[1]IdentifiersCAS number 13601-19-9[2]PubChem 26129[3]EC number 237-081-9[4]PropertiesMolecular formula Na4Fe(CN)6Molar mass 303.91 g/molAppearance Yellow crystalsDensity 1.458 g/cm3Melting point 435 °C (decomposes)Solubility in water 18 g/100 mLStructureCrystal structure monoclinicHazardsS-phrases S22 S24 S25Related compoundsOther anions Sodium ferricyanide (Red prussiate of soda)Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesSodium ferrocyanide, also known as tetrasodium hexacyanoferrate or sodium hexacyanoferrate(II), is acoordination compound of formula Na4Fe(CN)6that forms semitransparent yellow crystals at room temperature anddecomposes at its boiling point. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. Despite the presence of the cyanideligands, sodium ferrocyanide is not especially toxic (acceptable daily intake 0–0.025 mg/(kg body weight)[5])because the cyanides are tightly bound to the metal, although it can react with acid or photodecompose to releasehydrogen cyanide gas.In its hydrous form, Na4Fe(CN)6·10H2O (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate), it is sometimes known as yellowprussiate of soda.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium ferrocyanide 41UsesSodium ferrocyanide is a chemical additive known as E 535. It is added to road and food grade salt as an anticakingagent.[5]When combined with iron, it converts to a deep blue pigment, which is the main component of prussianblue.[6]In photography, it is used for bleaching, toning, and fixing. It is used as a stabilizer for the coating onwelding rods. In the petroleum industry, it is used for removal of mercaptans.References[1] Sodium ferrocyanide MSDS (http://siri.org/msds/f2/bdn/bdnqc.html)[2] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=13601-19-9[3] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=26129[4] http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/index.php?GENRE=ECNO&ENTREE=237-081-9[5] "Toxicological evaluation of some food additives including anticaking agents, antimicrobials, antioxidants, emulsifiers and thickening agents"(http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v05je02.htm). World Health Organization, Geneva. 1974. . Retrieved 18 May 2009.[6] "Prussian blue" (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/480982/Prussian-blue). Encyclopædia Britannica. . Retrieved 18 May.2009.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Potassium ferrocyanide 42Potassium ferrocyanidePotassium ferrocyanideIdentifiersCAS number 13943-58-3[1]  , (anhydrous)14459-95-1 (trihydrate)PubChem 161067[2]PropertiesMolecular formula C6N6FeK4Molar mass 368.35 g/mol (anhydrous)422.388 g/mol (trihydrate)Appearance Yellow, crystalline granules.Density 1.85 g/cm3(trihydrate)Melting point 69-71°CBoiling point 400°C (decomp)Solubility in water trihydrate28.9 g/100 mL (20 °C)Solubility insoluble in ethanol, etherHazardsEU Index Not listedR-phrases R32, R52, R53S-phrases S50(B), S61NFPA 704Flash point Non-flammableRelated compoundsOther anions Potassium ferricyanideOther cations Sodium ferrocyanidePrussian blue(what is this?)   (verify)[3]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Potassium ferrocyanide 43Potassium ferrocyanide, also known as yellow prussiate of potash or potassium hexacyanidoferrate(II), is acoordination compound of formula K4[Fe(CN)6]•3H2O, which forms lemon-yellow monoclinic crystals at roomtemperature, and which decomposes at its boiling point.SynthesisPotassium ferrocyanide is the product of the reaction between hydrogen ferrocyanide and potassium hydroxide:H4[Fe(CN)6] + KOH → K4[Fe(CN)6]•3H2O[4]The reaction forms a stable compound that is neither combustible nor pyrophoric.[5]This compound is a strongreducing agent and is thus incompatible with oxidizing agents.[6]Addition of metal chlorates, perchlorates, nitrates,or nitrites to a solution of carefully prepared and otherwise stable potassium ferrocyanide may result in a largeexplosion.[5]PropertiesPhysical characteristicsAlthough it is insoluble in alcohol, a liter of water can dissolve just under three hundred grams of the crystals, andthe solution can react with acid to release toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas. The resulting HCN gas boils at 26 °Cand, being lighter than air (with a gaseous density of 0.94), quickly evaporates clear of the release point.Chemical reactionsWhen chlorine gas is bubbled through a solution of this compound, potassium ferricyanide is formed in the reaction:2 K4[Fe(CN)6] + Cl2→ 2 K3[Fe(CN)6] + 2 KCl[7]This reaction can be used to remove potassium ferrocyanide from a solution.[8]When the two are combined, theproduct is Prussian blue. Potassium ferrocyanide, potassium ferricyanide, and Prussian blue account for over 97% ofcyanides in the environment.[9]Potassium ferrocyanide is also used to test for protein. Acetic acid and K3Fe(CN)6are added to an aqueous solutionof the substance being tested. The formation of a white precipitate confirms the presence of protein.[10]ToxicityPotassium ferrocyanide itself is only slightly toxic,[5]although adding acid to its aqueous solution releases toxichydrogen cyanide gas. While it is not mutagenic, it may cause irritation if it is ingested, inhaled, or if it comes intocontact with skin.[11]The best solution in these situations is to remove the victim to fresh air or wash the affectedarea thoroughly with water. It causes harm in aqueous environments and is especially toxic to aquatic organisms.The lethal dose (LD50) in rats is 6400 mg/kg.[5]Uses• Naturally, potassium ferrocyanide can be used as an alternate nitrogen source for plants. It is often used as agardening technique.[12]In an experiment to test this aim, plants were either deprived of nitrogen or given anitrogen-rich environment while all were exposed to either potassium ferrocyanide or its product, potassiumferricyanide. The plants were unable to sustain themselves solely on the cyanides, but the uptake of the cyanidesdid increase in the absence of nitrogen. Furthermore, the plants appeared to have different methods for the uptakeof the two cyanides.[9]• Industrially, this complex is used in metal extraction and to make adhesives, computer electronics, fire retardants,cosmetics, dyes, nylon, paints, inks, plexiglass, pharmaceuticals, and rocket propellant.[9]It is also used in lowFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Potassium ferrocyanide 44doses in some food preparation. It works as an anti-caking agent and it removes copper from red wine, as copperis used as a fungicide on grapes.[4]• In the laboratory, potassium ferrocyanide is used to determine the concentration of potassium permanganate, acompound often used in titrations based on redoxreactions.HistoryThis specific cyanide was part of an alleged terrorist attempt in Italy. On February 21, 2002 four MoroccanNationalists were arrested with nine pounds of potassium ferrocyanide and a map pinpointing the exact water pipesleading to the United States Embassy in Rome. The presumed plan was that the cyanide would be dumped into thewater to poison the Embassy. Whether or not the men were planning an attack, the potassium ferrocyanide mixedwith the water would not have been enough to make it toxic. As aforementioned, it is only extremely toxic whenmixed with strong acids due to the resulting HCN gas.[12]See also• Ferrocyanide• Potassium ferricyanide• FerricyanideReferences[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=13943-58-3[2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=161067[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Apotassium_ferrocyanide?diff=cur&oldid=394358825[4] Wageningen University (2009-02-24). "Food-Info" (http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e536.htm). . Retrieved 2009-04-30.[5] JT Baker, Inc. (2006-02-13). "Potassium ferrocyanide MSDS" (http://www.jtbaker.com/msds/englishhtml/p5763.htm). . Retrieved2009-04-30.[6] Edwin J. deBeer, Axel M. Hjort (1935-03). "Employment of Potassium Ferrocyanide in Standardization of Dilute Potassium Permanganate"(http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ac50094a018). . Retrieved 2009-04-30.[7] NIH. "Summary of Data for Chemical Selection" (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/Chem_Background/ExSumPdf/PotassiumFerriCyanide.pdf). . Retrieved 2009-04-30.[8] Barbara M. Ferrier, Derek Jarvis, and Vincent Du Vigneaud (1965-11). "Deamino-oxytocin. Its Isolation by Partition Chromatography onSephadex and Crystallization from Water, and its Biological Activities." (http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/citation/240/11/4264). .Retrieved 2009-04-30.[9] Yu XZ, Gu JD, Li TP (August 2008). "Availability of ferrocyanide and ferricyanide complexes as a nitrogen source to cyanogenic plants".Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 55 (2): 229–37. doi:10.1007/s00244-007-9101-6. PMID 18180862.[10] Sherman, Henry Clapp (2007). Methods of Organic Analysis. READ BOOKS. p. 313. ISBN 1408628023.[11] Nishioka H (June 1975). "Mutagenic activities of metal compounds in bacteria". Mutation Research 31 (3): 185–9. PMID 805366.[12] Melinda Henneberger (2002-02-21). "A NATION CHALLENGED: SUSPECTS; 4 Arrested in Plot Against U.S. Embassy in Rome" (http://www.nytimes.com/2002/02/21/world/a-nation-challenged-suspects-4-arrested-in-plot-against-us-embassy-in-rome.html?n=Top/Reference/Times Topics/People/H/Henneberger, Melinda). . Retrieved 2009-04-30.External links• National Pollutant Inventory - Cyanide (inorganic) compounds fact sheet (http://www.npi.gov.au/substances/cyanide/index.html)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium silicate 45Sodium silicateE550 redirects here. For the Italian locomotive, see FS Class E550Sodium silicateIdentifiersAbbreviations E550CAS number 6834-92-0[1]  , 10213-79-3[2] pentahydrate  , 13517-24-3[3] nonahydrate PubChem 23266[4], 61495[5] pentahydrate, 22671001[6] octahydrate, 61639[7] nonahydrate, 18931786[8] decahydrateChemSpider 21758[9]  , 55415[10] pentahydrate  , 55547[11] nonahydrate EC number 229-912-9[12]UN number 3253MeSH Sodium+metasilicate[13]RTECS number VV9275000PropertiesMolecular formula Na2O3SiMolar mass 122.06 g mol−1Exact mass 121.941209749 g mol-1Appearance White crystalsDensity 2.4 g cm-3Melting point 1088 °C (anhydrous)72.2 °C (pentahydrate)Solubility in water SolubleRefractive index (nD) 1.52 (anhydrous)1.456 (pentahydrate)ThermochemistryStd enthalpy offormation ΔfHo298−1519 kJ/molStandard molarentropy So298113.8 J K−1mol−1HazardsMSDS Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc.[14]EU Index 014-010-00-8FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium silicate 46EU classification Corrosive (C)R-phrases R34, R37S-phrases (S1/2), S13, S24/25, S36/37/39, S45NFPA 704Related compoundsOther anions Sodium carbonateSodium germanateSodium stannateSodium plumbateOther cations Potassium silicate(what is this?)   (verify)[15]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesSodium silicate is the common name for a compound sodium metasilicate, Na2SiO3, also known as water glass orliquid glass. It is available in aqueous solution and in solid form and is used in cements, passive fire protection,refractories, textile and lumber processing, and automobiles. Sodium carbonate and silicon dioxide react whenmolten to form sodium silicate and carbon dioxide:[16]Na2CO3+ SiO2→ Na2SiO3+ CO2Anhydrous sodium silicate contains a chain polymeric anion composed of corner shared {SiO4} tetrahedral, and nota discrete SiO32−ion.[16]In addition to the anhydrous form, there are hydrates with the formula Na2SiO3·nH2O(where n = 5, 6, 8, 9) which contain the discrete, approximately tetrahedral anion SiO2(OH)22−with water ofhydration. For example, the commercially available sodium silicate pentahydrate Na2SiO3·5H2O is formulated asNa2SiO2(OH)2·4H2O and the nonahydrate Na2SiO3·9H2O is formulated as Na2SiO2(OH)2·8H2O.[17]HistoryWater Glass was defined in Von Wagners Manual of Chemical Technology (1892 translation) as any of the solublealkaline silicates, first observed by Van Helmont in 1640 as a fluid substance made by melting sand with excessalkali. Glauber made what he termed "fluid silica" in 1648 from potash and silica. Von Fuchs, in 1825, obtainedwhat is now known as water glass by treating silicic acid with an alkali, the result being soluble in water, "but notaffected by atmospheric changes".[18]Von Wagner distinguished soda, potash, double(soda and potash), and fixin astypes of water glass. The fixing type was "a mixture of silica well saturated with potash water glass and a sodiumsilicate" used to stabilize inorganic water color pigments on cement work for outdoor signs and murals.PropertiesSodium silicate is a white powder that is readily soluble in water, producing an alkaline solution. It is one of anumber of related compounds which include sodium orthosilicate, Na4SiO4, sodium pyrosilicate, Na6Si2O7, andothers. All are glassy, colourless and dissolve in water.Sodium silicate is stable in neutral and alkaline solutions. In acidic solutions, the silicate ion reacts with hydrogenions to form silicic acid, which when heated and roasted forms silica gel, a hard, glassy substance.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium silicate 47CAS registry number and EINECS numberEach and every substance has its own unique CAS registry number and EINECS number. The CAS No. andEINECS No. of sodium silicate and other related substances are:[19]Substance Name CAS# EC#(EINECS No.)Silicic acid, sodium salt 1344-09-8 239-981-7disodium metasilicate 6834-92-0 229-912-9Sodium silicate 15859-24-2 215-687-4UsesMetal repairSodium silicate is used, along with magnesium silicate, in muffler repair and fitting paste. When dissolved in water,both sodium silicate, and magnesium silicate form a thick paste that is easy to apply. When the exhaust system of aninternal combustion engine heats up to its operating temperature, the heat drives out all of the excess water from thepaste. The silicate compounds that are left over have glass-like properties, making a temporary, brittle repair.Automotive repairSodium silicate can be used to seal leaks at the head gasket. A common use is when an alloy cylinder head engine isleft sitting for extended periods or the coolant is not changed at proper intervals, electrolysis can "eat out" sections ofthe head causing the gasket to fail.Rather than remove the cylinder head, "liquid glass" is poured into the radiator and allowed to circulate. Thewaterglass is injected via the radiator water into the hotspot at the engine. This technique works because at 210–220°F the sodium silicate loses water molecules to form a very powerful sealant that will not re-melt below 1500 °F.A sodium silicate repair of a leaking head gasket can hold for up to two years and even longer in some cases. Theeffect will be almost instant, and steam from the radiator water will stop coming out the exhaust within minutes ofapplication. This repair only works with water-to-cylinder or water-to-air applications and where the sodium silicatereaches the "conversion" temperature of 210–220 °F.Car engine disablementSodium silicate solution is used to inexpensively, quickly, and permanently disable automobile engines. Running anengine with two quarts of a sodium silicate solution instead of motor oil causes the solution to precipitate,catastrophically damaging the engines bearings and pistons within a few minutes.[20]In the United States, thisprocedure is required by the Car Allowance Rebate System (CARS) program.[20] [21]AdhesiveOne common example of its use as a paper cement was for producing paper cartridges for black powder revolversproduced by Colts Manufacturing Company during the period from 1851 until 1873, especially during the AmericanCivil War. Sodium silicate was used to seal combustible nitrated paper together to form a conical paper cartridge tohold the black powder, as well as to cement the lead ball or conical bullet into the open end of the paper cartridge.Such sodium silicate cemented paper cartridges were inserted into the cylinders of revolvers, thereby speeding thereloading of cap and ball black powder revolvers. This use largely ended with the introduction of Colt revolversemploying brass-cased cartridges starting in 1873.[22] [23]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium silicate 48When used as a paper cement, the tendency is for the sodium silicate joint eventually to crack within a few years, atwhich point it no longer holds the paper surfaces cemented together.AquacultureSodium silicate gel is also used as a substrate algal growth in aquaculture hatcheries.Food preservationSodium silicate was also used as an egg preservation agent in the early 20th century with large success. When fresheggs are immersed in it, bacteria which cause the eggs to spoil are kept out and water is kept in. Eggs can be keptfresh using this method for up to nine months. When boiling eggs preserved this way, it is well advised to pin-prickthe egg to allow steam to escape because the shell is no longer porous.[24]Drilling fluidsSodium silicate, also known as waterglass, is frequently used in drilling fluids to stabilize borehole wells and toavoid the collapse of bore walls. It is particularly useful when drill holes pass through argillaceous formationscontaining swelling clay minerals such as smectite or montmorillonite.Concrete and general masonry treatmentConcrete treated with a sodium silicate solution helps to significantly reduce porosity in most masonry products suchas concrete, stucco, plasters. A chemical reaction occurs with the excess Ca(OH)2(portlandite) present in theconcrete that permanently binds the silicates with the surface making them far more wearable and water repellent. Itis generally advised to apply this treatment only after the initial cure has taken place (7 days or so depending onconditions). These coatings are known as silicate mineral paint.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium silicate 49Passive fire protection (PFP)Expantrol proprietary sodium silicate suspendedin 1/4" thick layer of red rubber, type 3M FS195,inserted into a metal pipe, then heated, todemonstrate hard char intumescence, strongenough to shut a melting plastic pipe.Palusol based intumescent plastic pipe deviceused for commercial firestopping.Sodium silicates are inherently intumescent. They come in prill (solidbeads) form, as well as the liquid, water glass. The solid sheet form(Palusol) must be waterproofed to ensure longterm passive fireprotection.Standard, solid, bead form sodium silicates have been used asaggregate within silicone rubber to manufacture plastic pipe firestopdevices. The silicone rubber was insufficient waterproofing to preservethe intumescing function and the products had to be recalled, which isproblematic for firestops that are concealed behind drywall inbuildings.Pastes for caulking purposes are similarly unstable. This too hasresulted in recalls and even litigation. Only 3Ms "Expantrol" version,which has an external heat treatment that helps to seal the outersurface, as part of its process standard, has achieved sufficientlongevity to qualify for DIBt approvals in the US for use infirestoppingNot unlike other intumescents, sodium silicate, both in bead form andin liquid form are inherently endothermic, due to liquid water in thewater glass and hydrates in the prill form. The absence in the US ofmandatory aging tests, whereby PFP systems are made to undergosystem performance tests after the aging and humidity exposures, areat the root of the continued availability, in North America, of PFPproducts that can become inoperable within weeks of installation.Indiscriminate use of sodium silicates without proper waterproofingmeasures are contributors to the problems and risk. When sodiumsilicates are adequately protected, they function extremely well andreliably for long. Evidence of this can be seen in the many DIBtapprovals for plastic pipe firestop devices using Palusol, which usewaterproofed sodium silicate sheets.Refractory useWater glass is a useful binder of solids, such as vermiculite and perlite.When blended with the aforementioned lightweight aggregates, waterglass can be used to make hard, high-temperature insulation boardsused for refractories, passive fire protection and high temperatureinsulations, such as moulded pipe insulation applications. When mixedwith finely divided mineral powders, such as vermiculite dust (which iscommon scrap from the exfoliation process), one can produce high temperature adhesives. The intumescencedisappears in the presence of finely divided mineral dust, whereby the waterglass becomes a mere matrix.Waterglass is inexpensive and abundantly available, which makes its use popular in many refractory applications.Water treatmentFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium silicate 50Water glass is used as a water treatment in waste water treatment plants. Waterglass will bind to heavier moleculesand drag them out of the water.Detergent auxiliariesIt also can be used in detergent auxiliaries like complex sodium disilicate and modified sodium disilicate.Magic crystalsWater glass was used in the Magic rocks toys invented in 1940. When waterglass was combined with a selection ofdifferent metals in solution, the waterglass would cause the metals to precipitate. Each metal would precipitateseparately causing a different color stalagmite.An early mention of crystals of metallic salts forming a "chemical garden" in sodium silicate is found in the 1946Modern Mechanix magazine.[25]This results in very colorful gardens—much more than shown in the illustrations.In Europe the ingredients for such chemical gardens were available already around the early 1930s.Dye auxiliarySodium silicate solution is used as a fixative for hand dyeing with reactive dyes that require a high pH in order toreact with the textile fiber. After the dye is applied to a cellulose-based fabric, such as cotton or rayon, or onto silk, itis allowed to dry, after which the sodium silicate is painted on to the dyed fabric, covered with plastic to retainmoisture, and left to react for an hour at room temperature.[26]References[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=6834-92-0[2] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=10213-79-3[3] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=13517-24-3[4] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=23266[5] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=61495[6] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=22671001[7] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=61639[8] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=18931786[9] http://www.chemspider.com/21758[10] http://www.chemspider.com/55415[11] http://www.chemspider.com/55547[12] http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/index.php?GENRE=ECNO&ENTREE=229-912-9[13] http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2007/MB_cgi?mode=&term=Sodium+metasilicate[14] http://www.jtbaker.com/msds/englishhtml/s4970.htm[15] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Asodium_silicate?diff=cur&oldid=399962393[16] Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan. (1997), Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0080379419[17] Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications ISBN 0-19-855370-6[18] VonWagner, Rudolf (1892 translation of 13th edition by Willian Crookes) Manual of Chemical Technology (http://www.archive.org/details/manualchemicalt00croogoog)[19] ESIS: European chemical Substances Information System (http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/)[20] Helliker, Kevin. " The Killer App for Clunkers Breathes Fresh Life Into Liquid Glass (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124934376942503053.html#mod=loomia?loomia_si=t0:a16:g2:r5:c0.077553:b26935024)" The Wall Street Journal, 4 August 2009.[21] Engine Disablement Procedures for the CARS program (http://www.cars.gov/files/disposal-salvage/engine-disablement-procedures.pdf), cars.gov[22] Tom Kelley (August, 1995). "Making and Using Combustible Paper Pistol Cartridges" (http://www.civilwarguns.com/9508.html). .[23] Kirst, W.J. (1983). Self Consuming Paper Cartridges for the Percussion Revolver. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Northwest Development Co..[24] How To Store Fresh Eggs (http://www.motherearthnews.com/Livestock-and-Farming/1977-11-01/Can-You-Really-Store-Fresh-Eggs-a-Year-or-More-Without-Refrigeration.aspx)[25] "Magic garden" (http://blog.modernmechanix.com/2006/07/21/magic-garden/). Mechanix Illustrated: 88. April 1946. .[26] Burch, Paula (March 22, 2010). "Sodium silicate as a fixative for dyeing" (http://www.pburch.net/dyeing/FAQ/sodium_silicate.shtml). .Retrieved March 22, 2010.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium silicate 51External links• Centre Européen dEtudes des Silicates (http://www.cees-silicates.eu)• International Chemical Safety Card 1137 (http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc11/icsc1137.htm)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Potassium silicate 52Potassium silicatePotassium silicateIdentifiersCAS number 10006-28-7[1] PubChem 66200[2]ChemSpider 59585[3] EC number 233-001-1[4]PropertiesMolecular formula K2O3SiMolar mass 154.28 g mol−1Exact mass 153.889084121 g mol-1Appearance White crystalsHazardsEU classification Corrosive (C), Irritant (Xi)R-phrases R34, R37S-phrases (S1/2), S13, S24/25, S36/37/39, S45NFPA 704Related compoundsOther anions Potassium carbonatePotassium germanatePotassium stannatePotassium plumbateOther cations Sodium silicate(what is this?)   (verify)[5]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesPotassium silicate is a water-soluble and glass-forming silicate salt that is commonly used as an adhesive in weldingrods.This compound has been in use for at least a century.Rendering the woodwork of houses secure against catching fire can be done at an insignificant cost, and withlittle trouble. Saturate the woodwork with a very delicate solution of silicate of potash as nearly neutral aspossible, and when this has dried, apply one or two coats of a stronger solution."[6]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Potassium silicate 53In horticulture, potassium silicate is used as a soluble source of potassium and silicon. It also makes the growingmedium more alkaline.Some cleaning formulations use potassium silicate, which also serves as a corrosion inhibitor in cosmetics.[7]Formula is K2SiO3.References[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=10006-28-7[2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=66200[3] http://www.chemspider.com/59585[4] http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/index.php?GENRE=ECNO&ENTREE=233-001-1[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Apotassium_silicate?diff=cur&oldid=397292568[6] Cobleigh, Rolfe (1909). Handy Farm Devices and How to Make Them (http://www.journeytoforever.org/farm_library/device/devicesToC.html). New York: Orange Judd. .[7] Elmore AR (2005). "Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate" (http://ijt.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/24/1_suppl/103). Int. J. Toxicol. 24 (Suppl 1): 103–17. PMID 15981734. .FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Calcium silicate 54Calcium silicateCalcium silicate passive fire protection boardbeing clad around steel structure in order toachieve a fire-resistance rating.Calcium silicateIdentifiersCAS number 1344-95-2[1]  , 111811-33-7[2] hydrate  , 12168-85-3[3] calcium oxide PubChem 14941[4], 44154858[5] hydrate, 25523[6] calcium oxideChemSpider 14235[7]  , 23811[8] calcium oxide UNII S4255P4G5M[9] EC number 235-336-9[10]KEGG D03309[11] MeSH Calcium+silicate[12]ATC code A02 AC02[13]PropertiesMolecular formula Ca2O4SiMolar mass 172.24 g mol−1Exact mass 171.881767331 g mol-1Appearance White crystalsMelting point 1540 °C, 1813 K, 2804 °FHazardsFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Calcium silicate 55MSDS [14]Main hazards IrritantNFPA 704Flash point Not applicable(what is this?)   (verify)[15]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesCalcium silicate (often referred to by its shortened trade name Cal-Sil or Calsil) is the chemical compoundCa2SiO4, also known as calcium orthosilicate and sometimes formulated 2CaO.SiO2. It is one of group ofcompounds obtained by reacting calcium oxide and silica in various ratios[16]e.g. 3CaO.SiO2, Ca3SiO5; 2CaO.SiO2,Ca2SiO4; 3CaO.2SiO2, Ca3Si2O7and CaO.SiO2, CaSiO3. Calcium orthosilicate is a white powder with a low bulkdensity and high physical water absorption. It is used as an anti-caking agent and an antacid. A white free-flowingpowder derived from limestone and diatomaceous earth, calcium silicate has no known adverse effects to health. It isused in roads, insulation, bricks, roof tiles, table salt[17]and occurs in cements, where it is known as belite (or incement chemist notation C2S).High temperature insulationCalcium silicate is commonly used as a safe alternative to asbestos for high temperature insulation materials.Industrial grade piping and equipment insulation is often fabricated from calcium silicate. Its fabrication is a routinepart of the curriculum for insulation apprentices. Calcium silicate competes in these realms against rockwool as wellas proprietary insulation solids, such as perlite mixture and vermiculite bonded with sodium silicate. Although it ispopularly considered an asbestos substitute, early uses of calcium silicate for insulation still made use of asbestosfibers.Passive fire protectionCircuit integrity fireproofing of cable trays inLingen/Ems, Germany using calcium silicateboard system qualified to DIN 4102. Othermethods for exterior protection of electricalcircuits include boards made of sodium silicatebonded and pressed vermiculite and flexiblewraps made of ceramic fibre and rockwool.One of the most successful materials in fireproofing in Europe iscalcium silicate. Where North Americans use spray fireproofingplasters, Europeans are more likely to use cladding made of calciumsilicate. Calcium silicate is easily damaged by water. Therefore,silicone treated sheets are available to fabricators to mitigate potentialharm from high humidity or general presence of water. Fabricators andinstallers of calcium silicate in passive fire protection often also installfirestops.Calcium silicate in the steel industryIt is also a constituent of the slag that is produced when molten iron ismade from iron ore and calcium carbonate in a blast furnace.As a product of sealantsFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Calcium silicate 56When sodium silicate is applied as a sealant to cured concrete or the shells of fresh eggs, it chemically reacts withcalcium hydroxide or carbonate to form calcium silicate hydrate, sealing pores with a relatively impermeablematerial.References[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=1344-95-2[2] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=111811-33-7[3] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=12168-85-3[4] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=14941[5] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=44154858[6] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=25523[7] http://www.chemspider.com/14235[8] http://www.chemspider.com/23811[9] http://fdasis.nlm.nih.gov/srs/srsdirect.jsp?regno=S4255P4G5M[10] http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/index.php?GENRE=ECNO&ENTREE=235-336-9[11] http://www.kegg.jp/entry/D03309[12] http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2007/MB_cgi?mode=&term=Calcium+silicate[13] http://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/?code=A02AC02[14] http://www.bnzmaterials.com/msds/msds218.html[15] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Acalcium_silicate?diff=cur&oldid=387926039[16] H F W Taylor, Cement Chemistry, Academic Press, 1990, ISBN 0-12-683900-X, p 33-34[17] http://www.mortonsalt.com/faqs/food_salt_faq.html#q6FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Magnesium trisilicate 57Magnesium trisilicateMagnesium trisilicateIdentifiersCAS number 14987-04-3[1]?PubChem 5311266[2]ChemSpider 4470779[3] PropertiesMolecular formula Mg2O8Si3Molar mass 260.86 g mol−1Exact mass 259.860180371 g mol-1Appearance White crystalsOdor OdourlessHazardsR-phrases R36, R37, R38Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesMagnesium trisilicate is an inorganic compound that is used as a food additive. The additive is often employed byfast food chains to absorb fatty acids and remove impurities that form in edible oils during the frying process.Health effectsOn March 12, 2007, Chinese health authorities seized and halted the use of magnesium trisilicate at ShaanxiProvince KFC franchises, suspecting it to be a possible carcinogen.[4]Magnesium trisilicate can be used as an antacid in the treatment of peptic ulcers. It increases the pH of gastric juicevia a neutralisation reaction. It also precipitates colloidal silica, which can coat gastrointestinal mucosa conferringfurther protection.It can also be used in oral pharmaceutical formulations and food products as a glidant. It is also used therapeuticallyas an antacid, and also for the treatment of ciprofloxacin overdose or toxicity.References[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=14987-04-3[2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=5311266[3] http://www.chemspider.com/4470779[4] "Suspect additive found in KFC" (http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-03/12/content_5832793.htm). Xinhua News Agency. March12, 2007. .FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Talc 58TalcTalcA block of talcGeneralCategory Silicate mineralChemical formula Mg3Si4O10(OH)2IdentificationColor white, grey, green, blue, or silverCrystal habit foliated to fibrous massesCrystal system monoclinic or triclinic[1]Cleavage perfect basal cleavageFracture flat surfaces (not cleavage), fracture in an uneven patternTenacity sectileMohs scale hardness 1 (defining mineral)Luster waxlike or pearly, sometimes smoothStreak white to very pearly greenDiaphaneity translucentSpecific gravity 2.58 to 2.83Optical properties biaxial (-)Refractive index nα= 1.538 - 1.550nβ= 1.589 - 1.594nγ= 1.589 - 1.600Birefringence δ = 0.051Pleochroism weak in dark varietiesOther characteristics fluorescent, non-magnetic, non-radioactiveReferences [2] [3] [4]Talc (derived from the Persian tālk (‫کلات‬ ) via Arabic talk (‫))كلت‬ is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesiumsilicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. In loose form, it is the widely-used substanceknown as talcum powder. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses, its monoclinic crystals being so rare as to be almostunknown. It has a perfect basal cleavage, and the folia are non-elastic, although slightly flexible. It is very soft andsectile (can be cut with a knife); as the defining mineral for the value of 1 on Mohs hardness, it can be easilyFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Talc 59scratched by a fingernail. It has a specific gravity of 2.5–2.8, a clear or dusty luster, and is translucent to opaque.Talc is not soluble in water, but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. Its colour ranges from white to grey orgreen and it has a distinctly greasy feel. Its streak is white.Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc.FormationTalc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine,pyroxene, amphibole, olivine, in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. This is known as talc carbonation orsteatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates.Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation of serpentine, via the following reaction;serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water2Mg3Si2O5(OH)4+ 3CO2→ Mg3Si4O10(OH)2+ 3 MgCO3+ 3 H2OTalc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica, which is typical of skarnification of dolomitesvia silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles;dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide3CaMg(CO3)2+ 4 SiO2+ H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2+ 3 CaCO3+ 3 CO2Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via thefollowing metamorphic reaction:chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + waterIn this reaction, the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoringproduction of kyanite. This is typically associated with high-pressure, low-temperature minerals such as phengite,garnet, glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. Such rocks are typically white, friable, and fibrous, and areknown as whiteschist.Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral; its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite, but with magnesium in theoctahedral sites of the composite layers.[1]OccurrenceTalc output in 2005Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts whichcontain ultramafic rocks, such as soapstone (a high-talc rock), andwithin whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. Primeexamples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt ofthe western United States, the western European Alps especially inItaly, certain areas of the Musgrave Block, and some collisionalorogens such as the Himalayas which stretches along India,Nepal andPakistan. Talc carbonated ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons, notably the komatiite beltsof the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. Talc-carbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt,eastern Australia, from Brazil, the Guiana Shield, and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey, Oman and the Middle East.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Talc 60Pieces of talc from TrimounsNotable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine, WesternAustralia, formed upon a polydeformed, layered ultramafic intrusion. TheFrance-based Luzenac Group is the worlds largest supplier of mined talc; its largesttalc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400,000 tonnes oftalc per year, representing 8% of world production.[5]UsesTalcum powder.The structure of talc is composed of Si2O5sheets with magnesium sandwichedbetween sheets in octahedral sites.Talc is used in many industries such aspaper making, plastic, paint and coatings,rubber, food, electric cable,pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, ceramics, etc. Acoarse grayish-green high-talc rock issoapstone or steatite and has been used forstoves, sinks, electrical switchboards,crayons, soap, etc. It is often used forsurfaces of lab counter tops and electricalswitchboards because of its resistance toheat, electricity and acids. Talc finds use asa cosmetic (talcum powder), as a lubricant,and as a filler in paper manufacture. Talc isused in baby powder, an astringent powderused for preventing rashes on the areacovered by a diaper (see diaper rash). It isalso often used in basketball to keep aplayers hands dry. Most tailors chalk istalc, as is the chalk often used for welding ormetalworking.Talc is also used as food additive or inpharmaceutical products as a glidant. Inmedicine talc is used as a pleurodesis agentto prevent recurrent pleural effusion orpneumothorax. In the European Union theadditive number is E553b.Talc is widely used in the ceramics industry in both bodies and glazes. In low-fire artware bodies it impartswhiteness and increases thermal expansion to resist crazing. In stonewares, small percentages of talc are used to fluxthe body and therefore improve strength and vitrification. It is a source of MgO flux in high temperature glazes (tocontrol melting temperature). It is also employed as a matting agent in earthenware glazes and can be used toproduce magnesia mattes at high temperatures.ISO standard for quality (ISO 3262)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Talc 61Type Talc content min. wt% Loss on ignition at 1000 °C, wt % Solubility in HCl, max. wt %A 95 4 – 6.5 5B 90 4 – 9 10C 70 4 – 18 30D 50 4 – 27 30Patents are pending on the use of magnesium silicate as a cement substitute. Its production requirements are lessenergy-intensive than ordinary Portland cement at around 650 °C, while it absorbs far more carbon dioxide as ithardens. This results in a negative carbon footprint overall, as the cement removes 0.6 tonnes of CO2per tonne used.This contrasts with a carbon footprint of 0.4 tonne per tonne of conventional cement.[6]It is used as an additive for heroin, to expand volume and weight and thereby increase its street value. Withintravenous use, it may lead to talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation in the lungs.SafetyTalc powder is a household item, sold globally for use in personal hygiene and cosmetics and used by many millionsevery year. Some suspicions have been raised about the possibility its use promotes certain types of diseases, mainlycancers of the ovaries and lungs. This is not widely recognised as an established link.[7] [8]The studies reference, by subject: pulmonary issues,[9]lung cancer,[10] [11]skin cancer and ovarian cancer.[12]One ofthese, published in 1993, was a US National Toxicology Program report, which found that cosmetic grade talccontaining no asbestos-like fibres was correlated with tumour formation in rats (animal testing) forced to inhale talcfor 6 hours a day, five days a week over at least 113 weeks.[10]A 1971 paper found particles of talc embedded in75% of the ovarian tumors studied.[13]The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers talc (Magnesium Silicate) to be generally recognized assafe (GRAS) for use as an anti-caking agent in table salt in concentrations smaller than 2%.[14]References[1] An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals, second edition, by W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie, and J. Zussman, 1992, Prentice Hall, ISBN0-582-30094-0.[2] Handbook of Mineralogy (http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/talc.pdf)[3] Talc (http://www.mindat.org/min-3875.html) at Mindat.org[4] Talc (http://webmineral.com/data/Talc.shtml) at Webmineral[5] Luzenac Group report (2006). p.3. (French)[6] Revealed: The cement that eats carbon dioxide (http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/dec/31/cement-carbon-emissions) AlokJha, The Guardian, 31 December 2008[7] http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/healthyliving/cancercontroversies/talcum-powder/[8] http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerCauses/OtherCarcinogens/AtHome/talcum-powder-and-cancer[9] Hollinger, MA (1990). "Pulmonary toxicity of inhaled and intravenous talc". Toxicology letters 52 (2): 121–7; discussion 117–9.doi:10.1016/0378-4274(90)90145-C. PMID 2198684.[10] National Toxicology, Program (1993). "NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Talc (Non-Asbestiform) in Rats and Mice(Inhalation Studies)" (http://www.ntp.niehs.nih.gov/?objectid=0709BB4D-D4A2-78A0-F519C6ABAF22CDC1). National ToxicologyProgram technical report series 421: 1–287. PMID 12616290. .[11] NIOSH Worker Notification Program. Health effects of mining and milling talc. (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pgms/worknotify/Talc.html). . (historical)[12] Harlow, Cramer, Bell, et al (1992). "Perineal exposure to talc and ovarian cancer risk". Obstetrics and gynecology 80 (1): 19–26.PMID 1603491.[13] Henderson WJ, Joslin CA, Turnbull AC, Griffiths K (1971). "Talc and carcinoma of the ovary and cervix". J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw78 (3): 266–272. PMID 5558843.[14] "Code of Federal Regulations" (http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=182.2437). U.S. Foodand Drug Administration. 2009. .FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Talc 62External links• mineral.galleries.com (http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/talc/talc.htm)Talcum powderTalcA block of talcGeneralCategory Silicate mineralChemical formula Mg3Si4O10(OH)2IdentificationColor white, grey, green, blue, or silverCrystal habit foliated to fibrous massesCrystal system monoclinic or triclinic[1]Cleavage perfect basal cleavageFracture flat surfaces (not cleavage), fracture in an uneven patternTenacity sectileMohs scale hardness 1 (defining mineral)Luster waxlike or pearly, sometimes smoothStreak white to very pearly greenDiaphaneity translucentSpecific gravity 2.58 to 2.83Optical properties biaxial (-)Refractive index nα= 1.538 - 1.550nβ= 1.589 - 1.594nγ= 1.589 - 1.600Birefringence δ = 0.051Pleochroism weak in dark varietiesOther characteristics fluorescent, non-magnetic, non-radioactiveReferences [2] [3] [4]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Talcum powder 63Talc (derived from the Persian tālk (‫کلات‬ ) via Arabic talk (‫))كلت‬ is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesiumsilicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. In loose form, it is the widely-used substanceknown as talcum powder. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses, its monoclinic crystals being so rare as to be almostunknown. It has a perfect basal cleavage, and the folia are non-elastic, although slightly flexible. It is very soft andsectile (can be cut with a knife); as the defining mineral for the value of 1 on Mohs hardness, it can be easilyscratched by a fingernail. It has a specific gravity of 2.5–2.8, a clear or dusty luster, and is translucent to opaque.Talc is not soluble in water, but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. Its colour ranges from white to grey orgreen and it has a distinctly greasy feel. Its streak is white.Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc.FormationTalc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine,pyroxene, amphibole, olivine, in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. This is known as talc carbonation orsteatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates.Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation of serpentine, via the following reaction;serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water2Mg3Si2O5(OH)4+ 3CO2→ Mg3Si4O10(OH)2+ 3 MgCO3+ 3 H2OTalc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica, which is typical of skarnification of dolomitesvia silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles;dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide3CaMg(CO3)2+ 4 SiO2+ H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2+ 3 CaCO3+ 3 CO2Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via thefollowing metamorphic reaction:chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + waterIn this reaction, the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoringproduction of kyanite. This is typically associated with high-pressure, low-temperature minerals such as phengite,garnet, glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. Such rocks are typically white, friable, and fibrous, and areknown as whiteschist.Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral; its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite, but with magnesium in theoctahedral sites of the composite layers.[1]OccurrenceTalc output in 2005Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts whichcontain ultramafic rocks, such as soapstone (a high-talc rock), andwithin whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. Primeexamples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt ofthe western United States, the western European Alps especially inItaly, certain areas of the Musgrave Block, and some collisionalorogens such as the Himalayas which stretches along India,Nepal andPakistan. Talc carbonated ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons, notably the komatiite beltsof the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. Talc-carbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt,eastern Australia, from Brazil, the Guiana Shield, and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey, Oman and the Middle East.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Talcum powder 64Pieces of talc from TrimounsNotable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine, WesternAustralia, formed upon a polydeformed, layered ultramafic intrusion. TheFrance-based Luzenac Group is the worlds largest supplier of mined talc; its largesttalc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400,000 tonnes oftalc per year, representing 8% of world production.[5]UsesTalcum powder.The structure of talc is composed of Si2O5sheets with magnesium sandwichedbetween sheets in octahedral sites.Talc is used in many industries such aspaper making, plastic, paint and coatings,rubber, food, electric cable,pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, ceramics, etc. Acoarse grayish-green high-talc rock issoapstone or steatite and has been used forstoves, sinks, electrical switchboards,crayons, soap, etc. It is often used forsurfaces of lab counter tops and electricalswitchboards because of its resistance toheat, electricity and acids. Talc finds use asa cosmetic (talcum powder), as a lubricant,and as a filler in paper manufacture. Talc isused in baby powder, an astringent powderused for preventing rashes on the areacovered by a diaper (see diaper rash). It isalso often used in basketball to keep aplayers hands dry. Most tailors chalk istalc, as is the chalk often used for welding ormetalworking.Talc is also used as food additive or inpharmaceutical products as a glidant. Inmedicine talc is used as a pleurodesis agentto prevent recurrent pleural effusion orpneumothorax. In the European Union theadditive number is E553b.Talc is widely used in the ceramics industry in both bodies and glazes. In low-fire artware bodies it impartswhiteness and increases thermal expansion to resist crazing. In stonewares, small percentages of talc are used to fluxthe body and therefore improve strength and vitrification. It is a source of MgO flux in high temperature glazes (tocontrol melting temperature). It is also employed as a matting agent in earthenware glazes and can be used toproduce magnesia mattes at high temperatures.ISO standard for quality (ISO 3262)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Talcum powder 65Type Talc content min. wt% Loss on ignition at 1000 °C, wt % Solubility in HCl, max. wt %A 95 4 – 6.5 5B 90 4 – 9 10C 70 4 – 18 30D 50 4 – 27 30Patents are pending on the use of magnesium silicate as a cement substitute. Its production requirements are lessenergy-intensive than ordinary Portland cement at around 650 °C, while it absorbs far more carbon dioxide as ithardens. This results in a negative carbon footprint overall, as the cement removes 0.6 tonnes of CO2per tonne used.This contrasts with a carbon footprint of 0.4 tonne per tonne of conventional cement.[6]It is used as an additive for heroin, to expand volume and weight and thereby increase its street value. Withintravenous use, it may lead to talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation in the lungs.SafetyTalc powder is a household item, sold globally for use in personal hygiene and cosmetics and used by many millionsevery year. Some suspicions have been raised about the possibility its use promotes certain types of diseases, mainlycancers of the ovaries and lungs. This is not widely recognised as an established link.[7] [8]The studies reference, by subject: pulmonary issues,[9]lung cancer,[10] [11]skin cancer and ovarian cancer.[12]One ofthese, published in 1993, was a US National Toxicology Program report, which found that cosmetic grade talccontaining no asbestos-like fibres was correlated with tumour formation in rats (animal testing) forced to inhale talcfor 6 hours a day, five days a week over at least 113 weeks.[10]A 1971 paper found particles of talc embedded in75% of the ovarian tumors studied.[13]The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers talc (Magnesium Silicate) to be generally recognized assafe (GRAS) for use as an anti-caking agent in table salt in concentrations smaller than 2%.[14]References[1] An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals, second edition, by W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie, and J. Zussman, 1992, Prentice Hall, ISBN0-582-30094-0.[2] Handbook of Mineralogy (http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/talc.pdf)[3] Talc (http://www.mindat.org/min-3875.html) at Mindat.org[4] Talc (http://webmineral.com/data/Talc.shtml) at Webmineral[5] Luzenac Group report (2006). p.3. (French)[6] Revealed: The cement that eats carbon dioxide (http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/dec/31/cement-carbon-emissions) AlokJha, The Guardian, 31 December 2008[7] http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/healthyliving/cancercontroversies/talcum-powder/[8] http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerCauses/OtherCarcinogens/AtHome/talcum-powder-and-cancer[9] Hollinger, MA (1990). "Pulmonary toxicity of inhaled and intravenous talc". Toxicology letters 52 (2): 121–7; discussion 117–9.doi:10.1016/0378-4274(90)90145-C. PMID 2198684.[10] National Toxicology, Program (1993). "NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Talc (Non-Asbestiform) in Rats and Mice(Inhalation Studies)" (http://www.ntp.niehs.nih.gov/?objectid=0709BB4D-D4A2-78A0-F519C6ABAF22CDC1). National ToxicologyProgram technical report series 421: 1–287. PMID 12616290. .[11] NIOSH Worker Notification Program. Health effects of mining and milling talc. (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pgms/worknotify/Talc.html). . (historical)[12] Harlow, Cramer, Bell, et al (1992). "Perineal exposure to talc and ovarian cancer risk". Obstetrics and gynecology 80 (1): 19–26.PMID 1603491.[13] Henderson WJ, Joslin CA, Turnbull AC, Griffiths K (1971). "Talc and carcinoma of the ovary and cervix". J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw78 (3): 266–272. PMID 5558843.[14] "Code of Federal Regulations" (http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=182.2437). U.S. Foodand Drug Administration. 2009. .FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Talcum powder 66External links• mineral.galleries.com (http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/talc/talc.htm)Aluminium silicateAluminium silicate (or aluminum silicate) has the chemical formula Al2(SiO3)3. It has a density of 2.8 to 2.9g/cm³, a vitreous lustre, a refractive index of 1.56, a Mohs hardness of 4.5-7.5 (depending upon structure), and canhave orthorhombic crystallography.[1]It is insoluble and used as a refractory in glassmaking.Minerals composed of aluminium silicate include• Andalusite• Sillimanite (or Bucholzite)• KyaniteThese all have the same chemical composition but are polymorphic, having different crystalline structures.Aluminium silicate is considered to be fireproof for the purposes of building and insulation.References[1] "Reade Advanced Materials offers: Aluminum Silicate Powder" (http://www.reade.com/en/Products/Minerals-and-Ores/Aluminum-Silicate-Powder.html). . Retrieved 2006-11-16.Calcium aluminosilicateCalcium aluminosilicate, an aluminosilicate compound with calcium cations, most typically has formulaCaAl2Si2O8.As a food additive, it is sometimes designated "E556".In minerals, as a feldspar, it can be found as anorthite, an end-member of the plagioclase series.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Potassium aluminium silicate 67Potassium aluminium silicateOptical properties - MicroclineMicrocline feldsparCrystal System: TriclinicColor in PPL: ColorlessPleochroism: N/AHabit/Shape: Can be anhedral or euhedral. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance. May contain lamellae which formedfrom exsolved albite.Relief: Low negative reliefCleavage/FractureHabit:Has perfect cleavage parallel to {001} and good cleavage on {010}. Cleavages intersect at 90°41. It can be difficult to seecleavage in thin section due to microclines low relief.Twinning: Typically displays albite twinning and pericline twinning. This combination leads to a grid pattern, hence microclinedisplays gridiron twinning. Can also display carlsbad twinning, simple twins, or lack twinning altogether. Lamellae inmicrocline are discontinuous and "pinch and swell."Photomicrograph of thin section of microcline showingcrosshatched crystal twinning (in cross polarised light)Refractive Index: nα = 1.514 - 1.529 nβ = 1.518 - 1.533 nγ = 1.521 - 1.539FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Potassium aluminium silicate 68Birefringence: Up to first order white (roughly 0.007)ExtinctionHabit/Angle:Inclined extinction to cleavageLength Slow/Fast: N/AOptic Sign: Biaxial negative2Vx: 65-88°Alteration: Commonly alters to sericite or clay.DistinguishingCharacteristics:Gridiron twinning distinguishes microcline from other feldspars. Distinguishable from plagioclase because the lamellae inplagioclase are continuous and do not "pinch and swell."Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. It is a potassium-rich alkalifeldspar. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. It is common in granite and pegmatites.Microcline forms during slow cooling of orthoclase; it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. Sanidineis a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. Microcline may be clear, white, pale-yellow,brick-red, or green; it is generally characterized by cross-hatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformationof monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline.Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase, but because it belongs to the triclinic crystalsystem, the prism angle is slightly less than right angles; hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope."It is a fully ordered triclinic modification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. Microcline isidentical to orthoclase in many physical properties; it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination; viewedunder a polarizing microscope, microcline exhibits a minute multiple twinning which forms a grating-like structurethat is unmistakable.Feldspar (Amazonite)Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae ofexsolved albite.Amazon stone, or amazonite, is a beautiful green variety of microcline.It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin, however. Spanishexplorers who named it apparently confused it with another greenmineral from that region.The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found inDevils Hole Beryl Mine, Colorado, US and measured ~50x36x14 m.This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far.[1]References[1] P. C. Rickwood (1981). "The largest crystals" (http://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM66/AM66_885.pdf). American Mineralogist 66:885–907. .• Alkali feldspars U. Texas (http://www.tmm.utexas.edu/npl/mineralogy/Science_of_Minerals/AlkalFfeldsparSeries.htm)• Mindat (http://www.mindat.org/min-2704.html)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium aluminosilicate 69Sodium aluminosilicateSodium aluminosilicate refers to compounds which contain of sodium, aluminium, silicon and oxygen, and whichmay also contain water. These include synthetic amorphous sodium aluminosilicate, a few naturally occurringminerals and synthetic zeolites. Synthetic amorphous sodium aluminosilicate is widely used as a food additive,E-554.Amorphous sodium aluminosilicateThis substance ( CAS 1344-00-9) is produced with a wide range of compositions and has many differentapplications. It is encountered as an additive E-554 in food where it acts as an anticaking (free flow) agent.As it is manufactured with a range of compositions (see [1] and so is not strictly a chemical compound with a fixedstoichiometry, one supplier ( [2] ) quotes a typical analysis for one of their products as 14SiO2.Al2O3.Na2O.3H2O,(Na2Al2Si14O32.3H2O).Sodium aluminosilicate may also be listed as:• aluminium sodium salt,• sodium silicoaluminate,• aluminosilicic acid, sodium salt,• sodium aluminium silicate,• aluminum sodium silicate• sodium silico aluminate• sasilMineralsNaturally occurring minerals which are sometimes given the chemical name, sodium aluminosilicate includeAlbite, NaAlSi3O8, an end-member of the plagioclase seriesJadeite NaAlSi2O6.Synthetic ZeolitesThese have complex structures and examples (with structural formulae) are:Na12Al12Si12O48.27H2O, zeolite A ( Linde type A sodium form, NaA) which is used in laundry detergents.[3]Na16Al16Si32O96.16H2O, Analcime, IUPAC code ANA.[3]Na12Al12Si12O48·q H2O Losod[4]Na384Al384Si384O1536.518H2O, Linde type NReferences[1] http://www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/oecdsids/Silicates.pdf[2] http://www.rhodia-silicas.com/markets/datasheets/T17.pdf[3] Alan Dyer, (1994),Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry, ed R. Bruce King, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0471936200[4] Formation and Properties of Losod, a New Sodium Zeolite, Werner Sieber, Walter M. Meie Helvetica Chimica Acta, Volume 57 Issue 6,Pages 1533 – 1549, 10.1002/hlca.19740570608FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium metasilicate 70Sodium metasilicateE550 redirects here. For the Italian locomotive, see FS Class E550Sodium metasilicateIdentifiersAbbreviations E550CAS number 6834-92-0[1]  , 10213-79-3[2] pentahydrate  , 13517-24-3[3] nonahydrate PubChem 23266[4], 61495[5] pentahydrate, 22671001[6] octahydrate, 61639[7] nonahydrate, 18931786[8] decahydrateChemSpider 21758[9]  , 55415[10] pentahydrate  , 55547[11] nonahydrate EC number 229-912-9[12]UN number 3253MeSH Sodium+metasilicate[13]RTECS number VV9275000PropertiesMolecular formula Na2O3SiMolar mass 122.06 g mol−1Exact mass 121.941209749 g mol-1Appearance White crystalsDensity 2.4 g cm-3Melting point 1088 °C (anhydrous)72.2 °C (pentahydrate)Solubility in water SolubleRefractive index (nD) 1.52 (anhydrous)1.456 (pentahydrate)ThermochemistryStd enthalpy offormation ΔfHo298−1519 kJ/molStandard molarentropy So298113.8 J K−1mol−1HazardsMSDS Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc.[14]EU Index 014-010-00-8FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium metasilicate 71EU classification Corrosive (C)R-phrases R34, R37S-phrases (S1/2), S13, S24/25, S36/37/39, S45NFPA 704Related compoundsOther anions Sodium carbonateSodium germanateSodium stannateSodium plumbateOther cations Potassium silicate(what is this?)   (verify)[1]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesSodium silicate is the common name for a compound sodium metasilicate, Na2SiO3, also known as water glass orliquid glass. It is available in aqueous solution and in solid form and is used in cements, passive fire protection,refractories, textile and lumber processing, and automobiles. Sodium carbonate and silicon dioxide react whenmolten to form sodium silicate and carbon dioxide:[2]Na2CO3+ SiO2→ Na2SiO3+ CO2Anhydrous sodium silicate contains a chain polymeric anion composed of corner shared {SiO4} tetrahedral, and nota discrete SiO32−ion.[2]In addition to the anhydrous form, there are hydrates with the formula Na2SiO3·nH2O(where n = 5, 6, 8, 9) which contain the discrete, approximately tetrahedral anion SiO2(OH)22−with water ofhydration. For example, the commercially available sodium silicate pentahydrate Na2SiO3·5H2O is formulated asNa2SiO2(OH)2·4H2O and the nonahydrate Na2SiO3·9H2O is formulated as Na2SiO2(OH)2·8H2O.[3]HistoryWater Glass was defined in Von Wagners Manual of Chemical Technology (1892 translation) as any of the solublealkaline silicates, first observed by Van Helmont in 1640 as a fluid substance made by melting sand with excessalkali. Glauber made what he termed "fluid silica" in 1648 from potash and silica. Von Fuchs, in 1825, obtainedwhat is now known as water glass by treating silicic acid with an alkali, the result being soluble in water, "but notaffected by atmospheric changes".[4]Von Wagner distinguished soda, potash, double(soda and potash), and fixin astypes of water glass. The fixing type was "a mixture of silica well saturated with potash water glass and a sodiumsilicate" used to stabilize inorganic water color pigments on cement work for outdoor signs and murals.PropertiesSodium silicate is a white powder that is readily soluble in water, producing an alkaline solution. It is one of anumber of related compounds which include sodium orthosilicate, Na4SiO4, sodium pyrosilicate, Na6Si2O7, andothers. All are glassy, colourless and dissolve in water.Sodium silicate is stable in neutral and alkaline solutions. In acidic solutions, the silicate ion reacts with hydrogenions to form silicic acid, which when heated and roasted forms silica gel, a hard, glassy substance.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium metasilicate 72CAS registry number and EINECS numberEach and every substance has its own unique CAS registry number and EINECS number. The CAS No. andEINECS No. of sodium silicate and other related substances are:[5]Substance Name CAS# EC#(EINECS No.)Silicic acid, sodium salt 1344-09-8 239-981-7disodium metasilicate 6834-92-0 229-912-9Sodium silicate 15859-24-2 215-687-4UsesMetal repairSodium silicate is used, along with magnesium silicate, in muffler repair and fitting paste. When dissolved in water,both sodium silicate, and magnesium silicate form a thick paste that is easy to apply. When the exhaust system of aninternal combustion engine heats up to its operating temperature, the heat drives out all of the excess water from thepaste. The silicate compounds that are left over have glass-like properties, making a temporary, brittle repair.Automotive repairSodium silicate can be used to seal leaks at the head gasket. A common use is when an alloy cylinder head engine isleft sitting for extended periods or the coolant is not changed at proper intervals, electrolysis can "eat out" sections ofthe head causing the gasket to fail.Rather than remove the cylinder head, "liquid glass" is poured into the radiator and allowed to circulate. Thewaterglass is injected via the radiator water into the hotspot at the engine. This technique works because at 210–220°F the sodium silicate loses water molecules to form a very powerful sealant that will not re-melt below 1500 °F.A sodium silicate repair of a leaking head gasket can hold for up to two years and even longer in some cases. Theeffect will be almost instant, and steam from the radiator water will stop coming out the exhaust within minutes ofapplication. This repair only works with water-to-cylinder or water-to-air applications and where the sodium silicatereaches the "conversion" temperature of 210–220 °F.Car engine disablementSodium silicate solution is used to inexpensively, quickly, and permanently disable automobile engines. Running anengine with two quarts of a sodium silicate solution instead of motor oil causes the solution to precipitate,catastrophically damaging the engines bearings and pistons within a few minutes.[6]In the United States, thisprocedure is required by the Car Allowance Rebate System (CARS) program.[6] [7]AdhesiveOne common example of its use as a paper cement was for producing paper cartridges for black powder revolversproduced by Colts Manufacturing Company during the period from 1851 until 1873, especially during the AmericanCivil War. Sodium silicate was used to seal combustible nitrated paper together to form a conical paper cartridge tohold the black powder, as well as to cement the lead ball or conical bullet into the open end of the paper cartridge.Such sodium silicate cemented paper cartridges were inserted into the cylinders of revolvers, thereby speeding thereloading of cap and ball black powder revolvers. This use largely ended with the introduction of Colt revolversemploying brass-cased cartridges starting in 1873.[8] [9]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium metasilicate 73When used as a paper cement, the tendency is for the sodium silicate joint eventually to crack within a few years, atwhich point it no longer holds the paper surfaces cemented together.AquacultureSodium silicate gel is also used as a substrate algal growth in aquaculture hatcheries.Food preservationSodium silicate was also used as an egg preservation agent in the early 20th century with large success. When fresheggs are immersed in it, bacteria which cause the eggs to spoil are kept out and water is kept in. Eggs can be keptfresh using this method for up to nine months. When boiling eggs preserved this way, it is well advised to pin-prickthe egg to allow steam to escape because the shell is no longer porous.[10]Drilling fluidsSodium silicate, also known as waterglass, is frequently used in drilling fluids to stabilize borehole wells and toavoid the collapse of bore walls. It is particularly useful when drill holes pass through argillaceous formationscontaining swelling clay minerals such as smectite or montmorillonite.Concrete and general masonry treatmentConcrete treated with a sodium silicate solution helps to significantly reduce porosity in most masonry products suchas concrete, stucco, plasters. A chemical reaction occurs with the excess Ca(OH)2(portlandite) present in theconcrete that permanently binds the silicates with the surface making them far more wearable and water repellent. Itis generally advised to apply this treatment only after the initial cure has taken place (7 days or so depending onconditions). These coatings are known as silicate mineral paint.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium metasilicate 74Passive fire protection (PFP)Expantrol proprietary sodium silicate suspendedin 1/4" thick layer of red rubber, type 3M FS195,inserted into a metal pipe, then heated, todemonstrate hard char intumescence, strongenough to shut a melting plastic pipe.Palusol based intumescent plastic pipe deviceused for commercial firestopping.Sodium silicates are inherently intumescent. They come in prill (solidbeads) form, as well as the liquid, water glass. The solid sheet form(Palusol) must be waterproofed to ensure longterm passive fireprotection.Standard, solid, bead form sodium silicates have been used asaggregate within silicone rubber to manufacture plastic pipe firestopdevices. The silicone rubber was insufficient waterproofing to preservethe intumescing function and the products had to be recalled, which isproblematic for firestops that are concealed behind drywall inbuildings.Pastes for caulking purposes are similarly unstable. This too hasresulted in recalls and even litigation. Only 3Ms "Expantrol" version,which has an external heat treatment that helps to seal the outersurface, as part of its process standard, has achieved sufficientlongevity to qualify for DIBt approvals in the US for use infirestoppingNot unlike other intumescents, sodium silicate, both in bead form andin liquid form are inherently endothermic, due to liquid water in thewater glass and hydrates in the prill form. The absence in the US ofmandatory aging tests, whereby PFP systems are made to undergosystem performance tests after the aging and humidity exposures, areat the root of the continued availability, in North America, of PFPproducts that can become inoperable within weeks of installation.Indiscriminate use of sodium silicates without proper waterproofingmeasures are contributors to the problems and risk. When sodiumsilicates are adequately protected, they function extremely well andreliably for long. Evidence of this can be seen in the many DIBtapprovals for plastic pipe firestop devices using Palusol, which usewaterproofed sodium silicate sheets.Refractory useWater glass is a useful binder of solids, such as vermiculite and perlite.When blended with the aforementioned lightweight aggregates, waterglass can be used to make hard, high-temperature insulation boardsused for refractories, passive fire protection and high temperatureinsulations, such as moulded pipe insulation applications. When mixedwith finely divided mineral powders, such as vermiculite dust (which iscommon scrap from the exfoliation process), one can produce high temperature adhesives. The intumescencedisappears in the presence of finely divided mineral dust, whereby the waterglass becomes a mere matrix.Waterglass is inexpensive and abundantly available, which makes its use popular in many refractory applications.Water treatmentFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium metasilicate 75Water glass is used as a water treatment in waste water treatment plants. Waterglass will bind to heavier moleculesand drag them out of the water.Detergent auxiliariesIt also can be used in detergent auxiliaries like complex sodium disilicate and modified sodium disilicate.Magic crystalsWater glass was used in the Magic rocks toys invented in 1940. When waterglass was combined with a selection ofdifferent metals in solution, the waterglass would cause the metals to precipitate. Each metal would precipitateseparately causing a different color stalagmite.An early mention of crystals of metallic salts forming a "chemical garden" in sodium silicate is found in the 1946Modern Mechanix magazine.[11]This results in very colorful gardens—much more than shown in the illustrations.In Europe the ingredients for such chemical gardens were available already around the early 1930s.Dye auxiliarySodium silicate solution is used as a fixative for hand dyeing with reactive dyes that require a high pH in order toreact with the textile fiber. After the dye is applied to a cellulose-based fabric, such as cotton or rayon, or onto silk, itis allowed to dry, after which the sodium silicate is painted on to the dyed fabric, covered with plastic to retainmoisture, and left to react for an hour at room temperature.[12]References[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Asodium_metasilicate?diff=cur&oldid=399962393[2] Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan. (1997), Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0080379419[3] Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications ISBN 0-19-855370-6[4] VonWagner, Rudolf (1892 translation of 13th edition by Willian Crookes) Manual of Chemical Technology (http://www.archive.org/details/manualchemicalt00croogoog)[5] ESIS: European chemical Substances Information System (http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/)[6] Helliker, Kevin. " The Killer App for Clunkers Breathes Fresh Life Into Liquid Glass (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124934376942503053.html#mod=loomia?loomia_si=t0:a16:g2:r5:c0.077553:b26935024)" The Wall Street Journal, 4 August 2009.[7] Engine Disablement Procedures for the CARS program (http://www.cars.gov/files/disposal-salvage/engine-disablement-procedures.pdf),cars.gov[8] Tom Kelley (August, 1995). "Making and Using Combustible Paper Pistol Cartridges" (http://www.civilwarguns.com/9508.html). .[9] Kirst, W.J. (1983). Self Consuming Paper Cartridges for the Percussion Revolver. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Northwest Development Co..[10] How To Store Fresh Eggs (http://www.motherearthnews.com/Livestock-and-Farming/1977-11-01/Can-You-Really-Store-Fresh-Eggs-a-Year-or-More-Without-Refrigeration.aspx)[11] "Magic garden" (http://blog.modernmechanix.com/2006/07/21/magic-garden/). Mechanix Illustrated: 88. April 1946. .[12] Burch, Paula (March 22, 2010). "Sodium silicate as a fixative for dyeing" (http://www.pburch.net/dyeing/FAQ/sodium_silicate.shtml). .Retrieved March 22, 2010.External links• Centre Européen dEtudes des Silicates (http://www.cees-silicates.eu)• International Chemical Safety Card 1137 (http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc11/icsc1137.htm)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Silicon dioxide 76Silicon dioxideSilicon dioxideIdentifiersCAS number 7631-86-9[1] (anhydrate) PubChem 24261[2] (anhydrate)  , 11521065[3] (18O2),(anhydrate)  , 190201[4] (monohydrate) ChemSpider 22683[5] (anhydrate)  , 165185[6] (monohydrate) UNII ETJ7Z6XBU4[7] EC number 231-545-4[8]KEGG C16459[9] MeSH Silicon+dioxide[10]ChEBI CHEBI:30563[11] RTECS number VV7565000Gmelin Reference 200274PropertiesMolecular formula SiO2Molar mass 60.0843 g/molAppearance white powderDensity 2.634 g/cm3Melting point 1650(±75) °CBoiling point 2230 °CSolubility in water 0.012 g/100 mLRelated compoundsOther anions Silicon sulfideOther cations Carbon dioxideGermanium dioxideTin dioxideLead dioxideRelated silicon oxides Silicon monoxideRelated compounds Silicic acid"Silica gel"FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Silicon dioxide 77(what is this?)   (verify)[12]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesThe chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with achemical formula of SiO2and has been known for its hardness since antiquity. Silica is most commonly found innature as sand or quartz, as well as in the cell walls of diatoms.[13] [14]Silica is manufactured in several forms including fused quartz, crystal, fumed silica (or pyrogenic silica, trademarkedAerosil or Cab-O-Sil), colloidal silica, silica gel, and aerogel. In addition, silica nanosprings are produced by thevapor-liquid-solid method at temperatures as low as 350°C.[15]Silica is used primarily in the production of glass for windows, drinking glasses, beverage bottles, and many otheruses. The majority of optical fibers for telecommunications are also made from silica. It is a primary raw material formany whiteware ceramics such as earthenware, stoneware, porcelain, as well as industrial Portland cement.Silica is common additive in the production of foods, where it is used primarily as a flow agent in powdered foods,or to absorb water in hygroscopic applications. It is the primary component of diatomaceous earth which has manyuses ranging from filtration to insect control. It is also the primary component of rice husk ash which is used, forexample, in filtration and cement manufacturing.Thin films of silica grown on silicon wafers via thermal oxidation methods can be quite beneficial inmicroelectronics, where they act as electric insulators with high chemical stability. In electrical applications, it canprotect the silicon, store charge, block current, and even act as a controlled pathway to limit current flow.A silica-based aerogel was used in the Stardust spacecraft to collect extraterrestrial particles. Silica is also used in theextraction of DNA and RNA due to its ability to bind to the nucleic acids under the presence of chaotropes. Ashydrophobic silica it is used as a defoamer component. In hydrated form, it is used in toothpaste as a hard abrasive toremove tooth plaque.In its capacity as a refractory, it is useful in fiber form as a high-temperature thermal protection fabric. In cosmetics,it is useful for its light-diffusing properties and natural absorbency. Colloidal silica is used as a wine and juice finingagent. In pharmaceutical products, silica aids powder flow when tablets are formed. Finally, it is used as a thermalenhancement compound in ground source heat pump industry.Crystal structureTetrahedral structural unit of silica(SiO4), the basic building block of themost ideal glass former.In the vast majority of silicates, the Si atom shows tetrahedral coordination,with 4 oxygen atoms surrounding a central Si atom. The most commonexample is seen in the quartz crystalline form of silica SiO2. In each of themost thermodynamically stable crystalline forms of silica, on average, all 4 ofthe vertices (or oxygen atoms) of the SiO4tetrahedra are shared with others,yielding the net chemical formula: SiO2.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Silicon dioxide 78The amorphous structure of glassy silica (SiO2) intwo-dimensions. No long-range order is present,however there is local ordering with respect to thetetrahedral arrangement of oxygen (O) atomsaround the silicon (Si) atoms. Note that a fourthoxygen atom is bonded to each silicon atom,either behind the plane of the screen or in front ofit; these atoms are omitted for clarity.Relation between refractive index and density forsome SiO2forms.[16]For example, in the unit cell of alpha-quartz, the central tetrahedronshares all 4 of its corner O atoms, the 2 face-centered tetrahedra share 2of their corner O atoms, and the 4 edge-centered terahedra share justone of their O atoms with other SiO4tetrahedra. This leaves a netaverage of 12 out of 24 total vertices for that portion of the 7 SiO4tetrahedra which are considered to be a part of the unit cell for silica(see 3-D Unit Cell[17]).SiO2has a number of distinct crystalline forms (polymorphs) inaddition to amorphous forms. With the exception of stishovite andfibrous silica, all of the crystalline forms involve tetrahedral SiO4unitslinked together by shared vertices in different arrangements.Silicon-oxygen bond lengths vary between the different crystal forms,for example in α-quartz the bond length is 161 pm, whereas inα-tridymite it is in the range 154–171 pm. The Si-O-Si angle alsovaries between a low value of 140° in α-tridymite, up to 180° inβ-tridymite. In α-quartz the Si-O-Si angle is 144°.[18]Fibrous silica has a structure similar to that of SiS2with chains ofedge-sharing SiO4tetrahedra. Stishovite, the higher pressure form, incontrast has a rutile like structure where silicon is 6 coordinate. Thedensity of stishovite is 4.287 g/cm3, which compares to α-quartz, thedensest of the low pressure forms, which has a density of 2.648g/cm3.[19]The difference in density can be ascribed to the increase incoordination as the six shortest Si-O bond lengths in stishovite (fourSi-O bond lengths of 176 pm and two others of 181 pm) are greaterthan the Si-O bond length (161 pm) in α-quartz.[20]The change in thecoordination increases the ionicity of the Si-O bond.[21]But moreimportant is the observation that any deviations from these standardparameters constitute microstructural differences or variations whichrepresent an approach to an amorphous, vitreous or glassy solid.Note that the only stable form under normal conditions is α-quartz and this is the form in which crystalline silicondioxide is usually encountered. In nature impurities in crystalline α-quartz can give rise to colors (see list).Note also that both high temperature minerals, cristobalite and tridymite, have both a lower density and index ofrefraction than quartz. Since the composition is identical, the reason for the discrepancies must be in the increasedspacing in the high temperature minerals. As is common with many substances, the higher the temperature thefarther apart the atoms due to the increased vibration energy.The high pressure minerals, seifertite, stishovite, and coesite, on the other hand, have a higher density and index ofrefraction when compared to quartz. This is probably due to the intense compression of the atoms that must occurduring their formation, resulting in a more condensed structure.Faujasite silica is another form of crystalline silica. It is obtained by dealumination of a low-sodium, ultra-stable Yzeolite with a combined acid and thermal treatment. The resulting product contains over 99% silica, has highcrystallinity and high surface area (over 800 m2/g). Faujasite-silica has very high thermal and acid stability. Forexample, it maintains a high degree of long-range molecular order (or crystallinity) even after boiling in concentratedhydrochloric acid.[22]Molten silica exhibits several peculiar physical characteristics that are similar to the ones observed in liquid water:negative temperature expansion, density maximum, and a heat capacity minimum.[23]When molecular siliconFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Silicon dioxide 79monoxide, SiO, is condensed in an argon matrix cooled with helium along with oxygen atoms generated bymicrowave discharge, molecular SiO2is produced which has a linear structure. Dimeric silicon dioxide, (SiO2)2hasbeen prepared by reacting O2with matrix isolated dimeric silicon monoxide, (Si2O2). In dimeric silicon dioxide thereare two oxygen atoms bridging between the silicon atoms with an Si-O-Si angle of 94° and bond length of 164.6 pmand the terminal Si-O bond length is 150.2 pm. The Si-O bond length is 148.3 pm which compares with the length of161 pm in α-quartz. The bond energy is estimated at 621.7 kJ/mol.[24]Crystalline forms of SiO2[18]Form Crystal symmetryPearson symbol, group No.Notes Structureα-quartzrhombohedral (trigonal)hP9, P3121 No.152[25]Helical chains making individual single crystals optically active;α-quartz converts to β-quartz at 846 Kβ-quartzhexagonalhP18, P6222, No.180[26]closely related to α-quartz (with an Si-O-Si angle of 155°) andoptically active; β-quartz converts to β-tridymite at 1140 Kα-tridymiteorthorhombicoS24, C2221, No.20[27]metastable form under normal pressureβ-tridymitehexagonalhP12, P63/mmc, No. 194[27]closely related to α-tridymite; β-tridymite converts to β-cristobalite at2010 Kα-cristobalitetetragonaltP12, P41212, No. 92[28]metastable form under normal pressureβ-cristobalitecubiccF104, Fd3m, No.227[29]closely related to α-cristobalite; melts at 1978 KfaujasitecubiccF576, Fd3m, No.227[30]sodalite cages connected by hexagonal prisms; 12-membered ringpore opening; faujasite structure.[22]melanophlogitecubic (cP*, P4232, No.208)[16]ortetragonal (P42/nbc)[31]Si5O10, Si6O12rings; mineral always found with hydrocarbons ininterstitial spaces-a clathrasil[32]keatitetetragonaltP36, P41212, No. 92[33]Si5O10, Si4O14, Si8O16rings; synthesised from glassy silica and alkaliat 600–900K and 40–400 MPaFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Silicon dioxide 80moganitemonoclinicmS46, C2/c, No.15[34]Si4O8and Si6O12ringscoesitemonoclinicmS48, C2/c, No.15[35]Si4O8and Si8O16rings; 900 K and 3–3.5 GPastishoviteTetragonaltP6, P42/mnm, No.136[36]One of the densest (together with seifertite) polymorphs of silica;rutile-like with 6-fold coordinated Si; 7.5–8.5 GPapoststishoviteorthorhombicoP12, Pnc2, No.30[37]fibrousorthorhombicoI12, Ibam, No.72[38]like SiS2consisting of edge sharing chainsseifertiteorthorhombicoP, Pbcn[39]One of the densest (together with stishovite) polymorphs of silica; isproduced at pressures above 40 GPa.[40]Quartz glassWhen silicon dioxide SiO2is cooled rapidly enough, it does not crystallize but solidifies as a glass. The glasstransition temperature of pure SiO2is about 1600 K (1330 °C or 2420 °F). Like most of the crystalline polymorphsthe local atomic structure in pure silica glass is regular tetrahedra of oxygen atoms around silicon atoms. Thedifference between the glass and the crystals arises in the connectivity of these tetrahedral units. SiO2glass consistsof a non-repeating network of tetrahedra, where all the oxygen corners connect two neighbouring tetrahedra.Although there is no long range periodicity in the glassy network there remains significant ordering at length scaleswell beyond the SiO bond length. One example of this ordering is found in the preference of the network to formrings of 6-tetrahedra.[41]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Silicon dioxide 81ChemistryManufactured silica fume at maximum surfacearea of 380 m2/gSilicon dioxide is formed when silicon is exposed to oxygen (or air). Avery shallow layer (approximately 1 nm or 10 Å) of so-called nativeoxide is formed on the surface when silicon is exposed to air underambient conditions. Higher temperatures and alternative environmentsare used to grow well-controlled layers of silicon dioxide on silicon,for example at temperatures between 600 and 1200 °C, using so-calleddry or wet oxidation with O2or H2O, respectively.[42]The depth of thelayer of silicon replaced by the dioxide is 44% of the depth of thesilicon dioxide layer produced.[42]Alternative methods used to deposit a layer of SiO2include[43]• Low temperature oxidation (400–450 °C) of silaneSiH4+ 2 O2→ SiO2+ 2 H2O.• Decomposition of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) at 680–730 °CSi(OC2H5)4→ SiO2+ 2 H2O + 4 C2H4.• Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using TEOS at about400 °CSi(OC2H5)4+ 12 O2→ SiO2+ 10 H2O + 8 CO2.• Polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) at below 100 °C using amino acid as catalyst.[44]Pyrogenic silica (sometimes called fumed silica or silica fume), which is a very fine particulate form of silicondioxide, is prepared by burning SiCl4in an oxygen rich hydrocarbon flame to produce a "smoke" of SiO2:[19]SiCl4+ 2 H2+ O2→ SiO2+ 4 HCl.Amorphous silica, silica gel, is produced by the acidification of solutions of sodium silicate to produce a gelatinousprecipitate that is then washed and then dehydrated to produce colorless microporous silica.[19]Quartz exhibits a maximum solubility in water at temperatures about 340 °C.[45]This property is used to grow singlecrystals of quartz in a hydrothermal process where natural quartz is dissolved in superheated water in a pressurevessel which is cooler at the top. Crystals of 0.5–1 kg can be grown over a period of 1–2 months.[18]These crystalsare a source of very pure quartz for use in electronic applications.[19]Fluorine reacts with silicon dioxide to form SiF4and O2whereas the other halogen gases (Cl2, Br2, I2) react muchless readily.[19]Silicon dioxide is attacked by hydrofluoric acid (HF) to produce hexafluorosilicic acid:[18]SiO2+ 6 HF → H2SiF6+ 2 H2O.HF is used to remove or pattern silicon dioxide in the semiconductor industry.Silicon dioxide dissolves in hot concentrated alkali or fused hydroxide:[19]SiO2+ 2 NaOH → Na2SiO3+ H2O.Silicon dioxide reacts with basic metal oxides (e.g. sodium oxide, potassium oxide, lead(II) oxide, zinc oxide, ormixtures of oxides forming silicates and glasses as the Si-O-Si bonds in silica are broken successively).[18]As anexample the reaction of sodium oxide and SiO2can produce sodium orthosilicate, sodium silicate, and glasses,dependent on the proportions of reactants:[19]2 Na2O + SiO2→ Na4SiO4;Na2O + SiO2→ Na2SiO3;(0.25–0.8)Na2O + SiO2→ glass.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Silicon dioxide 82Examples of such glasses have commercial significance e.g. soda lime glass, borosilicate glass, lead glass. In theseglasses, silica is termed the network former or lattice former.[18]Bundle of optical fibers composed of high puritysilica.With silicon at high temperatures gaseous SiO is produced:[18]SiO2+ Si → 2 SiO (gas).BiomaterialsSilicification is quite common in the biological world and occurs inbacteria, single-celled organisms, plants, and animals (invertebratesand vertebrates). Crystalline minerals formed in this environment oftenshow exceptional physical properties (e.g. strength, hardness, fracturetoughness) and tend to form hierarchical structures that exhibitmicrostructural order over a range of scales. The minerals arecrystallized from an environment that is undersaturated with respect tosilicon, and under conditions of neutral pH and low temperature (0–40°C). Formation of the mineral may occur either within or outside of thecell wall of an organism, and specific biochemical reactions formineral deposition exist that include lipids, proteins, andcarbohydrates.Health effectsQuartz sand (silica) as main raw material forcommercial glass productionInhaling finely divided crystalline silica dust in very small quantities(OSHA allows 0.1 mg/m3) over time can lead to silicosis, bronchitis,or cancer, as the dust becomes lodged in the lungs and continuouslyirritates them, reducing lung capacities. (Silica does not dissolve overtime.) This effect can be an occupational hazard for people workingwith sandblasting equipment, products that contain powderedcrystalline silica and so on. Children, asthmatics of any age, allergysufferers, and the elderly (all of whom have reduced lung capacity) canbe affected in much less time. Amorphous silica, such as fumed silicais not associated with development of silicosis[46], but may causeirreversible lung damage in some cases[47]. Laws restricting silicaexposure with respect to the silicosis hazard specify that the silica isboth crystalline and dust-forming.In respects other than inhalation, pure silicon dioxide is inert and harmless. Clean silicon dioxide yields no fumesand is insoluble in vivo. It is indigestible, with no nutritional value. When silica is ingested orally, it passesunchanged through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, exiting in the feces, leaving no trace behind. Small pieces ofsilicon dioxide are also harmless as they do not obstruct the GI tract, if they are not jagged enough to scathe itslining.A study which followed subjects for 15 years found that higher levels of silica in water appeared to decrease the riskof dementia. The study found that with an increase of 10 milligram-per-day of the intake of silica in drinking water,the risk of dementia dropped by 11%.[48]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Silicon dioxide 83References[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=7631-86-9[2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=24261[3] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=11521065[4] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=190201[5] http://www.chemspider.com/22683[6] http://www.chemspider.com/165185[7] http://fdasis.nlm.nih.gov/srs/srsdirect.jsp?regno=ETJ7Z6XBU4[8] http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/index.php?GENRE=ECNO&ENTREE=231-545-4[9] http://www.kegg.jp/entry/C16459[10] http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2007/MB_cgi?mode=&term=Silicon+dioxide[11] https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=30563[12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Asilicon_dioxide?diff=cur&oldid=399096001[13] Iler, R.K. (1979). The Chemistry of Silica. Plenum Press. ISBN 047102404X.[14] Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, ItsContext and Tradition" (http://jstor.org/stable/3101411). Technology and Culture (Society for the History of Technology) 2 (2): 97–111.doi:10.2307/3101411. .[15] Lidong Wang, D Major, P Paga, D Zhang, M G Norton, D N McIlroy (2006). "High yield synthesis and lithography of silica-basednanospring mats". Nanotechnology 17: S298–S303. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/17/11/S12.[16] Skinner B.J., Appleman D.E. (1963). "Melanophlogite, a cubic polymorph of silica" (http://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM48/AM48_854.pdf). American Mineralogist 48: 854–867. .[17] http://www.mindat.org/min-3337.html[18] Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-352651-5[19] Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, A. (1984), Chemistry of the Elements, Oxford: Pergamon, pp. 393–99, ISBN 0-08-022057-6[20] Wells A.F. (1984). Structural Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford Science Publications. ISBN 0-19-855370-6.[21] Kirfel, A.; Krane, H. G.; Blaha, P.; Schwarz, K.; Lippmann, T. (2001). "Electron-density distribution in stishovite, SiO2: a new high-energysynchrotron-radiation study". Acta Crystallographica A 57: 663. doi:10.1107/S0108767301010698.[22] J. Scherzer (1978). "Dealuminated faujasite-type structures with SiO2/Al2O3 ratios over 100". Journal of Catalysis 54: 285.doi:10.1016/0021-9517(78)90051-9.[23] Shell, Scott M.; Pablo G. Debenedetti, Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos (2002). "Molecular structural order and anomalies in liquid silica"(http://www.engr.ucsb.edu/~shell/papers/2002_PRE_silica.pdf). Phys. Rev. E 66: 011202. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.66.011202. .[24] Peter Jutzi, Ulrich Schubert (2003). Silicon chemistry: from the atom to extended systems (http://books.google.com/?id=iRNDUz0F0rwC&pg=PP1). Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3527306471. .[25] Lager G.A., Jorgensen J.D., Rotella F.J. (1982). "Crystal structure and thermal expansion of a-quartz SiO2 at low temperature". Journal ofApplied Physics 53: 6751–6756. doi:10.1063/1.330062.[26] Wright A.F., Lehmann M.S. (1981). "The Structure of Quartz at 25 and 590 °C Determined by Neutron Diffraction". Journal of Solid StateChemistry 36: 371–380. doi:10.1016/0022-4596(81)90449-7.[27] Kuniaki Kihara, Matsumoto T., Imamura M. (1986). "Structural change of orthorhombic-I tridymite with temperature: A study based onsecond-order thermal-vibrational parameters". Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 177: 27–38. doi:10.1524/zkri.1986.177.1-2.27.[28] Downs R.T., Palmer D.C. (1994). "The pressure behavior of a cristobalite" (http://www.geo.arizona.edu/xtal/group/pdf/AM79_9.pdf).American Mineralogist 79: 9–14. .[29] Wright A.F., Leadbetter A.J. (1975). "The structures of the b-cristobalite phases of SiO2 and AlPO4". Philosophical Magazine 31:1391–1401. doi:10.1080/00318087508228690.[30] Hriljac J.A., Eddy M.M., Cheetham A.K., Donohue J.A., Ray G.J. (1993). "Powder Neutron Diffraction and 29Si MAS NMR Studies ofSiliceous Zeolite-Y". Journal of Solid State Chemistry 106: 66–72. doi:10.1006/jssc.1993.1265.[31] Nakagawa T, Kihara K, Harada K (2001). "The crystal structure of low melanophlogite" (http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/AMS/minerals/Melanophlogite). American Mineralogist 86: 1506. .[32] Rosemarie Szostak (1998). Molecular sieves: Principles of Synthesis and Identification (http://books.google.com/?id=lteintjA2-MC&printsec=frontcover). Springer. ISBN 0751404802. .[33] Shropshire J., Keat P.P., Vaughan P.A. (1959). "The crystal structure of keatite, a new form of silica". Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 112:409–413. doi:10.1524/zkri.1959.112.1-6.409.[34] Miehe G., Graetsch H. (1992). "Crystal structure of moganite: a new structure type for silica". European Journal of Mineralogy 4: 693.[35] Levien L., Prewitt C.T. (1981). "High-pressure crystal structure and compressibility of coesite" (http://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM66/AM66_324.pdf). American Mineralogist 66: 324–333. .[36] Smyth J.R., Swope R.J., Pawley A.R. (1995). "H in rutile-type compounds: II. Crystal chemistry of Al substitution in H-bearing stishovite"(http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/am/vol80/AM80_454.pdf). American Mineralogist 80: 454–456. .[37] Belonoshko A.B., Dubrovinsky L.S., Dubrovinsky N.A. (1996). "A new high-pressure silica phase obtained by molecular dynamics" (http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/ammin/toc/Articles_Free/1996/Belonoshko_p785-788_96.pdf). American Mineralogist 81: 785. .FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Silicon dioxide 84[38] Weiss A.; Weiss, Armin (1954). "Zur Kenntnis der faserigen Siliciumdioxyd-Modifikation". Zeitschrift fuer Anorganische und AllgemeineChemie 276: 95–112. doi:10.1002/zaac.19542760110.[39] Dera P, Prewitt C T, Boctor N Z, Hemley R J (2002). "Characterization of a high-pressure phase of silica from the Martian meteoriteShergotty" (http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/AMS/authors/Boctor N Z). American Mineralogist 87: 1018. .[40] Seifertite at Mindat (http://www.mindat.org/min-26715.html)[41] Elliot, S.R. (1991). "Medium-range structural order in covalent amorphous solids". Nature 354[42] Sunggyu Lee (2006). Encyclopedia of chemical processing. CRC Press. ISBN 0824755634.[43] Robert Doering, Yoshio Nishi (2007). Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology (http://books.google.com/?id=Qi98H-iTgLEC&printsec=frontcover). CRC Press. ISBN 1574446754. .[44] A.B.D. Nandiyanto; S.-G Kim; F. Iskandar; and K. Okuyama (2009). "Synthesis of Silica Nanoparticles with Nanometer-Size ControllableMesopores and Outer Diameters". Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 120 (3): 447–453. doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2008.12.019.[45] Fournier R.O., Rowe J.J. (1977). "The solubility of amorphous silica in water at high temperatures and high pressures" (http://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM62/AM62_1052.pdf). American Mineralogist 62: 1052–1056. .[46] "Toxicological Overview of Amorphous Silica in Working Environment" (http://www.degussa-nano.de/nano/MCMSbase/Pages/ProvideResource.aspx?respath=/NR/rdonlyres/1E02FAD4-E5D6-4CE2-8E5C-E19F4DAC7838/0/Toxicological_Overview_Amorphous_Silica_in_Working_Environment.pdf). .[47] "Subchronic inhalation toxicity of amorphous silicas and quartz dust in rats" (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1648030). .[48] Rondeau, V; Jacqmin-Gadda, H; Commenges, D; Helmer, C; Dartigues, Jf (2009). "Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk ofAlzheimers disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the [[PAQUID cohort (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2809081)]."]. American journal of epidemiology 169 (4): 489–96. doi:10.1093/aje/kwn348.PMID 19064650. PMC 2809081.External links• Tridymite, International Chemical Safety Card 0807 (http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics0807.htm)• Quartz, International Chemical Safety Card 0808 (http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics0808.htm)• Cristobalite, International Chemical Safety Card 0809 (http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics0809.htm)• amorphous, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (http://cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0552.html)• crystalline, as respirable dust, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (http://cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0553.html)• Formation of silicon oxide layers in the semiconductor industry (http://crystec.com/klloxide.htm). LPCVD andPECVD method in comparison. Stress prevention.• Quartz SiO2piezoelectric properties (http://piezomaterials.com/Quartz-SiO2.htm)• Silica (SiO2) and Water (http://water-chemistry.blogspot.com/2008/08/silica-sio2.html)• Media related to Silicon dioxide at Wikimedia Commons•  Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Silica". Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Bentonite 85BentoniteBentonite – USGSBentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate, ingeneral, impure clay consisting mostly ofmontmorillonite. There are different types ofbentonites, and their names depend on the dominantelements, such as potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium(Ca), and aluminum (Al). As noted in several places inthe geologic literature, there are some nomenclatorialproblems with the classification of bentonite clays.Bentonite usually forms from weathering of volcanicash, most often in the presence of water. However, theterm bentonite, as well as a similar clay called tonstein,has been used for clay beds of uncertain origin. Forindustrial purposes, two main classes of bentonite exist:sodium and calcium bentonite. In stratigraphy and tephrochronology, completely devitrified (weathered volcanicglass) ash-fall beds are commonly referred to as K-bentonites when the dominant clay species is illite. Othercommon clay species, and sometimes dominant, are montmorillonite and kaolinite. Kaolinite-dominated clays arecommonly referred to as tonsteins and are typically associated with coal.Sodium bentoniteSodium bentonite expands when wet, absorbing as much as several times its dry mass in water. Because of itsexcellent colloidal properties (see Odom ref below), it is often used in drilling mud for oil and gas wells and forgeotechnical and environmental investigations.The property of swelling also makes sodium bentonite useful as a sealant, especially for the sealing of subsurfacedisposal systems for spent nuclear fuel[1]and for quarantining metal pollutants of groundwater. Similar uses includemaking slurry walls, waterproofing of below-grade walls, and forming other impermeable barriers, e.g., to seal offthe annulus of a water well, to plug old wells, or to line the base of landfills to prevent migration of leachate.Sodium bentonite can also be "sandwiched" between synthetic materials to create geo-synthetic clay liners (GCL) forthe aforementioned purposes. This technique allows for more convenient transport and installation, and it greatlyreduces the volume of sodium bentonite required.Various surface modifications to sodium bentonite improve some rheological or sealing performance ingeoenviromental applications, for example, the addition of polymers.[2]Calcium bentoniteCalcium bentonite is a useful adsorbent of ions in solution,[3]as well as fats and oils, being a main active ingredientof fullers earth, probably one of the earliest industrial cleaning agents.[4]Calcium bentonite may be converted tosodium bentonite (termed sodium beneficiation or sodium activation) to exhibit many of sodium bentonitesproperties by a process known as "ion exchange" (patented in 1935 by Germans U Hofmann and K Endell). Incommon usage, this means adding 5–10% of a soluble sodium salt such as sodium carbonate to wet bentonite,mixing well, and allowing time for the ion exchange to take place and water to remove the exchanged calcium. Someproperties, such as viscosity and fluid loss of suspensions, of sodium-beneficiated calcium bentonite (orsodium-activated bentonite) may not be fully equivalent to those of natural sodium bentonite.[5]For example,residual calcium carbonates (formed if exchanged cations are insufficiently removed) may result in inferiorFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Bentonite 86performance of the bentonite in geosynthetic liners.[6]Potassium bentoniteAlso known as potash bentonite or K-bentonite, potassium bentonite is a potassium-rich illitic clay formed fromalteration of volcanic ash.[7]UsesMuch of bentonites usefulness in the drilling and geotechnical engineering industry comes from its uniquerheological properties. Relatively small quantities of bentonite suspended in water form a viscous, shear thinningmaterial. Most often, bentonite suspensions are also thixotropic, although rare cases of rheopectic behavior have alsobeen reported. At high enough concentrations (~60 grams of bentonite per litre of suspension), bentonite suspensionsbegin to take on the characteristics of a gel (a fluid with a minimum yield strength required to make it move). Forthese reasons it is a common component of drilling mud used to curtail drilling fluid invasion by its propensity foraiding in the formation of mud cake.Bentonite can be used in cement, adhesives, ceramic bodies, and cat litter. Bentonite is also used as a binding agentin the manufacture of taconite pellets as used in the steelmaking industry. Fullers earth, an ancient dry-cleaningsubstance, is finely ground bentonite, typically used for purifying transformer oil. Bentonite, in small percentages, isused as an ingredient in commercially designed clay bodies and ceramic glazes. Bentonite clay is also used inpyrotechnics to make end plugs and rocket engine nozzles.The ionic surface of bentonite has a useful property in making a sticky coating on sand grains. When a smallproportion of finely ground bentonite clay is added to hard sand and wetted, the clay binds the sand particles into amoldable aggregate known as green sand used for making molds in sand casting. Some river deltas naturally depositjust such a blend of such clay silt and sand, creating a natural source of excellent molding sand that was critical toancient metalworking technology. Modern chemical processes to modify the ionic surface of bentonite greatlyintensify this stickiness, resulting in remarkably dough-like yet strong casting sand mixes that stand up to moltenmetal temperatures.The same effluvial deposition of bentonite clay onto beaches accounts for the variety of plasticity of sand from placeto place for building sand castles. Beach sand consisting of only silica and shell grains does not mold well comparedto grains coated with bentonite clay. This is why some beaches are much better for building sand castles than others.The self-stickiness of bentonite allows high-pressure ramming or pressing of the clay in molds to produce hard,refractory shapes, such as model rocket nozzles. Indeed, to test whether a particular brand of cat litter is bentonite,simply ram a sample with a hammer into a sturdy tube with a close-fitting rod; bentonite will form a very hard,consolidated plug that is not easily crumbled.Bentonite also has the interesting property of adsorbing relatively large amounts of protein molecules from aqueoussolutions. Therefore, it is uniquely useful in the process of winemaking, where it is used to remove excessiveamounts of protein from white wines. Were it not for this use of bentonite, many or most white wines wouldprecipitate undesirable flocculent clouds or hazes upon exposure to warmer temperatures, as these proteins denature.It also has the incidental use of inducing more rapid clarification of both red and white wines.Bentonite has been prescribed as a bulk laxative, and it is also used as a base for many dermatologic formulas.[8]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Bentonite 87Bentonite clay in Thai farmingApplication of bentonite clay technology made a big contribution to rejuvenating degraded soils in NE Thailand,which both improved yields and farmer incomes.Over the past 40 years, Northeast Thailand has undergone significant changes in land use. Farming systems movedfrom being subsistence–based to commercially-based, typically characterized by paddy rice production in thelowlands and sugarcane/cassava production in the uplands. However, the intensification of these production systemsdegraded soil chemical properties that are best described as nutrient/resource mining operations.[9]As a consequenceof these changes, productivity and production systems declined, as soils became depleted of their nutrients andwater-retaining properties.The application of clay technology by farmers in Northeast Thailand, using bentonite clay, has dramatically reversedsoil degradation and resulted in greater economic returns, with higher yields and higher output prices. Studies carriedout by The International Water Management Institute and partners in 2002–2003 focused on the application oflocally sourced bentonite clays to degraded soils in the region. These applications were carried out in structured fieldtrials. Results from these studies showed that applying bentonite clays effectively improved yields of forage sorghumgrown under rain-fed conditions.Cumulative dry matter production over a two-year period ranged from 0.22 tons per hectare under control treatmentapplying normal fertilizer only, to 23 tons per hectare using an application of 50 tons per hectare of bentonite. Yieldsrose to 36 tons per hectare when a combination of 50 tons per hectare of bentonite and 10 tons per hectare of leaflitter was applied. These and several other studies conclusively demonstrated that introducing clay-based materialssuch as bentonite and termite-mound materials significantly and persistently improve the productivity of degraded,light–textured soils.[9] [10]Three years after the conclusion of this project, a survey was carried out on 250 farmers, equally split between thosefarmers that had adopted clay-based approaches versus those that had not. The purpose was to assess the economiceffects of the project. Using different methods, an economic assessment was carried out. Although the responseswere, in essence, agronomic effects, they also tended to cause major changes in farm economies, especiallyconcerning the type and composition of different farm supplies and enhancing marketability. Variations in thequantity and composition of these yield-increasing supplies explain differing productivity levels and the return oninvestment of farms that used clay applications versus the farms that did not.Apart from its role of changing the nature and composition of farm supplies, bentonite application also influencedthe prices that farmers received for their crops. The average output price for farmers using clay technologies was18% higher than that for non-clay users; this suggests that either clay-using farmers go for high value crops (as invegetable farms) or they receive a higher price for their produce, due to better quality (e.g., from organic rice andintegrated farms). Production costs are higher, but, due to more production and the quality of the food, clay farmerscould afford to invest and grow more and better food, compared to non clay-using farmers. For example, the averageper-hectare cost of clay-using farms was 57% higher than that for non-users, but the per-hectare gross revenue offarms using bentonite clay technologies was twice that of non-clay-using farms. Since the net values of the treatedand control groups were compared, clay application led to a net benefit of about 120%.[11] [12]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Bentonite 88History and natural occurrenceBentonite output in 2005. Click the image for the details.In 2005, U.S. was the top producer ofbentonite with almost one-third worldshare followed by China and Greece,reports the British Geological Survey.The absorbent clay was given the namebentonite by Wilbur C. Knight in 1898,after the Cretaceous Benton Shale nearRock River, Wyoming.[13]Othermodern discoveries includemontmorillonite discovered in 1847 inMontmorillon in the Vienne prefectureof France, in Poitou-Charentes, South of the Loire Valley.Most high-grade natural sodium bentonite is produced from the western United States in an area between the BlackHills of South Dakota and the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming. Mixed sodium/calcium bentonite is mined in Greece,Australia, India, Russia, and the Ukraine. In the United States, calcium bentonite is mined primarily in Mississippiand Alabama. Other major locations producing calcium bentonite include Germany, Greece, Turkey, India, andChina.It should be noted tha, in some countries like the UK and US, calcium bentonite is known as fullers earth, a termalso used to refer to attapulgite, in terms of mineralogy, a distinct clay mineral but one exhibiting similar properties.References[1] Hydraulic behaviour of bentonite based mixtures in engineered barriers: The Backfill and Plug Test at the Äspö HRL (Sweden) (http://www.tdx.cesca.es/TESIS_UPC/AVAILABLE/TDX-0412105-095450/). Tdx.cesca.es (2003-07-17). Retrieved on 2010-11-28.[2] Theng, B.K.G. 1979. Formation and Properties of Clay Polymer Complexes (http://books.google.com/books?id=9O5rcSNszwMC&printsec=frontcover). Developments in Soil Science 9. Elsevier, Amsterdam, ISBN 0444417060[3] Lagaly G., 1995. Surface and interlayer reactions: bentonites as adsorbents. pp. 137–144, in Churchman, G.J., Fitzpatrick, R.W., EggletonR.A. Clays Controlling the Environment. Proceedings of the 10th International Clay Conference, Adelaide, Australia. CSIRO Publishing,Melbourne, ISBN 0643055363[4] R.H.S, Robertson, 1986. Fullers Earth. A History of calcium montmorillonite. Volturna, Press, U.K., ISBN 0856060704[5] Odom, I. E. (1984). "Smectite clay Minerals: Properties and Uses" (http://www.jstor.org/stable/37332). Philosophical Transactions of theRoyal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 311: 391. doi:10.1098/rsta.1984.0036. .[6] Guyonnet, Dominique; Gaucher, Eric; Gaboriau, Hervé; Pons, Charles-Henri; Clinard, Christian; Norotte, VéRonique; Didier, GéRard(2005). "Geosynthetic Clay Liner Interaction with Leachate: Correlation between Permeability, Microstructure, and Surface Chemistry".Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 131: 740. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:6(740).[7] Potassium bentonite (http://www.answers.com/topic/potassium-bentonite). McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.Retrieved June 12, 2008. Answers.com[8] Bentonite (http://food.oregonstate.edu/glossary/b/bentonite.html) from oregonstate.edu website[9] Noble, A. D., Ruaysoongnern, S., Penning de Vries, F. W. T., Hartmann, C. and Webb, M. J. 2004. Enhancing the agronomic productivity ofdegraded soils in North-east Thailand through clay-based interventions. In Seng, V., E. Craswell, S. Fukai, and K. Fischer, eds., Water andAgriculture, Proceedings No. 116, ACIAR, Canberra, pp. 147–160.[10] Suzuki, Shinji; Noble, Andrew; Ruaysoongnern, Sawaeng; Chinabut, Narong (2007). "Improvement in Water-Holding Capacity andStructural Stability of a Sandy Soil in Northeast Thailand". Arid Land Research and Management 21: 37. doi:10.1080/15324980601087430.[11] Saleth, R.M., Inocencio, A., Noble, A.D., and Ruaysoongnern, S. 2009. Improving Soil Fertility and Water Holding Capacity with ClayApplication: The Impact of Soil Remediation Research in Northeast Thailand. IWMI Research Report (in Review).[12] Noble, A. D., Gillman, G. P., Nath, S., and Srivastava, R. J. 2001. Changes in the surface charge characteristics of degraded soils in thetropics through the addition of beneficiated bentonite. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 39: 991–1001.[13] Bentonite, Wyoming Geological Survey (http://www.wsgs.uwyo.edu/Topics/IndustrialMinerals/bentonite.aspx)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Bentonite 89External links• International Chemical Safety Card 0384 (http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics0384.htm)Further reading• Brady, G.S., Clauser, H.R., & Vaccari, J.A. (2002). Materials handbook. (15th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill.• Hosterman, J.W. and S.H. Patterson. (1992). Bentonite and Fullers earth resources of the United States [U.S.Geological Survey Professional Paper 1522]. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office.• Milne, G.W.A. (Ed.). (2005). Gardners commercially important chemicals: Synonyms, trade names, andproperties. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Interscience.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Mannitol 90MannitolD-MannitolSystematic (IUPAC) name(2R,3R,4R,5R)-Hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexolIdentifiersCAS number 69-65-8[1]ATC code A06 AD16[2]B05 BC01[3]B05 CX04[4]R05 CB16[5]PubChem CID 6251[6]DrugBank APRD01083[7]ChemSpider 6015[8]ChEMBL CHEMBL689[9] Chemical dataFormula C6H14O6Mol. mass 182.172SMILES eMolecules[10]& PubChem[11]Pharmacokinetic dataBioavailability ~7%Metabolism Hepatic, negligible.Half-life 100 minutesExcretion Renal: 90%Therapeutic considerationsPregnancy cat. C: (USA)Legal status ?Routes IntravenousOral(what is this?)   (verify)[12]Mannitol is a white, crystalline[13]organic compound with the formula (C6H8(OH)6). This polyol is used as anosmotic diuretic agent and a weak renal vasodilator. It was originally isolated from the secretions of the floweringFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Mannitol 91ash, called manna after their resemblance to the Biblical food, and is also referred to as mannite and mannasugar.[14]In plants, it is used to induce osmotic stress.ChemistryMannitol is a sugar alcohol; that is, it is derived from a sugar by reduction, with a molecular weight of 182.17g/mol[15], and a density of 1.52 g/mL[16]. Other sugar alcohols include xylitol and sorbitol. Mannitol and sorbitolare isomers, the only difference being the orientation of the hydroxyl group on carbon 2.[17]Aqueous solutions ofmannitol are mildly acidic and sometimes such solutions are treated to lower the pH. Chemical Abstracts RegistryNumbers for mannitol are 123897-58-5, 69-65-8 (D-Mannitol), 75398-80-0, 85085-15-0, and 87-78-5 (mannitol withunspecified stereochemistry). D-Mannitol (CAS# 69-65-8) has a solubility of 22g mannitol/ 100mL water (25°C),and a relative sweetness of 50 (sucrose=100).[18]It melts between 165°-169°C (7.6 torr), and boils at 295°C at 3.5torr, indicating a greater boiling point at STP conditions.[19]Obtaining mannitolIndustrial synthesisMannitol is commonly formed via the hydrogenation of fructose, which is formed from either starch or sugar.Although starch is cheaper than sucrose, the transformation of starch is much more complicated. Eventually, it yieldsa syrup containing about 42% fructose, 52% dextrose, and 6% maltose. Sucrose is simply hydrolyzed into an invertsugar syrup, which contains about 50% fructose. In both cases, the syrups are chromatographically purified tocontain 90-95% fructose. The fructose is then hydrogenated over a nickel catalyst into mixture of isomers sorbitoland mannitol. Yield is typically 50%:50%, although slightly alkaline reaction conditions can slightly increasemannitol yields.[20]Biological synthesesMannitol is one of the most abundant energy and carbon storage molecules in nature, produced by a plethora oforganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, lichens, and many plants.[21]Fermentation by microorganisms isa possible alternative to traditional industrial synthesis, producing much higher yields of mannitol, with minimal tono side products. A fructose to mannitol metabolic pathway, known as the mannitol cycle in fungi, has beendiscovered in a type of red algae (Caloglossa leprieurii), and it is highly possible that other microorganisms employsimilar such pathways.[22]A class of lactic acid bacteria,labeled heterofermentive because of their multiplefermentation pathways, convert either 3 fructose molecules or 2 fructose and 1 glucose molecule into 2 mannitolmolecules, and one molecule each of lactic acid, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide. Feedstock syrups containingmedium to large concentrations of fructose (for example, cashew apple juice, containing 55% fructose: 45% glucose)can produce yields 200g mannitol/ liter feedstock. Further research is being conducted, studying ways to engineereven more efficient mannitol pathways in lactic acid bacteria, and also studying the use of other bacteria, such asyeast[23]and e. coli bacteria in mannitol productions. When food grade strains of any of the aforementionedmicroorganisms are used, the mannitol and the organism itself are directly applicable to food products, avoiding theneed for careful separation of microorganism and mannitol crystals. Although this is a promising method,steps areneeded to scale it up to industrially needed quantities.[24]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Mannitol 92Natural product extractionAs stated above, mannitol is found in a wide variety of natural products, including almost all plants. This allows fordirect extraction from natural products, rather than chemical or biological syntheses. In fact, in China, isolation fromseaweeds is the most common form of mannitol production.[25]Mannitol concentrations of plant exudates can rangefrom 20% in seaweeds to 90% in the plane tree. Traditionally, mannitol is extracted by the Soxhlet extraction,utilizing ethanol, water, and methanol to steam and then hydrolyze the crude material. The mannitol is thenrecrystallized from the extract, generally resulting in yields of about 18% of the original natural product. Another upand coming method of extraction is by using supercritical and subcritical fluids. These fluids are at such a stage thatthere is no difference between the liquid and gas stages, and are therefore more diffusive than normal fluids. This isconsidered to make them much more effective mass transfer agents than normal liquids. The super/sub critical fluidis pumped through the natural product, and the mostly mannitol product is easily separated from the solvent andminute amount of byproduct. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of olive leaves has been shown to require lesssolvent per grams of leaf than a traditional extraction (141.7 g CO2 vs. 194.4 g ethanol/ 1 g olive leaf). Heated,pressurized, subcritical water is even cheaper, and is shown to have dramatically greater results than traditionalextraction. It requires only 4.01 g water/ 1 g olive leaf, and gives a yield of 76.75% mannitol. Both super- andsub-critical extractions are cheaper, faster, purer, and more environmentally friendly than the traditional extraction.However, the high required operating temperatures and pressures are cause for hesitancy in the industrial use of thistechnique.[26]UsesMedical applicationsMannitol is used clinically to reduce acutely raised intracranial pressure until more definitive treatment can beapplied, e.g., after head trauma. It is also used to treat patients with oliguric renal failure. It is administeredintravenously, and is filtered by the glomeruli of the kidney, but is incapable of being resorbed from the renal tubule,resulting in decreased water and Na+reabsorption via its osmotic effect. Consequently, mannitol increases water andNa+excretion, thereby decreasing extracellular fluid volume.Mannitol can also be used as a facilitating agent for the transportation of pharmaceuticals directly into the brain. Thearteries of the blood-brain barrier are much more selective than normal arteries. Normally, molecules can diffuse intotissues through gaps between the endothelial cells of the blood vessels. However, what enters the brain must bemuch more rigorously controlled. The endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier are connected by tight junctions,and simple diffusion through them is impossible. Rather, active transport is necessary, requiring energy, and onlytransporting molecules that the arterial endothelial cells have receptor signals for. Mannitol is capable of opening thisbarrier by temporarily shrinking the endothelial cells, simultaneously stretching the tight junctions between them.[27]An intracarotid injection of high molarity mannitol (1.4-1.6M), causes the contents of the artery to be hyperosmoticto the cell. Water leaves the cell and enters the artery in order to recreate an osmotic equilibrium. This loss of watercauses the cells to shrivel and shrink, stretching the tight junctions between the cells.[28]The newly formed gapreaches its peak width five minutes after mannitol injection, and stays widely open for thirty minutes. During thistimespan, drugs injected into the artery can easily diffuse though the gaps between cells directly into the brain.[29]This makes mannitol indispensable for delivering various drugs directly to the brain (e.g., in the treatment ofAlzheimers disease, or in chemotherapy for brain tumors[30].Mannitol is commonly used in the circuit prime of a heart lung machine during cardiopulmonary bypass. Thepresence of mannitol preserves renal function during the times of low blood flow and pressure, while the patient ison bypass. The solution prevents the swelling of endothelial cells in the kidney, which may have otherwise reducedblood flow to this area and resulted in cell damage.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Mannitol 93Mannitol is also being developed by an Australian pharmaceutical company as a treatment for cystic fibrosis andbronchiectasis and as a diagnostic test for airway hyperresponsiveness. The mannitol is orally inhaled as a drypowder through what is known as an osmohaler and osmotically draws water into the lungs to thin the thick, stickymucus characteristic of cystic fibrosis. This is intended to make it easier for the sufferer to cough the mucus upduring physiotherapy. The critical characteristic of the mannitol is its particle size distribution.Mannitol is also the first drug of choice for the treatment of acute glaucoma in veterinary medicine. It isadministered as a 20% solution IV. It dehydrates the vitreous humor and, thus, lowers the intraocular pressure.However, it requires an intact blood-ocular barrier to work.[31]Mannitol can also be used to temporarily encapsulate a sharp object (such as a helix on a lead for an artificialpacemaker) while it is passed through the venous system. Because the mannitol dissolves readily in blood, the sharppoint will become exposed at its destination.Mannitol may be administered in cases of severe Ciguatera poisoning. Severe ciguatoxin, or "tropical fish poisoning"can produce stroke-like symptoms.Mannitol is the primary ingredient of Mannitol Salt Agar, a bacterial growth medium, and is used in others.In oral doses larger than 20 g, mannitol acts as an osmotic laxative, and is sometimes sold as a laxative for children.In foodsMannitol does not stimulate an increase in blood glucose, and is therefore used as a sweetener for people withdiabetes, and in chewing gums. It also has a low glycemic index, making it a low carb food. Although mannitol has ahigher heat of solution than most sugar alcohols, its comparatively low solubility reduces the cooling effect usuallyfound in mint candies and gums. However, when mannitol is completely dissolved in a product, it induces a strongcooling effect.[32]Also, it has a very low hygroscopicity- it does not pick up water from the air until the humiditylevel is 98%. This makes mannitol very useful as a coating for hard candies, dried fruits, and chewing gums, and it isoften included as an ingredient in candies and gum.[33]The pleasant taste and mouthfeel of mannitol also makes it apopular excipient for chewable tablets.[34]In illicit drugsMannitol is sometimes used as an adulterant or cutting agent for heroin, methamphetamines or other illicit drugs. Inpopular culture, when it is used in this manner, it is often referred to as baby laxative.[35]ControversyThe three studies[36] [37] [38]that initially found that high-dose mannitol was effective in cases of severe head injuryhave been the subject of a recent investigation.[39]Although several authors are listed with Dr. Julio Cruz, it isunclear whether the authors had knowledge of how the patients were recruited. Further, the Federal University ofSão Paulo, which Dr. Cruz gave as his affiliation, has never employed him. Currently, therefore, the Cochranereview recommending high-dose mannitol[40]has been withdrawn pending re-evaluation, as there is some evidencethat mannitol may worsen cerebral edema.[41]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Mannitol 94ToxicologyMannitol is contraindicated in patients with anuria and Congestive Heart Failure.Compendial status• British Pharmacopoeia[42]• Japanese Pharmacopoeia[43]• United States Pharmacopeia[44]See also• D-mannitol oxidase• E number• Mannitol dehydrogenase• Mannitol dehydrogenase (cytochrome)• Mannitol-1-phosphatase• Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase• Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (NADP+)• Mannitol-1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenase• Mannitol salt agar• Sorbitol• XylitolNotes and references[1] http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2009/MB_cgi?term=69-65-8&rn=1[2] http://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/?code=A06AD16[3] http://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/?code=B05BC01[4] http://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/?code=B05CX04[5] http://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/?code=R05CB16[6] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=6251[7] http://www.drugbank.ca/cgi-bin/show_drug.cgi?CARD=APRD01083[8] http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.6015[9] https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chembldb/index.php/compound/inspect/CHEMBL689[10] http://www.emolecules.com/cgi-bin/search?t=ex&q=O%5BC%40H%5D%28%5BC%40H%5D%28O%29CO%29%5BC%40H%5D%28O%29%5BC%40H%5D%28O%29CO[11] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/search/?smarts=O%5BC%40H%5D%28%5BC%40H%5D%28O%29CO%29%5BC%40H%5D%28O%29%5BC%40H%5D%28O%29CO[12] http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?&diff=cur&oldid=340535424[13] Lawson, P. In In Mannitol; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: 2007; pp 219-225.[14] Cooleys Cyclopaedia of Practical Receipts, 6th ed. (1880)[15] Lawson, P. In In Mannitol; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: 2007; pp 219-225[16] Anonymous. D-Mannitol. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/f?./temp/~hwwDKg:1 (accessed November 11, 2010).[17] Kearsley, M. W.; Deis, R. C. Sorbitol and Mannitol. In Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology; Ames: Oxford, 2006; pp249-249-261.[18] Lawson, P. In In Mannitol; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: 2007; pp 219-225[19] Anonymous. D-Mannitol. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/f?./temp/~hwwDKg:1 (accessed November 11, 2010).[20] Kearsley, M. W.; Deis, R. C. Sorbitol and Mannitol. In Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology; Ames: Oxford, 2006; pp249-249-261.[21] Song, S. H.; Vieille, C. Recent advances in the biological production of mannitol. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2009, 84, 55-62.[22] Ghoreishi, S. M.; Shahrestani, R. G. Innovative strategies for engineering mannitol production. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2009, 20,263-270.[23] Song, S. H.; Vieille, C. Recent advances in the biological production of mannitol. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2009, 84, 55-62.[24] Ghoreishi, S. M.; Shahrestani, R. G. Innovative strategies for engineering mannitol production. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2009, 20,263-270.[25] Lawson, P. In In Mannitol; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: 2007; pp 219-225.[26] Ghoreishi, S. M.; Shahrestani, R. G. Innovative strategies for engineering mannitol production. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2009, 20,263-270.[27] Best, B. . Perfusion & Diffusion in Cryonics Protocol. http://www.benbest.com/cryonics/protocol.html (accessed November 10, 2010).[28] Ikeda, M.; Bhattacharjee, A. K.; Kondoh, T.; Nagashima, T.; Tamaki, N. Synergistic Effect of Cold Mannitol and Na+/Ca2+ ExchangeBlocker on Blood-Brain Barrier Opening. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002, 291, 669-674.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Mannitol 95[29] Wang, M.; Etu, J.; Joshi, S. Enhanced disruption of the blood brain barrier by intracarotid mannitol injection during transient cerebralhypoperfusion in rabbits. J. Neurosurg. Anesthesiol. 2007, 19, 249-256.[30] Ikeda, M.; Bhattacharjee, A. K.; Kondoh, T.; Nagashima, T.; Tamaki, N. Synergistic Effect of Cold Mannitol and Na+/Ca2+ ExchangeBlocker on Blood-Brain Barrier Opening. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002, 291, 669-674[31] Veterinary Class Notes, Ophthalmology, The Ohio State University, provided by David Wilkie, DVM, DACVO[32] Kearsley, M. W.; Deis, R. C. Sorbitol and Mannitol. In Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology; Ames: Oxford, 2006; pp249-249-261.[33] Lawson, P. In In Mannitol; (1); Blackwell Publishing Ltd: 2007; pp 219-225.[34] Weiner, Myra L.; Lois A. Kotkoskie (1999). Excipient Toxicity and Safety. pp. 370. ISBN 0824782100, 9780824782108.[35] An interview on the History Channel show Gangland showed a man claiming to be the chief methamphetamine "cooker" for the Pagans MCin Philadelphia, who stated that he used mannitol, a "baby laxative", as a "cut" for methamphetamine. He stated that in his hands the drugbegan as a purple color, and became first dark pink, then light pink, finally white as successive adulterations were done with mannitol. In theinterview he stated that people snorting a line of the powder would need to go to the bathroom as a result of using it. He said that theyincorrectly believed that this was the result of the potency of the drug, but it was actually caused by the added mannitol.[36] Cruz J, Minoja G, Okuchi K. Improving clinical outcomes from acute subdural hematomas with the emergency preoperative administrationof high doses of mannitol: a randomized trial. Neurosurgery. 2001 Oct;49(4):864-71. doi:10.1097/00006123-200110000-00016 PMID11564247[37] Cruz J, Minoja G, Okuchi K. Major clinical and physiological benefits of early high doses of mannitol for intraparenchymal temporal lobehemorrhages with abnormal pupillary widening: a randomized trial. Neurosurgery. 2002 Sep;51(3):628-37; discussion 637-8.doi:10.1097/00006123-200209000-00006 PMID 12188940[38] Cruz J, Minoja G, Okuchi K, Facco E. Successful use of the new high-dose mannitol treatment in patients with Glasgow Coma Scale scoresof 3 and bilateral abnormal pupillary widening: a randomized trial. J Neurosurg. 2004 Mar;100(3):376-83. doi:10.3171/jns.2004.100.3.0376PMID 15035271[39] Roberts I, Smith R, Evans S. Doubts over head injury studies. (http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/334/7590/392) BMJ. 2007 Feb24;334(7590):392-4. doi:10.1136/bmj.39118.480023.BE PMID 17322250[40] Wakai A, Roberts I, Schierhout G. Mannitol for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19;(4):CD001049.PMID 16235278[41] Kaufmann AM, Cardoso ER. Aggravation of vasogenic cerebral edema by multiple-dose mannitol. J Neurosurg. 1992 Oct;77(4):584-9.PMID 1527619[42] British Pharmacopoeia Commission Secretariat (2009). "Index, BP 2009" (http://www.pharmacopoeia.co.uk/pdf/2009_index.pdf). .Retrieved 31 January 2010.[43] "Japanese Pharmacopoeia, Fifteenth Edition" (http://jpdb.nihs.go.jp/jp15e/JP15.pdf). 2006. . Retrieved 31 January 2010.[44] USP 32 (2008). "Mannitol Injection" (http://www.usp.org/pdf/EN/USPNF/mannitolInjectionMonograph.pdf). . Retrieved 31 January2010.External links• RXList-osmitrol (http://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic4/osmitrol.htm)• 1724907529 (http://www.gpnotebook.co.uk/simplepage.cfm?ID=1724907529) at GPnotebookFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium bicarbonate 96Sodium bicarbonateSodium bicarbonateIdentifiersCAS number 144-55-8[1] PubChem 516892[2]ChemSpider 8609[3] UNII 8MDF5V39QO[4] EC number 205-633-8[5]DrugBank DB01390[6]KEGG C12603[7] MeSH Sodium+bicarbonate[8]ChEBI CHEBI:32139[9] ChEMBL CHEMBL1353[10] RTECS number VZ0950000ATC code B05 CB04[11],B05 XA02[12]Beilstein Reference 4153970PropertiesMolecular formula CHNaO3Molar mass 84.01 g mol−1Exact mass 83.982338573 g mol-1Appearance White crystalsFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium bicarbonate 97Density 2.173 g cm-3Melting point 50 °C, 323 K, 122 °F (decomposes)Solubility in water 0.100 g cm-3log P -0.82Acidity (pKa) 4.357Isoelectric point 6.3Refractive index (nD) 1.3344PharmacologyRoutes ofadministrationIntravenous, OralHazardsMSDS External MSDS[13]Main hazards Causes serious eye irritationNFPA 704LD50 4.220 g kg-1Related compoundsOther anions Sodium carbonateOther cations Ammonium bicarbonatePotassium bicarbonateRelated compounds Sodium bisulfateSodium hydrogen phosphate(what is this?)   (verify)[14]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesSodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty,alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). It is a component of the mineral natron and isfound dissolved in many mineral springs. The natural mineral form, nahcolite, is found in dissolved form in bile,where it serves to neutralize the acidity of the hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach, and is excreted into theduodenum of the small intestine via the bile duct. It is also produced artificially.Since it has long been known and is widely used, the salt has many related names such as baking soda, bread soda,cooking soda, bicarbonate of soda. Colloquially, its name is shortened to sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, or simplybicarb. The word saleratus, from Latin sal æratus meaning "aerated salt", was widely used in the 19th century forboth sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate. The term has now fallen out of common usage.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium bicarbonate 98HistoryThe ancient Egyptians used natural deposits of natron, a mixture consisting mostly of sodium carbonate decahydrateand sodium bicarbonate. The natron was used as a cleansing agent like soap.In 1791, a French chemist, Nicolas Leblanc, produced sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash. In 1846 two NewYork bakers, John Dwight and Austin Church, established the first factory to develop baking soda from sodiumcarbonate and carbon dioxide.[15]ProductionNaHCO3is mainly prepared by the Solvay process, which is the reaction of calcium carbonate, sodium chloride,ammonia, and carbon dioxide in water. It is produced on the scale of about 100,000 tonnes/year (as of 2001).[16]NaHCO3may be obtained by the reaction of carbon dioxide with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. Theinitial reaction produces sodium carbonate:CO2+ 2 NaOH → Na2CO3+ H2OFurther addition of carbon dioxide produces sodium bicarbonate, which at sufficiently high concentration willprecipitate out of solution:Na2CO3+ CO2+ H2O → 2 NaHCO3Commercial quantities of baking soda are also produced by a similar method: soda ash, mined in the form of the oretrona, is dissolved in water and treated with carbon dioxide. Sodium bicarbonate precipitates as a solid from thismethod:Na2CO3+ CO2+ H2O → 2 NaHCO3MiningNaturally occurring deposits of nahcolite (NaHCO3) are found in the Eocene-age (55.8–33.9 Ma) Green RiverFormation, Piceance Basin in Colorado. Nahcolite was deposited as beds during periods of high evaporation in thebasin. It is commercially mined using in-situ leach techniques involving dissolution of the nahcolite by heated waterwhich is pumped through the nahcolite beds and reconstituted through a natural cooling crystallization process.ChemistrySodium bicarbonate is an amphoteric compound. Aqueous solutions are mildly alkaline due to the formation ofcarbonic acid and hydroxide ion:HCO + H2O → H2CO3+ OH−Sodium bicarbonate can be used as a wash to remove any acidic impurities from a "crude" liquid, producing a purersample. Reaction of sodium bicarbonate and an acid to give a salt and carbonic acid, which readily decomposes tocarbon dioxide and water:NaHCO3+ HCl → NaCl + H2CO3H2CO3→ H2O + CO2(g)Sodium bicarbonate reacts with acetic acid (found in vinegar) and presents a simple and showy demonstration of achemical reaction. The products of the ensuing two-stage reaction are sodium acetate, water, and carbon dioxide:NaHCO3+ CH3COOH → CH3COONa + H2O + CO2(g)Sodium bicarbonate reacts with bases such as sodium hydroxide to form carbonates:NaHCO3+ NaOH → Na2CO3+ H2OFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium bicarbonate 99Sodium bicarbonate reacts with carboxyl groups in proteins to give a brisk effervescence from the formation of CO2.This reaction is used to test for the presence of carboxylic groups in protein.Thermal decompositionAbove 70 °C, sodium bicarbonate gradually decomposes into sodium carbonate, water and carbon dioxide. Theconversion is fast at 200 °C:[17]2 NaHCO3→ Na2CO3+ H2O + CO2Most bicarbonates undergo this dehydration reaction. Further heating converts the carbonate into the oxide (ataround 1000 °C):Na2CO3→ Na2O + CO2These conversions are relevant to the use of NaHCO3as a fire-suppression agent ("BC powder") in some dry powderfire extinguishers.ApplicationsCookingSodium bicarbonate is primarily used in cooking (baking) where it reacts with other components to release carbondioxide, which helps dough rise. The acidic compounds that induce this reaction include phosphates, cream of tartar,lemon juice, yogurt, buttermilk, cocoa, vinegar, etc. Sodium bicarbonate can be substituted for baking powderprovided sufficient acid reagent is also added to the recipe.[18]Many forms of baking powder contain sodiumbicarbonate combined with one or more acidic phosphates (especially good) or cream of tartar. It can also be used forsoftening peas (⅛ tsp. per pint of water and bring to boil for one hour)Sodium bicarbonate was sometimes used in cooking vegetables, to make them softer, although this has gone out offashion as most people now prefer firmer vegetables which contain more nutrients, and fibre. Bicarb destroys acidsin food, including Vitamin C.Thermal decomposition causes sodium bicarbonate alone to act as a raising agent by releasing carbon dioxide atbaking temperatures. The carbon dioxide production starts at temperatures above 80 C. The mixture for cakes usingthis method can be allowed to stand before baking without any premature release of carbon dioxide.Neutralization of acids and basesMany laboratories keep a bottle of sodium bicarbonate powder within easy reach, because sodium bicarbonate isamphoteric, reacting with acids and bases. Furthermore, as it is relatively innocuous in most situations, there is noharm in using excess sodium bicarbonate. Lastly, sodium bicarbonate powder may be used to smother a smallfire.[19]A wide variety of applications follows from its neutralization properties, including reducing the spread of whitephosphorus from incendiary bullets inside an afflicted soldiers wounds.[20]Sodium bicarbonate can be added as asimple solution for raising the pH balance of water (increasing total alkalinity) where high levels of chlorine (2–5ppm) are present as in swimming pools and aquariums.[21]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium bicarbonate 100Medical usesSodium bicarbonate is used in an aqueous solution as an antacid taken orally to treat acid indigestion andheartburn.[22]It may also be used in an oral form to treat chronic forms of metabolic acidosis such as chronic renalfailure and renal tubular acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate may also be useful in urinary alkalinization for the treatmentof aspirin overdose and uric acid renal stones. It is used as the medicinal ingredient in gripe water for infants.[23]Bicarb has been known to be used in first aid, in treating scalding, to prevent blistering and scarring. Cover scaldarea with a liberal layer of bicarb and seek medical assistance.An aqueous solution is sometimes administered intravenously for cases of acidosis, or when there are insufficientsodium or bicarbonate ions in the blood.[24]In cases of respiratory acidosis, the infused bicarbonate ion drives thecarbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer of plasma to the left and, thus, raises the pH. It is for this reason that sodiumbicarbonate is used in medically supervised cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Infusion of bicarbonate is indicated onlywhen the blood pH is marked (<7.1-7.0) low.[25]It is used as well for treatment of hyperkalemia. Since sodium bicarbonate can cause alkalosis, it is sometimes usedto treat aspirin overdoses. Aspirin requires an acidic environment for proper absorption, and the basic environmentdiminishes aspirin absorption in the case of an overdose. Sodium bicarbonate has also been used in the treatment oftricyclic antidepressant overdose.[26]It can also be applied topically as a paste, with three parts baking soda to onepart water, to relieve insect bites.[27]Adverse reactions to the administration of sodium bicarbonate can include metabolic alkalosis, edema due to sodiumoverload, congestive heart failure, hyperosmolar syndrome, hypervolemic hypernatremia, and hypertension due toincreased sodium. In patients who consume a high calcium or dairy-rich diet, calcium supplements, orcalcium-containing antacids such as calcium carbonate (e.g., Tums), the use of sodium bicarbonate can causemilk-alkali syndrome, which can result in metastatic calcification, kidney stones, and kidney failure.Sodium bicarbonate is also used as an ingredient in some mouthwashes. It works as a mechanical cleanser on theteeth and gums, neutralizes the production of acid in the mouth and also as an antiseptic to help prevent infectionsoccurring.Sodium bicarbonate can be used to cover an allergic reaction of poison ivy, oak, or sumac to relieve some of theitching that is associated with it (an alternative to buying hydrocortisone cream).[28]Sodium bicarbonate can be used as an exfoliant. Its particles are rounded and fine in texture, making it both effectiveand gentle on the skin. Using baking soda as an exfoliating scrub will remove dead skin cells, which can bediscolored from hyperpigmentation and scarring.Personal hygieneA paste made from sodium bicarbonate and a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution can be used as an alternative tocommercial non-fluoride toothpastes, and sodium bicarbonate in combination with other ingredients can be used tomake a dry or wet deodorant. Sodium bicarbonate is a common ingredient in alternative and natural brands oftoothpaste and deodorant. It may also be used as a shampoo.[29]Soda loadingSmall amounts of sodium bicarbonate have been shown to be useful as a supplement for endurance athletes,[30]butoverdose is a serious risk.[31]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium bicarbonate 101As a cleaning agentA paste from baking soda can be very effective when used in cleaning and scrubbing.[32]For cleaning aluminiumobjects, the use of sodium bicarbonate is discouraged as it attacks the thin unreactive protective oxide layer of thisotherwise very reactive metal. A solution in warm water will remove the tarnish from silver when the silver is incontact with a piece of aluminium foil.[33]Baking soda is commonly added to the rinse cycles of washing machines (together with the detergent) as areplacement for softener and also to remove odors. Sodium bicarbonate is also effective in removing heavy tea andcoffee stains from cups when diluted with warm water.Cattle feed supplementSodium bicarbonate is sold as a cattle feed supplement, in particular as a buffering agent for the rumen.MiscellaneousSodium bicarbonate can be used to extinguish small grease or electrical fires by being thrown over the fire.[19]However, it should not be applied to fires in deep fryers as it may cause the grease to splatter.[19]Sodiumbicarbonate is used in BC dry chemical fire extinguishers as an alternative to the more corrosive ammoniumphosphate in ABC extinguishers. The alkali nature of sodium bicarbonate makes it the only dry chemical agent,besides Purple-K, that was used in large scale fire suppression systems installed in commercial kitchens. Because itcan act as an alkali, the agent has a mild saponification effect on hot grease, which forms a smothering soapy foam.Dry chemicals have since fallen out of favor for kitchen fires as they have no cooling effect compared to theextremely effective wet chemical agents specifically designed for such hazards.Sodium bicarbonate is used in a process for cleaning paint called sodablasting. It can be administered to pools, spas,and garden ponds to raise pH levels.[34]It has disinfectant and antiseptic properties,[35]and it may be an effectivefungicide against some organisms.[36]Since it acts as a neutralizing agent it can be used to absorb odors which are caused due to strong acids. It is atried-and-true method of used booksellers. The baking soda will absorb the musty smell, leaving the books lessodorous.[37]See also• Carbonic acid• Baking powder• List of minerals• Nahcolite• Natron• Natrona (disambiguation)• TronaFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium bicarbonate 102References[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=144-55-8[2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=516892[3] http://www.chemspider.com/8609[4] http://fdasis.nlm.nih.gov/srs/srsdirect.jsp?regno=8MDF5V39QO[5] http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/index.php?GENRE=ECNO&ENTREE=205-633-8[6] http://redpoll.pharmacy.ualberta.ca/drugbank/cgi-bin/getCard.cgi?CARD=DB01390[7] http://www.kegg.jp/entry/C12603[8] http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2007/MB_cgi?mode=&term=Sodium+bicarbonate[9] https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=32139[10] https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chembldb/index.php/compound/inspect/CHEMBL1353[11] http://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/?code=B05CB04[12] http://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/?code=B05XA02[13] http://siri.org/msds/f2/bdm/bdmjw.html[14] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Asodium_bicarbonate?diff=cur&oldid=400135939[15] "Company History" (http://www.churchdwight.com/Company/corp_history.asp). Church & Dwight Co.. .[16] Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.[17] "Decomposition of Carbonates" (http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/inorganic/faq/carbonate-decomposition.shtml).General Chemistry Online. .[18] Radiation Cookery Book 45thEdition, Radiation Group Sales Ltd 1954[19] "Arm & Hammer Baking Soda - Basics - The Magic Of Arm & Hammer Baking Soda" (http://www.armhammer.com/basics/magic/#9).Armhammer.com. . Retrieved 2009-07-30.[20] "White Phosphorus" (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/wp.htm). GlobalSecurity.org. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.[21] "Outdoor Fun: Pool Care" (http://www.armhammer.com/myfamily/tips/outdoors.asp). Arm & Hammer Baking Soda. 2003. . Retrieved2007-09-26.[22] "Sodium Bicarbonate" (http://www.gicare.com/pated/sodium_bicarbonate.htm). Jackson Siegelbaum Gastroenterology. 1998. .[23] List of ingredients - Life Brand Gripe Water[24] "Sodium Bicarbonate Intravenous Infusion" (http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcmed.nsf/pages/pucsodbi/$File/pucsodbi.pdf). Consumer Medicine Information. Better Health Channel. 2004-07-13. .[25] "Respiratory Acidosis: Treatment & Medication" (http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/301574-treatment). emedicine. .[26] Knudsen, K; Abrahamsson, J (Apr 1997). "Epinephrine and sodium bicarbonate independently and additively increase survival inexperimental amitriptyline poisoning". Critical care medicine 25 (4): 669–74. doi:10.1097/00003246-199704000-00019. ISSN 0090-3493.PMID 9142034.[27] "Insect bites and stings: First aid" (http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-insect-bites/fa00046). Mayo Clinic. 2008-01-15. .[28] What is Sodium Bicarbonate Used For? (http://www.virtuowl.com/bicarb-lab/WhatisSodiumBicarbonateUsedFor.html). Virtuowl.com.Retrieved on 2010-09-24.[29] Bouchard, Mallory (2010-05-04). "A Green and Healthy Beauty Secret: Going Shampoo-Free" (http://www.fourgreensteps.com/infozone/featured/features/a-green-and-healthy-beauty-secret-going-shampoo-free). Four Green Steps. .[30] Bee, Peta (2008-08-16). "Is bicarbonate of soda a performanceenhancing drug" (http://women.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/women/body_and_soul/article4539000.ece). The Times (London). . Retrieved 2010-05-23.[31] Baking soda overdose - All Information (http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/002749all.htm). Umm.edu (2009-10-19). Retrieved on2010-09-24.[32] "Arm & Hammer Baking Soda - Basics - The Magic Of Arm & Hammer Baking Soda" (http://www.armhammer.com/basics/magic/#3).Armhammer.com. . Retrieved 2009-07-30.[33] instructables.com (http://www.instructables.com/id/EWU42JVP9EEV2ZBWZL/)[34] "Arm & Hammer Baking Soda - Basics - The Magic Of Arm & Hammer Baking Soda" (http://www.armhammer.com/basics/magic/#8).Armhammer.com. . Retrieved 2009-07-30.[35] Malik, Ys; Goyal, Sm (May 2006). "Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus, anorovirus surrogate". International journal of food microbiology 109 (1-2): 160–3. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.08.033. ISSN 0168-1605.PMID 16540196.[36] Zamani, M; Sharifi, Tehrani, A; Ali, Abadi, Aa (2007). "Evaluation of antifungal activity of carbonate and bicarbonate salts alone or incombination with biocontrol agents in control of citrus green mold" (Free full text). Communications in agricultural and applied biologicalsciences 72 (4): 773–7. PMID 18396809.[37] Gail Altman (2006-05-22). "Book Repair for BookThinkers: How To Remove Odors From Books" (http://www.bookthink.com/0069/69alt.htm). The BookThinker (69). .FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sodium bicarbonate 103Further reading• Bishop, D; Edge, J; Davis, C; Goodman, C (May 2004). "Induced metabolic alkalosis affects muscle metabolismand repeated-sprint ability.". Medicine and science in sports and exercise 36 (5): 807–13. ISSN 0195-9131.PMID 15126714.External links• International Chemical Safety Card 1044 (http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc10/icsc1044.htm)• Differences between Baking Soda and Baking Powder (http://chemistry.about.com/cs/foodchemistry/f/blbaking.htm/)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Magnesium carbonate 104Magnesium carbonateMagnesium carbonateIdentifiersCAS number 546-93-0[1]  , 13717-00-5 (monohydrate)5145-48-2 (dihydrate)14457-83-1 (trihydrate)61042-72-6 (pentahydrate)PubChem 11029[2]ChemSpider 10563[3] RTECS number OM2470000PropertiesMolecular formula MgCO3Molar mass 84.3139 g/molAppearance white solidhygroscopicDensity 2.958 g/cm3(anhydrous)2.825 g/cm3(dihydrate)1.837 g/cm3(trihydrate)1.73 g/cm3(pentahydrate)Melting point 540 °C decomp.Solubility in water 0.0012 mol/L (25 °C, anhydrous)0.375 g/100 mL (20 °C, pentahydrate)Solubility product, Ksp 1.0 x 10-5 [4]Refractive index (nD) 1.717 (anhydrous)1.458 (dihydrate)1.412 (trihydrate)StructureCrystal structure TrigonalThermochemistryStd enthalpy offormation ΔfHo298−1111.69 kJ/molStandard molarentropy So29865.84 J K−1mol−1FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Magnesium carbonate 105HazardsMSDS ICSC 0969[5]EU Index Not listedFlash point Non-flammableRelated compoundsOther anions Magnesium bicarbonateOther cations Beryllium carbonateCalcium carbonateStrontium carbonateBarium carbonateRelated compounds ArtiniteHydromagnesiteDypingite(what is this?)   (verify)[6]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesMagnesium carbonate, MgCO3, is a white solid that occurs in nature as a mineral. Several hydrated and basicforms of magnesium carbonate also exist as minerals. In addition, MgCO3has a variety of uses.FormsThe most common magnesium carbonate forms are the anhydrous salt called magnesite (MgCO3) and the di, tri, andpentahydrates known as barringtonite (MgCO3·2H2O), nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O), and lansfordite(MgCO3·5H2O), respectively. Some basic forms such as artinite (MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·3H2O), hydromagnestite(4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·4H2O), and dypingite (4MgCO3· Mg(OH)2·5H2O) also occur as minerals. Magnesite consists ofwhite trigonal crystals. The anhydrous salt is practically insoluble in water, acetone, and ammonia. All forms ofmagnesium carbonate react in acids. Magnesium carbonate crystallizes in the calcite structure where in Mg2+issurrounded by six oxygen atoms. The dihydrate one has a triclinic structure, while the trihydrate has a monoclinicstructure.References to light and heavy magnesium carbonates actually refer to the magnesium hydroxy carbonateshydromagnesite and dypingite (respectively)[7].ReactionsAlthough magnesium carbonate is ordinarily obtained by mining the mineral magnesite, the trihydrate salt,MgCO3·3H2O, can be prepared by mixing solutions of magnesium and carbonate ions under an atmosphere ofcarbon dioxide. Magnesium carbonate can also be synthesized by exposing a magnesium hydroxide slurry to carbondioxide under pressure (3.5 to 5 atm) below 50 °C, which gives soluble magnesium bicarbonate:Mg(OH)2+ 2 CO2→ Mg(HCO3)2Following the filtration of the solution, the filtrate is dried under vacuum to produce magnesium carbonate as ahydrated salt:Mg2++ 2 HCO3-→ MgCO3+ CO2+ H2OWhen dissolved with acid, magnesium carbonate decomposes with release of carbon dioxide:MgCO3+ 2 HCl → MgCl2+ CO2+ H2OMgCO3+ H2SO4→ MgSO4+ CO2+ H2OFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Magnesium carbonate 106At a temperature range between (250 °C - 800 °C), MgCO3decomposes to magnesium oxide and carbon dioxidewith reaction enthalpy 118 kJ / mole, this process is called calcining:MgCO3-{250-800 °C}→ MgO + CO2Above 500 °C the process reaches a decomposition rate of 100% MgO, the publicated decomposition temperature incases of material safety is 662 °C.UsesMagnesite and dolomite minerals are used to produce magnesium metal and basic refractory bricks. MgCO3is alsoused in flooring, fireproofing, fire extinguishing compositions, cosmetics, dusting powder, and toothpaste. Otherapplications are as filler material, smoke suppressant in plastics, a reinforcing agent in neoprene rubber, a dryingagent, a laxative to loosen the bowels, and color retention in foods. In addition, high purity magnesium carbonate isused as antacid and as an additive in table salt to keep it free flowing.Because of its water-insoluble, hygroscopic properties MgCO3was first added to salt in 1911 to make the salt flowmore freely. The Morton Salt company adopted the slogan "When it rains it pours" in reference to the fact that itsMgCO3-containing salt would not stick together in humid weather.[8]Magnesium carbonate, most often referred to as chalk, is used as a drying agent for hands in rock climbing,gymnastics, and weight lifting.Magnesium carbonate is also used in taxidermy for whitening skulls. It can be mixed with hydrogen peroxide tocreate a paste, which is then spread on the skull to give it a white finish.Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide is used as a clay in face masks, it has mild astringent properties and helps tosmooth and soften (normal and dry) skin.Food additiveAs a food additive magnesium carbonate is known as E504, for which the only known side effect is that it may workas a laxative in high concentrations.[9]ToxicologyMagnesium carbonate itself is not toxic. However, its excessive use may cause central nervous system depressionand cardiac disturbances.[10]It is slightly hazardous in case of skin and eye contact and may cause respiratory anddigestive tract irritation in case of ingestion or inhalation.Compendial status• British Pharmacopoeia[11]• Japanese Pharmacopoeia[12]Notes and references[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=546-93-0[2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=11029[3] http://www.chemspider.com/10563[4] Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0070494398[5] http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc09/icsc0969.htm[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Amagnesium_carbonate?diff=cur&oldid=400293819[7] A. BOTHA and C. A. STRYDOM; “Preparation of a magnesium hydroxy carbonate from magnesium hydroxide;” Hydrometallurgy; ElsevierScience; December 2001; 62 (3): pp. 175–183.[8] "Morton Salt FAQ" (http://www.mortonsalt.com/faqs/index.html#q3). . Retrieved 2007-05-14.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Magnesium carbonate 107[9] "Food-Info.net : E-numbers : E504: Magnesium carbonates" (http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e504.htm). . 080419 food-info.net[10] https://fscimage.fishersci.com/msds/13340.htm Fischer Scientific[11] British Pharmacopoeia Commission Secretariat (2009). "Index, BP 2009" (http://www.pharmacopoeia.co.uk/pdf/2009_index.pdf). .Retrieved 31 January 2010.[12] "Japanese Pharmacopoeia, Fifteenth Edition" (http://jpdb.nihs.go.jp/jp15e/JP15.pdf). 2006. . Retrieved 31 January 2010.• Patnaik, Pradyot (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. New York: McGraw Hill.• Trotman-Dickenson, A.F "(ed.)" (1973). Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford: Pergamon Press.See also• Calcium acetate/magnesium carbonateExternal links• International Chemical Safety Card 0969 (http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc09/icsc0969.htm)• NIST Standard Reference Database (http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Magnesium oxide 108Magnesium oxideMagnesium oxideIdentifiersCAS number 1309-48-4[1] PubChem 14792[2]RTECS number OM3850000ATC code A02 AA02[3]PropertiesMolecular formula MgOMolar mass 40.3044 g/molAppearance White powderOdor OdorlessDensity 3.58 g/cm3Melting point 2852 °C, 3125 K, 5166 °FBoiling point 3600 °C, 3873 K, 6512 °FSolubility in water 0.086 g/L[4]Solubility Soluble in acid, ammoniainsoluble in alcoholBand gap 7.8 eV[5]Refractive index (nD) 1.736StructureCrystal structure Halite (cubic), cF8Space group Fm3m, No. 225FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Magnesium oxide 109CoordinationgeometryOctahedral (Mg2+); octahedral (O2–)ThermochemistryStd enthalpy offormation ΔfHo298-601.24 kJ·mol-1HazardsMSDS ICSC 0504[6]EU Index Not listedR-phrases R36, R37, R38NFPA 704Flash point Non-flammableRelated compoundsOther anions Magnesium sulfideOther cations Beryllium oxideCalcium oxideStrontium oxideBarium oxideRelated compounds Magnesium hydroxideMagnesium nitride(what is this?)   (verify)[7]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesMagnesium oxide, or magnesia, is a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source ofmagnesium (see also oxide). It has an empirical formula of MgO. It is formed by an ionic bond between onemagnesium and one oxygen atom. Magnesium oxide is hygroscopic in nature and care must be taken to protect itfrom moisture. Magnesium hydroxide forms in the presence of water (MgO + H2O → Mg(OH)2), but it can bereversed by heating it to separate moisture.Magnesium oxide was historically known as magnesia alba (literally, the white mineral from Magnesia), todifferentiate it from magnesia negra, a black mineral containing what is now known as manganese.ApplicationsA refractory material is one that is physically and chemically stable at high temperatures. "By far the largestconsumer of magnesia worldwide is the refractory industry, which consumed about 56% of the magnesia in theUnited States in 2004, the remaining 44% being used in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental, andother industrial applications."[8]CementMgO is one of the raw materials for making Portland cement in dry process plants. If too much MgO is added, thecement may become expansive. Production of MgO-based cement using serpentinite and waste CO2 (as opposed toconventional CaO-based cement using fossil fuels) may reduce anthropogenic emissions of CO2[9].FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Magnesium oxide 110DesiccantMgO is an efficient moisture absorbent used by many libraries for preserving books.MedicalIn medicine, magnesium oxide is used for relief of heartburn and sore stomach, as an antacid, magnesiumsupplement, and as a short-term laxative. It is also used to improve symptoms of indigestion. Side effects ofmagnesium oxide may include nausea and cramping.[10]In quantities sufficient to obtain a laxative effect, sideeffects of long-term use include enteroliths resulting in bowel obstruction.[11]Other• MgO is used as an insulator in industrial cables, as a basic refractory material for crucibles and as a principalfireproofing ingredient in construction materials. As a construction material, magnesium oxide wallboards haveseveral attractive characteristics: fire resistance, moisture resistance, mold and mildew resistance, and strength.• It is used as a reference white color in colorimetry, owing to its good diffusing and reflectivity properties.[12]Itmay be smoked onto the surface of an opaque material to form an integrating sphere.• It is used extensively in electrical heating as a component of "CalRod"-styled heating elements. There are severalmesh sizes available and most commonly used ones are 40 and 80 mesh per the American Foundry Society. Theextensive use is due to its high dielectric strength and average thermal conductivity. MgO is usually crushed andcompacted with minimal airgaps or voids. The electrical heating industry also experimented with aluminiumoxide, but it is not used anymore.• Pressed MgO is used as an optical material. It is transparent from 0.3 to 7 µm. The refractive index is 1.72 at 1 µmand the Abbe number is 53.58. It is sometimes known by the Eastman Kodak trademarked name Irtran-5,although this designation is long since obsolete. Crystalline pure MgO is available commercially and has smalluse in infrared optics.[13]• It is packed around transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, to control the solubility ofradionuclides.[14]• An aerosolized solution of MgO is used in library science and collections management for the deacidification ofat-risk paper items. In this process, the alkalinity of MgO (and similar compounds) neutralizes the relatively highacidity characteristic of low-quality paper, thus slowing the rate of deterioration.• It is also used as a protective coating in plasma displays.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Magnesium oxide 111PrecautionsMagnesium oxide is easily made by burning magnesium ribbon which oxidizes in a bright white light, resulting in apowder. However, the bright flame is very hard to extinguish and it emits a harmful intensity of UV light. Inhalationof magnesium oxide fumes can cause metal fume fever.[15]GalleryUnpolished MgO crystalReferences[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=1309-48-4[2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=14792[3] http://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/?code=A02AA02[4] Material Safety Data Sheet. Magnesium oxide (https://fscimage.fishersci.com/msds/13450.htm)[5] O. E. Taurian et al. (1985). "Self-consistent electronic structures of MgO and SrO". Solid State Communications 55: 351.doi:10.1016/0038-1098(85)90622-2.[6] http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc05/icsc0504.htm[7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Amagnesium_oxide?diff=cur&oldid=406096934[8] Book The Chemistry and Technology of Magnesia (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=0ShuV4W0V2gC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false), by Mark A. Shand (year 2006).[9] [ |McKenna, Phil (http://www.newscientist.com/search?rbauthors=Phil+McKenna)] (1). "Emission control: Turning carbon trash intotreasure" (http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20727791.100-emission-control-turning-carbon-trash-into-treasure.html?full=true).New Scientist. . Retrieved 4 Oct 2010.[10] MedlinePlus (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a601074.html) medicinal use[11] Tatekawa Y, Nakatani K, Ishii H, et al. (1996). "Small bowel obstruction caused by a medication bezoar: report of a case". Surgery today 26(1): 68–70. doi:10.1007/BF00311997. PMID 8680127.[12] Tellex, Peter A.; Waldron, Jack R. (1955). "Reflectance of Magnesium Oxide" (http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-45-1-19). JOSA 45 (1): 19. doi:10.1364/JOSA.45.000019. .[13] Index of Refraction of Magnesium Oxide (http://nvl.nist.gov/pub/nistpubs/jres/049/4/V49.N04.A03.pdf) Robert E. Stephens andIrving H. Malitson[14] wipp.energy.gov (http://www.wipp.energy.gov/fctshts/wastehandling.pdf) Waste-handling guide for WIPP[15] National Pollutant Inventory - Magnesium Oxide Fume Fact Sheet (http://www.npi.gov.au/database/substance-info/profiles/51.html)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Magnesium oxide 112External links• Data page at UCL (http://www.cmmp.ucl.ac.uk/~ahh/research/crystal/mgo.htm)• Ceramic data page at NIST (http://www.ceramics.nist.gov/srd/summary/ftgmgo.htm)Zinc silicateHemimorphiteHemimorphite from Mapimi, Durango, MexicoGeneralCategory Silicate mineralChemical formula Zn4Si2O7(OH)2·H2OCrystal symmetry Orthorhombic mm2Unit cell a = 8.367(5) Å, b = 10.73Å, c = 5.155(3) Å; Z = 2IdentificationColor White, blue, greenishCrystal habit Polar crystals, with different or hemimorphic ends. Also coxcomb masses, mammillary, stalactitic, or massiveCrystal system Orthorhombic pyramidalTwinning Rare on {001}Cleavage Perfect on {110}, poor on {101}, {001} rareFracture Uneven to conchoidalTenacity BrittleMohs scale hardness 4.5-5Luster Vitreous, adamantine, rarely silkyStreak WhiteDiaphaneity Transparent to translucentSpecific gravity 3.516 - 3.525Optical properties Biaxial (+)Refractive index nα= 1.614 nβ= 1.617 nγ= 1.636Birefringence δ = 0.0222V angle Measured: 46°, calculated: 44°Solubility Soluble in acidFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Zinc silicate 113References [1] [2] [3]Hemimorphite, is a sorosilicate mineral which has been mined from days of old from the upper parts of zinc andlead ores, chiefly associated with smithsonite. It was often assumed to be the same mineral and both were classedunder the same name of calamine. In the second half of the 18th century it was discovered that there were twodifferent minerals under the heading of calamine - a zinc carbonate and a zinc silicate, which often closely resembledeach other.The silicate was the more rare of the two, and was named hemimorphite because of the hemimorph development ofits crystals. This unusual form, which is typical of only a few minerals, means that the crystals are terminated bydissimilar faces. Hemimorphite most commonly forms crystalline crusts and layers, also massive, granular, roundedand reniform aggregates, concentrically striated, or finely needle-shaped, fibrous or stalactitic, and rarely fan-shapedclusters of crystals.Some specimens show strong green fluorescence in shortwave ultraviolet light (253.7 nm) and weak light pinkfluorescence in longwave UV.OccurrenceHemimorphite "spray" of crystals from Durango,Mexico (size: 2.9 x 2.1 x 2.0 cm)Hemimorphite most frequently occurs as the product of the oxidationof the upper parts of sphalerite bearing ore bodies, accompanied byother secondary minerals which form the so-called iron cap or gossan.Hemimorphite is an important ore of zinc and contains up to 54.2% ofthe metal.Blue vug filling hemimorphite from Wenshan,Yunnan Province, China (size: 9.2 x 4.8 x 3.1cm)The regions on the Belgian-German border are well known for theirdeposits of hemimorphite of metasomatic origin, especially VieilleMontagne in Belgium and Aachen in Germany. Other deposits are nearTarnovice in upper Silesia, Poland; near Phoenixville, Pennsylvania;the Missouri lead-zinc district; Elkhorn, Montana; Leadville, Colorado;and Organ Mountains, New Mexico in the United States; and in severallocalities in North Africa. Further hemimorphite occurrences are thePadaeng deposit near Mae Sod in western Thailand; Sardinia;Nerchinsk, Siberia; Cave del Predil, Italy; Bleiberg, Carinthia, Austria;Matlock, Derbyshire, England.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Zinc silicate 114References[1] Handbook of Mineralogy (http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/hemimorphite.pdf)[2] Webmineral (http://webmineral.com/data/Hemimorphite.shtml)[3] Mindat.org (http://www.mindat.org/min-1860.html)• Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis, 1985, Manual of Mineralogy, 20th ed., ISBN 0-471-80580-7• Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Aversa, G., and Balassone, G., 2003, The "Calamine" of southwest Sardinia: Geology,mineralogy, and stable isotope geochemistry of supergene Zn mineralization: Economic Geology, v. 98, p.731-748.• Reynolds, N.A., Chisnall, T.W., Kaewsang, K., Keesaneyabutr, C., and Taksavasu, T., 2003, The Padaengsupergene nonsulfide zinc deposit, Mae Sod, Thailand: Economic Geology, v. 98, p. 773-785.• Mineral galleries (http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/hemimorp/hemimorp.htm)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Polydimethylsiloxane 115PolydimethylsiloxanePolydimethylsiloxaneIdentifiersCAS number 63148-62-9[1] PropertiesMolecular formula (C2H6OSi)nDensity 965 kg m−3Melting point N/A (vitrifies)Boiling point N/A (vitrifies)(what is this?)   (verify)[2]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesPolydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) belongs to a group of polymeric organosilicon compounds that are commonlyreferred to as silicones.[3]PDMS is the most widely used silicon-based organic polymer, and is particularly knownfor its unusual rheological (or flow) properties. PDMS is optically clear, and, in general, is considered to be inert,non-toxic and non-flammable. It is occasionally called dimethicone and is one of several types of silicone oil(polymerized siloxane). Its applications range from contact lenses and medical devices to elastomers; it is present,also, in shampoos (as dimethicone makes hair shiny and slippery), caulking, lubricating oils, and heat-resistant tiles.ChemistryThe chemical formula for PDMS is CH3[Si(CH3)2O]nSi(CH3)3, where n is the number of repeating monomer[SiO(CH3)2] units. Industrial synthesis can begin from dimethylchlorosilane and water by the following net reaction:n Si(CH3)2Cl2+ n H2O → [Si(CH3)2O]n+ 2n HClDuring polymerization, this reaction evolves potentially hazardous hydrogen chloride gas. For medical uses, aprocess was developed in which the chlorine atoms in the silane precursor were replaced with acetate groups, so thatthe reaction product of the final curing process is nontoxic acetic acid (vinegar). As a side-effect, the curing processis also much slower in this case. This is the chemistry used in consumer applications, such as silicone caulk andadhesives.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Polydimethylsiloxane 116Silane precursors with more acid-forming groups and fewer methyl groups, such as methyltrichlorosilane, can beused to introduce branches or cross-links in the polymer chain. Under ideal conditions, each molecule of such acompound becomes a branch point. This can be used to produce hard silicone resins. In a similar manner, precursorswith three methyl groups can be used to limit molecular weight, since each such molecule has only one reactive siteand so forms the end of a siloxane chain.The polymer is manufactured in multiple viscosities, ranging from a thin pourable liquid (when n is very low), to athick rubbery semi-solid (when n is very high). PDMS molecules have quite flexible polymer backbones (or chains)due to their siloxane linkages, which are analogous to the ether linkages used to impart rubberiness to polyurethanes.Such flexible chains become loosely entangled when molecular weight is high, which results in PDMS unusuallyhigh level of viscoelasticity.Mechanical propertiesHardened PDMS cylinder on the glass of astereomicroscope light.PDMS is viscoelastic, meaning that at long flow times (or hightemperatures), it acts like a viscous liquid, similar to honey. However,at short flow times (or low temperatures), it acts like an elastic solid,similar to rubber. In other words, if some PDMS is left on a surfaceovernight (long flow time), it will flow to cover the surface and moldto any surface imperfections. However, if the same PDMS is rolledinto a sphere and thrown onto the same surface (short flow time), itwill bounce like a rubber ball.Although the viscoelastic properties of PDMS can be intuitivelyobserved using the simple experiment described above, they can bemore accurately measured using dynamic mechanical analysis. Thisinvolves using a specialized instrument to determine the materials flow characteristics over a wide range oftemperatures, flow rates, and deformations. Because of PDMSs chemical stability, it is often used as a calibrationfluid for this type of experiment.The shear modulus of PDMS varies with preparation conditions, but is typically in the range of 100 kPa to 3 MPa.The loss tangent is very low (tan δ ≪ 0.001).[4]Chemical compatibilityAfter polymerization and cross-linking, solid PDMS samples will present an external hydrophobic surface.[5]Thissurface chemistry makes it difficult for polar solvents (such as water) to wet the PDMS surface, and may lead toadsorption of hydrophobic contaminants. Plasma oxidation can be used to alter the surface chemistry, adding silanol(SiOH) groups to the surface. This treatment renders the PDMS surface hydrophilic, allowing water to wet (this isfrequently required for, e.g. water-based microfluidics). The oxidized surface resists adsorption of hydrophobic andnegatively charged species. The oxidized surface can be further functionalized by reaction with trichlorosilanes.Oxidized surfaces are stable for ~30 minutes in air, after a certain time hydrophobic recovery of the surface isinevitable independently of the surrounding medium whether it is vacuum, air, or water.[6]Solid PDMS samples (whether surface oxidized or not) will not allow aqueous solvents to infiltrate and swell thematerial. Thus PDMS structures can be used in combination with water and alcohol solvents without materialdeformation. However most organic solvents will diffuse into the material and cause it to swell,[5]making themincompatible with PDMS devices. Despite this, some organic solvents lead to sufficiently small swelling that theycan be used with PDMS, for instance within the channels of PDMS microfluidic devices. The swelling ratio isroughly inversely related to the solubility parameter of the solvent. Diisopropylamine swells PDMS to the greatestextent, solvents such as chloroform, ether, and THF swell the material to a large extent. Solvents such as acetone,FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Polydimethylsiloxane 1171-propanol, and pyridine swell the material to a small extent. Alcohols and polar solvents such as methanol, glyceroland water do not swell the material appreciably.[7]ApplicationsMany people are indirectly familiar with PDMS because it is an important component in Silly Putty, to which PDMSimparts its characteristic viscoelastic properties.[8]The rubbery, vinegary-smelling silicone caulks, adhesives, andaquarium sealants are also well-known. PDMS is also used as a component in silicone grease and other siliconebased lubricants, as well as in defoaming agents, mold release agents, damping fluids, heat transfer fluids, polishes,cosmetics, hair conditioners and other applications. PDMS has also been used as a filler fluid in breast implants,although this practice has decreased somewhat, due to safety concerns, despite some evidence that it may beprotective against breast cancer.[9]Activated dimethicone, a mixture of polydimethylsiloxanes and silicon dioxide (sometimes called simethicone), isused in over-the-counter drug as an anti-foaming agent and carminative.[10] [11]As a food additive, it has the E number E900 and is used as an anti-foaming agent and an anti-caking agent. Thissilicone can be found in many processed foods and fast food items such as McDonalds Chicken McNuggets[12].PDMS is commonly used as a stamp resin in the procedure of soft lithography, making it one of the most commonmaterials used for flow delivery in microfluidics chips. The process of soft lithography consists of creating an elasticstamp, which enables the transfer of patterns of only a few nanometers in size onto glass, silicon or polymersurfaces. With this type of technique, it is possible to produce devices that can be used in the areas of optictelecommunications or biomedical research. However, this process still cannot be used for the industrial productionof electronic components. In fact, the patterns are obtained by the process of stamping thanks to a shape (or stamp).This stamp is produced from the normal techniques of photolithography or electron-beam technology. The resolutiondepends on the mask used and can reach 6 nm.[13]In Bio-MEMS, soft lithography is used extensively for microfluidics in both organic and inorganic contexts. Siliconwafers are used to design channels, and PDMS is then poured over these wafers and left to harden. When removed,even the smallest of details is left imprinted in the PDMS. With this particular PDMS block, hydrophilic surfacemodification is conducted using RF Plasma techniques. Once surface bonds are disrupted, usually a piece of glassslide is placed on the activated side of the PDMS (the side with imprints). Once the bonds relax to their normal state,the glass is permanently sealed to the PDMS, thus creating a waterproof channel. With these devices, researchers canutilize various different surface chemistry techniques for different functions creating unique lab-on-a-chip devicesfor rapid parallel testing.PDMS can be cross-linked into networks and is a commonly used system for studying the elasticity of polymernetworks. PDMS can be directly patterned by surface-charge lithography.[14]PDMS is used variously in the cosmetic and consumer product industry as well. For example, PDMS can be used inthe treatment of head lice[15]and dimethicone is used widely in skin-moisturizing lotions where it is listed as anactive ingredient whose purpose is "skin protection." Some cosmetic formulations use dimethicone and relatedsiloxane polymers in concentrations of use up to 15%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Reviews (CIR) Expert Panel, hasconcluded that dimethicone and related polymers are "safe as used in cosmetic formulations."[16]PDMS in amodified form is used as an herbicidal penetrant[17]and is a critical ingredient in water-repelling coatings, such asRain-X.PDMS is also used in analytical chemistry as a component of some types of SPME fibers.PDMS has been used in the aerospace industry as a heat tile on reentry vehicles.[18]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Polydimethylsiloxane 118References[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=63148-62-9[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Apolydimethylsiloxane?diff=cur&oldid=310245099[3] "Linear Polydimethylsiloxanes" Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals, September 1994 (Report No. 26) ISSN 0773-6339-26[4] Lotters, J. C.; Olthuis, W.; Veltink, P. H.; Bergveld, P. (1997). "The mechanical properties of the rubber elastic polymerpolydimethylsiloxane for sensor applications". J Micromech Microeng 7: 145–147. doi:10.1088/0960-1317/7/3/017.[5] McDonald, J. C.et al. (2000). "Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane)". Electrophoresis 21 (1): 27–40.doi:10.1002/(SICI)1522-2683(20000101)21:1<27::AID-ELPS27>3.0.CO;2-C. PMID 10634468.[6] H. Hillborg, J.F. Ankner, U.W. Gedde, G.D. Smith, H.K. Yasuda and K. Wikstrom (2000). "Crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane exposed tooxygen plasma studied by neutron reflectometry and other surface specific techniques". Polymer 41: 6851–6863.doi:10.1016/S0032-3861(00)00039-2.[7] Lee, J. N.; Park, C.; Whitesides, G. M. (2003). "Solvent Compatibility of Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Microfluidic Devices". Anal. Chem.75 (23): 6544–6554. doi:10.1021/ac0346712. PMID 14640726.[8] Micro Total Analysis Systems, Silly Putty, and Fluorous Peptides (http://www.fluorous.com/journal/?p=86)[9] Implants may lower cancer risk (http://focus.hms.harvard.edu/1994/August26_1994/BreastCancer.html)[10] William E. Prentice, Michael L. Voight (2001). Techniques in musculoskeletal rehabilitation (http://books.google.com/?id=7FXXQzQ_zf0C&pg=PA369). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 369. ISBN 0071354980. .[11] Richard H. Hunt, G. N. J. Tytgat, Axcan Pharma (1998). Helicobacter Pylori: Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Cure 1998 (http://books.google.com/?id=Xhe2wLrSz58C&pg=PA447). Springer. p. 447. ISBN 0792387392. .[12] All McNuggets are not created equal (http://pagingdrgupta.blogs.cnn.com/2010/06/25/a-tale-of-2-nuggets/?hpt=Sbin)[13] Waldner, Jean-Baptiste (2008). Nanocomputers and Swarm Intelligence. London: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 92–93. ISBN 1847040020.[14] S. Grilli, V. Vespini, P. Ferraro (2008). "Surface-charge lithography for direct pdms micro-patterning". Langmuir 24 (23): 13262–13265.doi:10.1021/la803046j. PMID 18986187.[15] Burgess, Ian F. (2009). "The mode of action of dimeticone 4% lotion against head lice, Pediculus capitis" (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652450). BMC Pharmacology 9 (3): 3. doi:10.1186/1471-2210-9-3. PMID 19232080.PMC 2652450.[16] Nair, B; Cosmetic Ingredients Review Expert Panel (2003). "Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Stearoxy Dimethicone, Dimethicone,Methicone, Amino Bispropyl Dimethicone, Aminopropyl Dimethicone, Amodimethicone, Amodimethicone Hydroxystearate, BehenoxyDimethicone, C24-28 Alkyl Methicone, C30-45 Alkyl Methicone, C30-45 Alkyl Dimethicone, Cetearyl Methicone, Cetyl Dimethicone,Dimethoxysilyl Ethylenediaminopropyl Dimethicone, Hexyl Methicone, Hydroxypropyldimethicone, Stearamidopropyl Dimethicone, StearylDimethicone, Stearyl Methicone, and Vinyldimethicone". International Journal of Toxicology 22: 11. doi:10.1177/1091581803022S204.PMID 14555417.[17] "Pulse Penetrant..." (http://www.nrrbs.com.au/chemicalspulse.htm). . Retrieved 3 March 2009.[18] Ballistic Missile Basics (http://www.fas.org/nuke/intro/missile/basics.htm)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Magnesium stearate 119Magnesium stearateMagnesium stearateIdentifiersCAS number 557-04-0[1] PubChem 11177[2]ChemSpider 10704[3] UNII 70097M6I30[4] PropertiesMolecular formula Mg(C18H35O2)2Molar mass 591.27 g/molAppearance light white powderOdor slightMelting point 88 °C, 361 K, 190 °FSolubility in water negligibleSolubility insoluble in etherslightly soluble in benzeneHazardsMSDS External MSDS[5](what is this?)   (verify)[6]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesMagnesium stearate, also called octadecanoic acid, magnesium salt, is a white substance which is solid at roomtemperature. It has the chemical formula Mg(C18H35O2)2. It is a salt containing two equivalents of stearate (theanion of stearic acid) and one magnesium cation (Mg2+). Magnesium stearate melts at about 88 °C, is not soluble inwater, and is generally considered safe for human consumption at levels below 2500 mg/kg per day.[7]In 1979,FDAs Subcommittee on GRAS (generally recognized as safe) Substances (SCOGS) reported, "There is no evidencein the available information on ... magnesium stearate ... that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds tosuspect, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced, orwhich might reasonably be expected in the future."[8]Magnesium stearate is often used as a diluent[9]in the manufacture of medical tablets, capsules and powders.[10]Inthis regard, the substance is also useful, because it has lubricating properties, preventing ingredients from sticking tomanufacturing equipment during the compression of chemical powders into solid tablets; magnesium stearate is themost commonly used lubricant for tablets.[11]Studies have shown that magnesium stearate may affect the releasetime of the active ingredients in tablets, etc., but not that it reduces the over-all bioavailability of thoseFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Magnesium stearate 120ingredients.[12] [13]As a food additive or pharmaceutical excipient, its E number is E470b.Magnesium stearate is used to bind sugar in hard candies. It is also a common ingredient in baby formulas. In purepowder form, the substance can be a dust explosion hazard, although this issue is effectively insignificant beyond themanufacturing plants using it.[14]Magnesium stearate is manufactured from both animal and vegetable oils. Some nutritional supplements specify thatthe magnesium stearate used is sourced from vegetables.Magnesium stearate is a major component of "bathtub rings". When produced by soap and hard water, magnesiumstearate and calcium stearate both form a white solid insoluble in water, and are collectively known as "soapscum".[15]References[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=557-04-0[2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=11177[3] http://www.chemspider.com/10704[4] http://fdasis.nlm.nih.gov/srs/srsdirect.jsp?regno=70097M6I30[5] http://ptcl.chem.ox.ac.uk/MSDS/MA/magnesium_stearate.html[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Amagnesium_stearate?diff=cur&oldid=399363108[7] D. Søndergaarda, O. Meyera and G. Würtzena (1980). "Magnesium stearate given peroprally to rats. A short term study". Toxicology 17 (1):51–55. doi:10.1016/0300-483X(80)90026-8. PMID 7434368.[8] FDAs SCOGS Database (http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fcn/fcnDetailNavigation.cfm?rpt=scogsListing&id=198); Report No.60; ID Code: 557-04-0; Year: 1979[9] Steve Ritter (2008). "Whats That Stuff? Excipients: Inactive ingredients in medicines serve multiple functions in drug delivery" (http://pubs.acs.org/cen/whatstuff/86/8601sci3.html). Chemical & Engineering News 86 (1): 25. doi:10.1021/cen-v086n001.p025. .[10] Sworbrick, James; James C. Boylan (1990). Encyclopedia of pharmaceutical technology. p. 2274. ISBN 0824728246, 9780824728243.[11] Weiner, Myra L.; Lois A. Kotkoskie (1999). Excipient Toxicity and Safety. p. 10. ISBN 0824782100, 9780824782108.[12] Alija Uzunović, Edina Vranić; "Effect Of Magnesium Stearate Concentration On Dissolution Properties Of Ranitidine HydrochlorideCoated Tablets"; Bosnian Journal Of Basic Medical Sciences, 2007, 7(3): 279-283[13] Natalie D. Eddington, Muhammad Ashraf, Larry L. Augsburger, James L. Leslie, Michael J. Fossler, Lawrence J. Lesko, Vinod P. Shah,Gurvinder Singh Rekhi; "Identification of Formulation and Manufacturing Variables That Influence In Vitro Dissolution and In VivoBioavailability of Propranolol Hydrochloride Tablets"; Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, Volume 3, Issue 4 November 1998 ,pages 535 - 547[14] International Chemical Safety Card 1403 (http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics1403.htm)[15] Anne Marie Helmenstine; About.com: "Why Is It Harder to Rinse off Soap with Soft Water?" (http://chemistry.about.com/od/howthingsworkfaqs/a/softwaterrinse.htm); retrieved 19 Mar 2010FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Stearic acid 121Stearic acidStearic acid[1]IdentifiersCAS number 57-11-4[2] PubChem 5281[3]PropertiesMolecular formula C18H36O2Molar mass 284.48 g mol−1Density 0.847 g/cm3at 70 °CMelting point 69.6 °C, 343 K, 157 °FBoiling point 383 °C, 656 K, 721 °FRefractive index (nD) 1.4299(what is this?)   (verify)[4]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesStearic acid (first syllable pronounced either steer or stair) is the saturated fatty acid with an 18 carbon chain andhas the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid. It is a waxy solid, and its chemical formula is C18H36O2, orCH3(CH2)16COOH. Its name comes from the Greek word stéar (genitive: stéatos), which means tallow. The saltsand esters of stearic acid are called stearates.Food sourcesIt occurs in many animal and vegetable fats and oils, but it is more common in animal fat than vegetable fat. Theimportant exceptions are cocoa butter and shea butter whose fatty acids consist of 28–45% stearic acid.[5]ProductionStearic acid is prepared by treating animal fat with water at a high pressure and temperature, leading to thehydrolysis of triglycerides. It can also be obtained from the hydrogenation of some unsaturated vegetable oils.Common stearic acid is actually a mix of stearic acid and palmitic acid, although purified stearic acid is availableseparately.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Stearic acid 122UsesStearic acid is useful as an ingredient in making candles, plastics, dietary supplements, oil pastels and cosmetics, andfor softening rubber.[6]It is used to harden soaps, particularly those made with vegetable oil. Stearic acid is used inaerosol shaving cream products.Stearic acid is also used as a parting compound when making plaster castings from a plaster piece mold or wastemold and when making the mold from a shellacked clay original. In this use, powdered stearic acid is dissolved inwater and the solution is brushed onto the surface to be parted after casting. This reacts with the calcium in theplaster to form a thin layer of calcium stearate which functions as a release agent.Esters of stearic acid with ethylene glycol, glycol stearate and glycol distearate, are used to produce a pearly effect inshampoos, soaps, and other cosmetic products. They are added to the product in molten form and allowed tocrystallize under controlled conditions.In fireworks, stearic acid is often used to coat metal powders such as aluminium and iron. This prevents oxidation,allowing compositions to be stored for a longer period of time.It is used along with simple sugar or corn syrup as a hardener in candies.It is used with zinc as zinc stearate as fanning powder for cards to deliver smooth fanning motion.Stearic acid is one of most commonly used lubricants during injection molding and pressing of ceramic powders.[7]Stearic acid serves as an epilame (or barrier film) treatment, applied to precision mechanical components to modifythe surface properties to reduce the spreading (or creep) of subsequently-applied lubricant films.[8]ReactionsStearic acid undergoes the typical reactions of saturated carboxylic acids, notably reduction to stearyl alcohol, andesterification with a range of alcohols.Stearic acid is used along with castor oil for preparing softeners in textile sizing. They are heated and mixed withcaustic potash or caustic soda.MetabolismAn isotope labeling study in humans[9]concluded that the fraction of dietary stearic acid oxidatively desaturated tooleic acid was 2.4 times higher than the fraction of palmitic acid analogously converted to palmitoleic acid. Also,stearic acid was less likely to be incorporated into cholesterol esters. In epidemiologic and clinical studies stearicacid was associated with lowered LDL cholesterol in comparison with other saturated fatty acids.[10]These findingsmay indicate that stearic acid is less unhealthy than other saturated fatty acids.References[1] Susan Budavari, ed (1989). Merck Index (11th ed.). Rahway, New Jersey: Merck & Co., Inc. p. 8761. ISBN 9780911910285.[2] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=57-11-4[3] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=5281[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Astearic_acid?diff=cur&oldid=393099974[5] Beare-Rogers, J.; Dieffenbacher, A.; Holm, J.V. (2001). "Lexicon of lipid nutrition (IUPAC Technical Report)" (http://iupac.org/publications/pac/73/4/0685/). Pure and Applied Chemistry 73 (4): 685–744. doi:10.1351/pac200173040685. .[6] Wootthikanokkhan, J.; Tunjongnawin, P (2002). "Investigation of the effect of mixing schemes on cross-link distribution and tensileproperties of natural–acrylic rubber blends". Polymer Testing 22 (3): 305–312. doi:10.1016/S0142-9418(02)00105-8.[7] Tsenga, Wenjea J.; Mo Liua, Dean; Hsub, Chung-King (1999). "Influence of stearic acid on suspension structure and green microstructure ofinjection-molded zirconia ceramics". Ceramics International 25 (2): 191–195. doi:10.1016/S0272-8842(98)00024-8.[8] Epilame (http://hiro.alliancehorlogere.com/en/Under_the_Loupe/Epilame)[9] Emken, Edward A. (1994). "Metabolism of dietary stearic acid relative to other fatty acids in human subjects". American Journal of ClinicalNutrition 60 (6): 1023S–1028S. PMID 7977144.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Stearic acid 123[10] Hunter, J. Edward; Zhang, Jun; Kris-Etherton, Penny M. (January 2010). "Cardiovascular disease risk of dietary stearic acid compared withtrans, other saturated, and unsaturated fatty acids: a systematic review". Am. J. Clinical Nutrition (American Society for Nutrition) 91 (1):46–63. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27661. ISSN 0002-9165. PMID 19939984.External links• NIST Chemistry WebBook Entry (http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?Name=stearic+acid&Units=SI)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Calcium stearate 124Calcium stearateCalcium stearateIdentifiersCAS number 1592-23-0[1] PubChem 15324[2]ChemSpider 14587[3] UNII 776XM7047L[4] PropertiesMolecular formula C36H70CaO4Molar mass 607.02 g mol−1Appearance white powderDensity 1.08 g/cm3Melting point 155 °CSolubility in water negligibleSolubility pyridine(what is this?)   (verify)[5]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesCalcium stearate is carboxylate of calcium that is found in some lubricants and surfactants. It is a white waxypowder.[6]Production and occurrenceCalcium stearate is produced by heating stearic acid, a fatty acid, and calcium oxide:2 C17H34COOH + CaO → (C17H34COO)2Ca + H2OIt is also the main component of soap scum, a white solid that forms when soap is mixed with hard water.[7]Unlikesoaps containing sodium and potassium, calcium stearate is insoluble in water and does not lather well.Commercially it is sold as a 50% dispersion in water or as a spray dried powder. As a food additive it is known bythe E number E572.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Calcium stearate 125Applications• Calcium stearate is as a flow agent in powders including some foods (such as Smarties), a surface conditioner inhard candies such as Sprees, a waterproofing agent for fabrics, a lubricant in pencils and crayons.• The concrete industry uses calcium stearate for efflorescence control of cementious products used in theproduction of concrete masonry units i.e. paver and block, as well as waterproofing.[8]• In the paper production, calcium stearate is used as a lubricant to provide good gloss, preventing dusting and foldcracking in paper and paperboard making.[9]• In plastics, it can act as an acid scavenger, a lubricant and a release agent. It may be used in plastic colorantconcentrates to improve pigment wetting. In rigid PVC, it can accelerate fusion, improve flow, and reduce dieswell.• Applications in the personal care and pharmaceutical industry include tablet mold release, anti-tack agent, andgelling agent.• Calcium stearate is a component in some types of defoamers.References[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=1592-23-0[2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=15324[3] http://www.chemspider.com/14587[4] http://fdasis.nlm.nih.gov/srs/srsdirect.jsp?regno=776XM7047L[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Acalcium_stearate?diff=cur&oldid=401941924[6] Angelo Nora, Alfred Szczepanek, Gunther Koenen “Metallic Soaps” in Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH,Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a16_361[7] Hermann Weingärtner, "Water" in Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2007, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.doi:10.1002/14356007.a28_001[8] Preventing Efflorescence (http://www.cement.org/masonry/cc_fn_preventing_efflorescence.asp), Portland Cement Association[9] US 5527383 (http://v3.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US5527383)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Dimethyl polysiloxane 126Dimethyl polysiloxanePolydimethylsiloxaneIdentifiersCAS number 63148-62-9[1] PropertiesMolecular formula (C2H6OSi)nDensity 965 kg m−3Melting point N/A (vitrifies)Boiling point N/A (vitrifies)(what is this?)   (verify)[1]Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox referencesPolydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) belongs to a group of polymeric organosilicon compounds that are commonlyreferred to as silicones.[2]PDMS is the most widely used silicon-based organic polymer, and is particularly knownfor its unusual rheological (or flow) properties. PDMS is optically clear, and, in general, is considered to be inert,non-toxic and non-flammable. It is occasionally called dimethicone and is one of several types of silicone oil(polymerized siloxane). Its applications range from contact lenses and medical devices to elastomers; it is present,also, in shampoos (as dimethicone makes hair shiny and slippery), caulking, lubricating oils, and heat-resistant tiles.ChemistryThe chemical formula for PDMS is CH3[Si(CH3)2O]nSi(CH3)3, where n is the number of repeating monomer[SiO(CH3)2] units. Industrial synthesis can begin from dimethylchlorosilane and water by the following net reaction:n Si(CH3)2Cl2+ n H2O → [Si(CH3)2O]n+ 2n HClDuring polymerization, this reaction evolves potentially hazardous hydrogen chloride gas. For medical uses, aprocess was developed in which the chlorine atoms in the silane precursor were replaced with acetate groups, so thatthe reaction product of the final curing process is nontoxic acetic acid (vinegar). As a side-effect, the curing processis also much slower in this case. This is the chemistry used in consumer applications, such as silicone caulk andadhesives.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Dimethyl polysiloxane 127Silane precursors with more acid-forming groups and fewer methyl groups, such as methyltrichlorosilane, can beused to introduce branches or cross-links in the polymer chain. Under ideal conditions, each molecule of such acompound becomes a branch point. This can be used to produce hard silicone resins. In a similar manner, precursorswith three methyl groups can be used to limit molecular weight, since each such molecule has only one reactive siteand so forms the end of a siloxane chain.The polymer is manufactured in multiple viscosities, ranging from a thin pourable liquid (when n is very low), to athick rubbery semi-solid (when n is very high). PDMS molecules have quite flexible polymer backbones (or chains)due to their siloxane linkages, which are analogous to the ether linkages used to impart rubberiness to polyurethanes.Such flexible chains become loosely entangled when molecular weight is high, which results in PDMS unusuallyhigh level of viscoelasticity.Mechanical propertiesHardened PDMS cylinder on the glass of astereomicroscope light.PDMS is viscoelastic, meaning that at long flow times (or hightemperatures), it acts like a viscous liquid, similar to honey. However,at short flow times (or low temperatures), it acts like an elastic solid,similar to rubber. In other words, if some PDMS is left on a surfaceovernight (long flow time), it will flow to cover the surface and moldto any surface imperfections. However, if the same PDMS is rolledinto a sphere and thrown onto the same surface (short flow time), itwill bounce like a rubber ball.Although the viscoelastic properties of PDMS can be intuitivelyobserved using the simple experiment described above, they can bemore accurately measured using dynamic mechanical analysis. Thisinvolves using a specialized instrument to determine the materials flow characteristics over a wide range oftemperatures, flow rates, and deformations. Because of PDMSs chemical stability, it is often used as a calibrationfluid for this type of experiment.The shear modulus of PDMS varies with preparation conditions, but is typically in the range of 100 kPa to 3 MPa.The loss tangent is very low (tan δ ≪ 0.001).[3]Chemical compatibilityAfter polymerization and cross-linking, solid PDMS samples will present an external hydrophobic surface.[4]Thissurface chemistry makes it difficult for polar solvents (such as water) to wet the PDMS surface, and may lead toadsorption of hydrophobic contaminants. Plasma oxidation can be used to alter the surface chemistry, adding silanol(SiOH) groups to the surface. This treatment renders the PDMS surface hydrophilic, allowing water to wet (this isfrequently required for, e.g. water-based microfluidics). The oxidized surface resists adsorption of hydrophobic andnegatively charged species. The oxidized surface can be further functionalized by reaction with trichlorosilanes.Oxidized surfaces are stable for ~30 minutes in air, after a certain time hydrophobic recovery of the surface isinevitable independently of the surrounding medium whether it is vacuum, air, or water.[5]Solid PDMS samples (whether surface oxidized or not) will not allow aqueous solvents to infiltrate and swell thematerial. Thus PDMS structures can be used in combination with water and alcohol solvents without materialdeformation. However most organic solvents will diffuse into the material and cause it to swell,[4]making themincompatible with PDMS devices. Despite this, some organic solvents lead to sufficiently small swelling that theycan be used with PDMS, for instance within the channels of PDMS microfluidic devices. The swelling ratio isroughly inversely related to the solubility parameter of the solvent. Diisopropylamine swells PDMS to the greatestextent, solvents such as chloroform, ether, and THF swell the material to a large extent. Solvents such as acetone,FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Dimethyl polysiloxane 1281-propanol, and pyridine swell the material to a small extent. Alcohols and polar solvents such as methanol, glyceroland water do not swell the material appreciably.[6]ApplicationsMany people are indirectly familiar with PDMS because it is an important component in Silly Putty, to which PDMSimparts its characteristic viscoelastic properties.[7]The rubbery, vinegary-smelling silicone caulks, adhesives, andaquarium sealants are also well-known. PDMS is also used as a component in silicone grease and other siliconebased lubricants, as well as in defoaming agents, mold release agents, damping fluids, heat transfer fluids, polishes,cosmetics, hair conditioners and other applications. PDMS has also been used as a filler fluid in breast implants,although this practice has decreased somewhat, due to safety concerns, despite some evidence that it may beprotective against breast cancer.[8]Activated dimethicone, a mixture of polydimethylsiloxanes and silicon dioxide (sometimes called simethicone), isused in over-the-counter drug as an anti-foaming agent and carminative.[9] [10]As a food additive, it has the E number E900 and is used as an anti-foaming agent and an anti-caking agent. Thissilicone can be found in many processed foods and fast food items such as McDonalds Chicken McNuggets[11].PDMS is commonly used as a stamp resin in the procedure of soft lithography, making it one of the most commonmaterials used for flow delivery in microfluidics chips. The process of soft lithography consists of creating an elasticstamp, which enables the transfer of patterns of only a few nanometers in size onto glass, silicon or polymersurfaces. With this type of technique, it is possible to produce devices that can be used in the areas of optictelecommunications or biomedical research. However, this process still cannot be used for the industrial productionof electronic components. In fact, the patterns are obtained by the process of stamping thanks to a shape (or stamp).This stamp is produced from the normal techniques of photolithography or electron-beam technology. The resolutiondepends on the mask used and can reach 6 nm.[12]In Bio-MEMS, soft lithography is used extensively for microfluidics in both organic and inorganic contexts. Siliconwafers are used to design channels, and PDMS is then poured over these wafers and left to harden. When removed,even the smallest of details is left imprinted in the PDMS. With this particular PDMS block, hydrophilic surfacemodification is conducted using RF Plasma techniques. Once surface bonds are disrupted, usually a piece of glassslide is placed on the activated side of the PDMS (the side with imprints). Once the bonds relax to their normal state,the glass is permanently sealed to the PDMS, thus creating a waterproof channel. With these devices, researchers canutilize various different surface chemistry techniques for different functions creating unique lab-on-a-chip devicesfor rapid parallel testing.PDMS can be cross-linked into networks and is a commonly used system for studying the elasticity of polymernetworks. PDMS can be directly patterned by surface-charge lithography.[13]PDMS is used variously in the cosmetic and consumer product industry as well. For example, PDMS can be used inthe treatment of head lice[14]and dimethicone is used widely in skin-moisturizing lotions where it is listed as anactive ingredient whose purpose is "skin protection." Some cosmetic formulations use dimethicone and relatedsiloxane polymers in concentrations of use up to 15%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Reviews (CIR) Expert Panel, hasconcluded that dimethicone and related polymers are "safe as used in cosmetic formulations."[15]PDMS in amodified form is used as an herbicidal penetrant[16]and is a critical ingredient in water-repelling coatings, such asRain-X.PDMS is also used in analytical chemistry as a component of some types of SPME fibers.PDMS has been used in the aerospace industry as a heat tile on reentry vehicles.[17]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Dimethyl polysiloxane 129References[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Adimethyl_polysiloxane?diff=cur&oldid=310245099[2] "Linear Polydimethylsiloxanes" Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals, September 1994 (Report No. 26) ISSN 0773-6339-26[3] Lotters, J. C.; Olthuis, W.; Veltink, P. H.; Bergveld, P. (1997). "The mechanical properties of the rubber elastic polymerpolydimethylsiloxane for sensor applications". J Micromech Microeng 7: 145–147. doi:10.1088/0960-1317/7/3/017.[4] McDonald, J. C.et al. (2000). "Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane)". Electrophoresis 21 (1): 27–40.doi:10.1002/(SICI)1522-2683(20000101)21:1<27::AID-ELPS27>3.0.CO;2-C. PMID 10634468.[5] H. Hillborg, J.F. Ankner, U.W. Gedde, G.D. Smith, H.K. Yasuda and K. Wikstrom (2000). "Crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane exposed tooxygen plasma studied by neutron reflectometry and other surface specific techniques". Polymer 41: 6851–6863.doi:10.1016/S0032-3861(00)00039-2.[6] Lee, J. N.; Park, C.; Whitesides, G. M. (2003). "Solvent Compatibility of Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Microfluidic Devices". Anal. Chem.75 (23): 6544–6554. doi:10.1021/ac0346712. PMID 14640726.[7] Micro Total Analysis Systems, Silly Putty, and Fluorous Peptides (http://www.fluorous.com/journal/?p=86)[8] Implants may lower cancer risk (http://focus.hms.harvard.edu/1994/August26_1994/BreastCancer.html)[9] William E. Prentice, Michael L. Voight (2001). Techniques in musculoskeletal rehabilitation (http://books.google.com/?id=7FXXQzQ_zf0C&pg=PA369). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 369. ISBN 0071354980. .[10] Richard H. Hunt, G. N. J. Tytgat, Axcan Pharma (1998). Helicobacter Pylori: Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Cure 1998 (http://books.google.com/?id=Xhe2wLrSz58C&pg=PA447). Springer. p. 447. ISBN 0792387392. .[11] All McNuggets are not created equal (http://pagingdrgupta.blogs.cnn.com/2010/06/25/a-tale-of-2-nuggets/?hpt=Sbin)[12] Waldner, Jean-Baptiste (2008). Nanocomputers and Swarm Intelligence. London: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 92–93. ISBN 1847040020.[13] S. Grilli, V. Vespini, P. Ferraro (2008). "Surface-charge lithography for direct pdms micro-patterning". Langmuir 24 (23): 13262–13265.doi:10.1021/la803046j. PMID 18986187.[14] Burgess, Ian F. (2009). "The mode of action of dimeticone 4% lotion against head lice, Pediculus capitis" (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652450). BMC Pharmacology 9 (3): 3. doi:10.1186/1471-2210-9-3. PMID 19232080.PMC 2652450.[15] Nair, B; Cosmetic Ingredients Review Expert Panel (2003). "Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Stearoxy Dimethicone, Dimethicone,Methicone, Amino Bispropyl Dimethicone, Aminopropyl Dimethicone, Amodimethicone, Amodimethicone Hydroxystearate, BehenoxyDimethicone, C24-28 Alkyl Methicone, C30-45 Alkyl Methicone, C30-45 Alkyl Dimethicone, Cetearyl Methicone, Cetyl Dimethicone,Dimethoxysilyl Ethylenediaminopropyl Dimethicone, Hexyl Methicone, Hydroxypropyldimethicone, Stearamidopropyl Dimethicone, StearylDimethicone, Stearyl Methicone, and Vinyldimethicone". International Journal of Toxicology 22: 11. doi:10.1177/1091581803022S204.PMID 14555417.[16] "Pulse Penetrant..." (http://www.nrrbs.com.au/chemicalspulse.htm). . Retrieved 3 March 2009.[17] Ballistic Missile Basics (http://www.fas.org/nuke/intro/missile/basics.htm)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • 1304 - COATING AGENTSFood coatingCoating is an industrial process which consists in applying a liquid or a powder onto the surface of a product of anypossible shape to convey new (usually organoleptic) properties. Coating designates an operation as much as theresult of it: the application of a layer and the layer itself. Coating takes much different meanings depending on theindustry concerned.DefinitionsThis article concerns coating applications in the food industry. There are many similarities between coatingprocesses and numerous examples of technology transfer to and from the food industry.Coating in the food industry is the application of a layer of liquid and/or solids onto a product. The operationessentially relies on mechanical energy and physical principles. It consists mostly in setting the product particles inmotion and simultaneously applying the coating ingredient in a certain pattern to expose one to the other. It involvessuch phenomena as adhesion, friction, viscosity, surface tension, or crystallisation). Food coating is not a “hard”science such as drying or cooling, which can be described by equations and be predictable. Food coating is rather a“soft” knowledge derived from the accumulation of know-how. One reason is the product and the ingredientsconsidered have complex characteristics, variations and interactions.Encapsulation is the application of a liquid layer on very small particles. It relies on an array of principles:entrapping a molecule inside a matrix, chemical bonding, and polymerisation. Encapsulation aims at the protectionand controlled release of active molecules when immersed in an environment. As a rule of thumb, particle size candiscriminate between “encapsulation” (below 300 to 1000 µ) and “food coating” (above this limit). Mere mechanicalmovement is not adequate and sufficient to fulfill the proper coating of minute particles.Examples of coated productsFinished product Base Ingredient Post treatment Rate, % ObjectiveReady-to-eat cereals Expanded cereals Sugar syrup Drying 20-50% Flavour and appearance enhancementDragees Nuts, chocolate, sweets Sugar Panning 10-100% Taste, flavourChocolate Hazelnuts, almonds Chocolate Cooling 30-50% Taste, flavourPrepared vegetable Frozen vegetables Water, fats, flavourings Freezing 15-100% Taste, convenienceProcessed cheese Grated/shredded cheese Anticaking None <2% Prevent agglomerationNuggets Meat Batter and crumb Frying 30-50% Palatability, cost, appearanceSnacks Expanded flour Oil and seasoning None 5-40% PalatabilityCrunchy nuts Peanut Flour, binder, seasoning Frying, baking 30-100% PalatabilityPicturesFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food coating 131Sugar-coated rice. IQF vegetables coated withcream.Sugar-coated dragees.Objectives of coating• OrganolepticCoatings can be added for the enhancement of organoleptic properties of a food product. Appearance and palatabilitycan be improved by adding colour (white dragee, brown chocolate), changing the surface aspect (glazed sweets orrough, crispy nuggets); changing or adding tastes (sweet dragee, salted snack) or flavours (fruit-glazed sweet goods),or texture (breaded crispy nuggets).• NutritionCoatings also can be used to add vitamins and minerals (enriched white rice) or food energy.• FunctionalCoating conveys funtional properties, such as particle separation (oiled dry fruit, shredded cheese), antioxidant effect(fruit cubes), or a barrier effect [water migration between a layer of ice cream and a biscuit (cookie) or againstmoisture lost of chewing gum]. Barrier effects are often difficult to achieve.• CostAn ingredient may by cheaper than the product it coats and thus allows for a slight cost reduction.The coating processThe coating process begins with the application of the coating on the food product, but the end product must bestable throughout its shelf life. Therefore, a coating process is completed by a stabilizing process, either by freezing,cooling, heating or drying.Sequences of the coating process1. Application: To apply minute quantities of an ingredient, spraying is used to disperse it first, instead of justpouring it. This hastens the dispersion on the whole surface of the product. For larger ratios of coating tosubstrate, mixing or dipping can be used. Multiple stes also can be used; breaded meats, for example, may have adry application (predust) followed by a wet batter dip and then another dry crumb application.• Adhesion: the coating must adhere to the product, meaning there must be a degree of affinity between theingredient and the product.• Coalescence: in case of a liquid, the multiple droplets may merge to form a uniform continuous layer.Characteristics of the ingredient in relation to the product, such as viscosity and surface tension associated to amechanical effect (friction) are critical.• Stabilisation : depending on the nature of the coating ingredient(s) and substrate product, the ingredient isstabilised by elimination of the solvent (drying and evaporation of water, alcohol), crystallisation (sugarcrystallises when water is evaporated, fat crystallises when cooled), orthermal treatment (proteins set irreversiblywhen heated).Coating as a systemFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food coating 132. A coating process can be broken into the following elements:• Inputs: base product, additives and ingredients• Additional flows: air as a carrier of product or ingredient, or fordrying, energy in a mechanical (agitation, transfer, friction) or athermal form (convection, conduction or radiation heating)• Outputs: end product, excess of coating ingredient, lost or to berecycledCollaterals occur along the process:• Breakage of product• Generation of fines• Agglomeration of products• Clogging of system surfaces with product or ingredient• Airborne pollution, volatile organic componentThese effects generally are to be avoided unless the end product is made more desirable.The parameters of the system Parameters affecting the system are listed by origin:Initial characteristics.Base product End product ProductionShape, size, distribution, bulk density, nature, surface aspect, resistance ,composition, flow behaviour, fines, hygroscopicity, temperatureCapacity, end aspect, weight gain,storage behaviour, resistanceRecipe changes,duration, cleaningThis first set of criteria governs the choice of the coating ingredient. The coating consists either in a single ingredientor a mix. This mix has different physical forms: solution, emulsion, suspension, powder, etc. It has its owncharacteristics. In addition, a fluid may be required such as spraying, cooling, heating or drying air.Ingredient characteristics.Additive Fluid.Water or fat base, composition, concentration, viscosity, temperature, melting point, surface tension, settingbehaviourNature, temperature, relativehumidityThe combination of the above characteristics drives the choice of the process principle. It has then to be preciselydescribed.Process characteristics.Process MachineContinuous, batch, residence time, ingredient temperature, fluid temperature, system temperature,flow volumes , tolerance to variations, number of functions to fulfill (feeding, dosing, recycling,drying)Form, internal surface, internal volume, size,mechanical movement, speed, temperatureThe selection of the proper process and its control rely on the gathering of precise and reliable information.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food coating 133The influence of some phenomena and their parameters is critical:crystallisation, water removal (drying), glass transition, viscosity, orsurface tension.Temperature Among the parameters, temperature has a choice place.It influences viscosity, surface tension, drying or crystallisationbehaviour. Ultimately, it influences the coating rate (thickness, weightgain)and coating resistance. It therefore influences the degree ofclogging of product and ingredient in the system. For example, fat willtend to set preferably on a cool product if the system wall is kept at ahigher temperature.PracticeCoating ingredientsIngredientsIngredient Form UsualcoatingrateCharacteristics related to coating Coating aim ExamplesWater Pure liquid 1-3% Wetting, adhesion,weight gainDust prevention, freezerburn preventionWater Saturated steam. 1-3% Wetting, adhesion Gluing of sugar oncandiesAlcohol Solution 70% 0,1% Alcohol rate Antimicrobial,preservative, textureenhancementPreservation of packedpastriesResin (shellac) Alcoholic solution30%1% Film forming Surface aspect, flow,moisture barrierGlazing of chocolatedrageesWax (beeswax,carnauba, candelilla)Solid form,melted,micronizedsuspension in oil1% Melting point Surface aspect,barrierGlazing of sugar drageesSugars (saccharose,glucose, honey,polyols)Solution 70-90% 1-100% Crystallisation form, concentration,temperaturePalatability, surfaceaspect (glazed orfrosty)Sugar-coatedready-to-eat cerealsNatural hydrocolloid(gum arabic, xanthan,guar gelatineSolution 20-40% 3% Film forming, barrier Mechanical orchemical protection,carrier of additivesPrecoating of drageewith gum arabic andsugar prior to dragee pancoatingStarches (native ormodified)Colloidal solution20-40%3% Characteristics depend on physical andchemical modifications, substitutes formore expensive ingredients (gumarabic, gelatine, titanium dioxide, etc.)Mechanical orphysical protectionCoating of fries beforefrying to reduce oil pickupFlours Powder or thicksuspensions20-40%10-20% Film forming, charge, viscosity, bakingexpansionThickness, crispiness Coating of nuggets withbatter prior to breadingFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food coating 134Mineral or organicpowders (talc,cellulose, potato flour,cellulose, starch)Pure powder 1% Moisture or fat absorption Anticaking, drying Coating of shreddedcheese to preventagglomerationOils and fats Pure 1 - 40% Melting point, viscosity Anticaking, adhesion,barrier againstmoisture migrationOiling of dry raisins orinclusions in ice creamSeasonings, flavours,flavour enhancers, saltPowder, diluted orconcentratedsolutions1-3% Concentration Palatability Flavouring of expandedsnacks, salting ofroasted nutsCoating techniquesFor the sake of classification, two categories can be split easily into batch or continuous processes. Then, thecategories can be refined according to the way the product is set in motion and the ingredient applied. Then,techniques allow either for just coating or or can combine coating and setting in the same equipment.TechniquesName Principle Example Alternative Batch/ContinuousCoextrusion Forming of an outside casingaround a inner contentForming machine for sausages withforming of a collagen casing,further setting by coagulation anddryingHigh-temperature, short-timecooking-extrusion of snacks withcontinuous filling of a flavoured paste.ContinuousPaddlemixerMixing by agitation in a closedvolumeSnack coating Helicoidal, scraping paddles BatchVat mixer. IQF coating (and freezing)tumbler.Vacuum mixing BatchConveyor Application of the ingredient onthe product spread across aconveyor.Topical coating of pastries. Spraying, screen, dipping coating. Continuous.Drum. Application of the ingredientwhile the product is tumbled indrum.Snack seasoning. Simultaneouscoating and drying of cereals withsugar.Continuous.Screw. Application of the ingredientwhile the product is transferredand mixed in a trough fitted withscrew(s)).Petfood. Twin-screw systems for a bettermixing.Continuous.Criteria for the selection of a technique.• Base product characteristics : shape, size, bulk density. Size is the first criterion.• Mechanical resistance of the base product.• Final thickness of the coating layer.• Complete/partial, top/side/bottom coating.• Number of sequences to repeat.• Processing time for each sequence.• Setting mode : drying, cooling, freezing…• Capacity.• Preferred batch or continuous system.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food coating 135Comparison batch vs. Continuous. The demand for higher yields makes production managers want to shift frommanual batch to continuous automated systems. One has to consider the pros and contras prior to go for a costly andrisky decision.ComparisonBatch. Continuous.Advantages Flexible, easy to monitor and control, quick response, lesstime-dependent, easy recipe change, full traceability, tool for R&D.Efficient, justified if upstream and downstream processesare continuous.Drawbacks. Limited capacity. Manpower. Expansive. Requires careful controls, feedback signals,consistent feeding and multiple peripherals.Peripherals.Given the number of operations and steps, a coating process can be anextensive process considered as a whole. The process core machinerequires peripherals to serve it. A few frequent ones are listed forinformation.• Storage.• Ingredient preparation.• Product feeding and metering.• Ingredient dosing.• Filtration or sieving.• Application system.• Recycling.MeasuresTest results can be immediately evaluated (visual aspect) but are preferably assessed by careful measures : to allowmonitoring, to agree on commissioning, to certify conformity with customer requirements.Typica measures :• Optical : colour, microscopy (homogenety, thickness), image analysis.• Weighing : weighing before and after treatment, weighing between batches or individual particles.• Specific measurements according to target : compaction, barrier property.About coating.Project management.Information need to be gathered carefully along the above mentioned lines : base product, end product, ingredient,production constraints… Functions to fulfilly need to be clearly identified through Functional analysis, valueanalysis. Intuitive preference for a technique should not command premature decisions. A process is as much theresult of the product target specifications as the consequence of production and technical environment conditions(product recipe changes, seasonal activity...).Project steps The development of a product draws on limited time and money resources. A progressive approachspares both.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food coating 1361. Office work: preliminary analysis based on samples in order to define the technique.2. Laboratory : test on 100 g to 10 kg to demonstrate the physical feasibility and gather the parameters. Can theproduct be coated with this ingredient at all?3. Pilot. Test on 10 to 100 kg to demonstrate that what has been done manually can be mechanized and to preparescale-up.4. Industrial test : test on 100 kg to tons to assess the sustainability of the process in industrial conditions.Partners A coating process involves several partners, (not forgetting the consumer) :• Final marketer of the product.• Product manufacturers, sub-contractor, actual user of the process.• Ingredient producers.,• Machine manufacturers.• Research centers.Some advices.Coating is an easy operation in itself. Make the process last is the challenge.Coating is nothing without the setting phase to which it is intrinsically tied.The devil hides into the details. Minor factors can have huge detrimental affects on the quality of the product and theviability of the process.Coating is more practice (trial and error) than science (equations).Consequence : scale-up requires repeated evaluations as the volumes tested grow.The choice of a coating technique is very dependent upon external conditions rather than the process itself.Coating is a threesome play : product, ingredient, machine. Common sense tells that the ingredient and machineshould adapt to the product arget, but a slight change in an ingredient can make a big difference in how easy themachine works.Managing the peripherals is often the most difficult task in running the process.Being at the end of the process line, the coating process receives little attention, is allocated little time until the endof the project where suddenly panic is risen over deadlines and budget limits.ReferencesFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Glazing agent 137Glazing agentGlazing agents, or polishing agents, are food additives providing shiny appearance or protective coating to foods.Mostly they are based on waxes.Examples are:• Stearic acid (E570)• Beeswax (E901)• Candelilla wax (E902)• Carnauba wax (E903, used to provide shiny appearance to chocolate and many other foods)• Shellac (E904)• Microcrystalline wax (E905c), Crystalline wax (E907)• Lanolin (E913)• Oxidized polyethylene wax (E914)• Esters of colophonium (E915)• ParaffinBeeswaxBeeswax cakeUncapping beeswax honeycombsBeeswax is a natural wax produced in the bee hive of honey beesof the genus Apis. It is mainly esters of fatty acids and variouslong chain alcohols. Typically, for a honey bee keeper, 10 poundsof honey yields 1 pound of wax.[1]Anatomy and productionWorker bees (the females) have eight wax-producing mirrorglands on the inner sides of the sternites (the ventral shield or plateof each segment of the body) on abdominal segments 4 to 7. Thesize of these wax glands depends on the age of the worker andafter daily flights begin these glands gradually atrophy. The newwax scales are initially glass-clear and colorless (see illustration),becoming opaque after mastication by the worker bee. The wax ofhoneycomb is nearly white, but becomes progressively moreyellow or brown by incorporation of pollen oils and propolis. Thewax scales are about 3 millimetres (0.12 in) across and0.1 millimetres (0.0039 in) thick, and about 1100 are required tomake a gram of wax.[2]Honey bees use the beeswax to build honeycomb cells in whichtheir young are raised and honey and pollen are stored. For thewax-making bees to secrete wax, the ambient temperature in thehive has to be 33 to 36 °C (91 to 97 °F). To produce their wax,bees must consume about eight times as much honey by mass. It isestimated that bees fly 150,000 miles, roughly six times around theFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Beeswax 138Fresh wax scales (in the middle of the lower row)earth, to yield one pound of beeswax (530,000 km/kg). Whenbeekeepers extract the honey, they cut off the wax caps from eachhoneycomb cell with an uncapping knife or machine. Its colorvaries from nearly white to brownish, but most often a shade ofyellow, depending on purity and the type of flowers gathered bythe bees. Wax from the brood comb of the honey bee hive tends tobe darker than wax from the honeycomb. Impurities accumulatemore quickly in the brood comb. Due to the impurities, the waxhas to be rendered before further use. The leftovers are calledslumgum.The wax may further be clarified by heating in water and may then be used for candles or as a lubricant for drawersand windows or as a wood polish. As with petroleum waxes, it may be softened by dilution with vegetable oil tomake it more workable at room temperature.Physical characteristicsBeeswax is a tough wax formed from a mixture of several compounds.Wax Content Type Percenthydrocarbons 14%monoesters 35%diesters 14%triesters 3%hydroxy monoesters 4%hydroxy polyesters 8%acid esters 1%acid polyesters 2%free acids 12%free alcohols 1%unidentified 6%An approximate chemical formula for beeswax is C15H31COOC30H61.[3]Its main components are palmitate,palmitoleate, hydroxypalmitate[4]and oleate esters of long-chain (30-32 carbons) aliphatic alcohols, with the ratio oftriacontanylpalmitate CH3(CH2)29O-CO-(CH2)14CH3to cerotic acid[5]CH3(CH2)24COOH, the two principalcomponents, being 6:1. Beeswax can be classified generally into European and Oriental types. The ratio ofsaponification value is lower (3-5) for European beeswax, and higher (8-9) for Oriental types.Beeswax has a high melting point range, of 62 to 64 °C (144 to 147 °F). If beeswax is heated above 85 °C (185 °F)discoloration occurs. The flash point of beeswax is 204.4 °C (399.9 °F).[6]Density at 15 °C is 0.958 to 0.970 g/cm³.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Beeswax 139Uses as a productBeeswax candles and figures• Beeswax is mainly used to make honeycomb foundation for reuseby the bees.• Purified and bleached beeswax is used in the production of food,cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals:• Beeswax is used as a coating for cheese, to protect the food as itages. As a food additive, beeswax is known as E901 (glazingagent).• As a skin care product, a German study found beeswax to besuperior to similar "barrier creams" (usually mineral oil basedcreams, such as petroleum jelly), when used according to itsprotocol.[7]• Beeswax is an ingredient in moustache wax, as well as hair pomades.• Beeswax is an ingredient in surgical bone wax.• Candles• Beeswax candles are preferred in most Eastern Orthodox churches because they burn cleanly, with little or nowax dripping down the sides and little visible smoke. Beeswax is also prescribed as the material (or at least asignificant part of the material) for the Paschal candle ("Easter Candle") and is recommended for other candlesused in the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church.[8]• Beeswax is used commercially to make fine candles.• Although only about 10,000 tons are produced annually, a variety of niche uses exist:[8]• As a component of Shoe polish• As a component of Furniture polish, dissolved in turpentine, sometimes blended with linseed or tung oil• As a component of modelling waxes.• As a blended with pine rosin, beeswax serves as an adhesive to attach reed plates to the structure inside asqueezebox.• Used to make Cutlers resin.• Used in Eastern Europe in egg decoration. It is used for writing on batik eggs (as in pysanky) and for makingbeaded eggs.• Formerly used in the manufacturing of the cylinders used by the earliest phonographs.• Used by percussionists to make a surface on tambourines for thumb rolls.Historical use• Beeswax was ancient mans first plastic, and for thousands of years has been used as a modeling material, tocreate sculpture and jewelry molds for use in the lost-wax casting process, or cire perdue.[9]Lost-wax casting ofmetals involved coating of a wax model with plaster, melting the wax out of the resulting mould and filling thespace with molten metal. The technique is still used today by jewellers, goldsmiths and sculptors, in dentistry andeven in the industrial manufacture of complex components by investment casting of metals.• Wax tablets were used for a variety of writing purposes, from taking down students or secretaries notes torecording business accounts.• Traces of beeswax were found in the paintings in the Lascaux cave.• Traces of beeswax were found in Egyptian mummies.• Egyptians used beeswax in shipbuilding.• In the Roman period, beeswax was used as waterproofing agent for painted walls and as a medium for the Fayummummy portraits.[10]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Beeswax 140• Nations subjugated by Rome sometimes paid tribute or taxes in beeswax.• In the Middle Ages beeswax was considered valuable enough to become a form of currency.• Used in bow making (see English longbow).• Used to strengthen and preserve sewing thread.• As a component of sealing wax• Beeswax is the traditional material from which to make didgeridoo mouthpieces and the frets on the Philippinekutiyapi, a type of boat lute.• Beeswax has been used for hundreds of years as a sealant or lubricant for bullets in cap and ball and firearms thatuse black powder. It is often mixed with other ingredients such as olive oil (sweet oil) and sometimes paraffin.Beeswax was used to stabilize the military explosive Torpex before being replaced by a petroleum-based product.Notes[1] http://www.alfafarmers.org/commodities/bee_honey.phtml[2] R.H.Brown (1981) Beeswax (2nd edition) Bee Books New and Old, Burrowbridge, Somerset UK. ISBN 0 905652 150[3] Umney, Nick; Shayne Rivers (2003). Conservation of furniture. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 164.[4] http://www.lipidlibrary.co.uk/Lipids/fa_oxy/file.pdf[5] http://www.lipidmaps.org/data/get_lm_lipids_dbgif.php?LM_ID=LMFA01010026[6] "[[MSDS (https://fscimage.fishersci.com/msds/02556.htm)] for beeswax"]. .. No reported autoignition temperature has been reported[7] Peter J. Frosch, Detlef Peiler, Veit Grunert, Beate Grunenberg (July 2003). "Wirksamkeit von Hautschutzprodukten im Vergleich zuHautpflegeprodukten bei Zahntechnikern - eine kontrollierte Feldstudie. Efficacy of barrier creams in comparison to skin care products indental laboratory technicians - a controlled trial." (http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1439-0353.2003.03701.x) (inGerman). Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft (Blackwell Synergy) 1 (7): 547–557.doi:10.1046/j.1439-0353.2003.03701.x. PMID 16295040. . Retrieved 1/12/2008. "CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the use ofafter work moisturizers is highly beneficial and under the chosen study conditions even superior to barrier creams applied at work. Thisapproach is more practical for many professions and may effectively reduce the frequency of irritant contact dermatitis.".[8] Uwe Wolfmeier, Hans Schmidt, Franz-Leo Heinrichs, Georg Michalczyk, Wolfgang Payer, Wolfram Dietsche, Klaus Boehlke, Gerd Hohner,Josef Wildgruber "Waxes" in Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002.doi:10.1002/14356007.a28_103.[9] LOK Congdon (1985) Water-Casting Concave-Convex Wax Models for Cire Perdue Bronze Mirrors. American Journal of Archaeology, 89,511-515[10] Egyptology online (http://www.egyptologyonline.com/mummy_portraits.htm)References• The chemistry of bees (http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2001/loveridge/) Joel Loveridge, School ofChemistry University of Bristol accessed November 2005External links• Apitherapy News (http://www.apitherapynews.com/)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Candelilla wax 141Candelilla waxCandelilla wax is a wax derived from the leaves of the small Candelilla shrub native to northern Mexico and thesouthwestern United States, Euphorbia cerifera and Euphorbia antisyphilitica, from the family Euphorbiaceae. It isyellowish-brown, hard, brittle and opaque to translucent.Composition and productionWith a melting point of 68.5–72.5 °C, candelilla wax consists of mainly hydrocarbons (about 50 %, chains with29–33 carbons), esters of higher molecular weight (20–29 %), free acids (7–9%), and resins (12–14%, mainlytriterpenoid esters). The high hydrocarbon content distinguishes this wax from carnauba wax.[1]It is insoluble inwater, but soluble in many organic solvents such as acetone, chloroform, benzene.The wax is obtained by boiling the leaves and stems with dilute sulfuric acid, and the resulting "cerote" is skimmedfrom the surface and further processed. In this way, about 900 tons are produced annually.UsesIt is mostly used mixed with other waxes to harden them without raising their melting point. As a food additive,candelilla wax has the E number E 902 and is used as a glazing agent. It also finds use in cosmetic industry, as acomponent of lip balms and lotion bars. One of its major uses was a binder for chewing gums.Candelilla wax can be used as a substitute for carnauba wax and beeswax. It is also used for making varnish.References[1] Uwe Wolfmeier,Hans Schmidt, Franz-Leo Heinrichs, Georg Michalczyk, Wolfgang Payer,Wolfram Dietsche, Klaus Boehlke, Gerd Hohner,Josef Wildgruber "Waxes" in Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002.doi:10.1002/14356007.a28_103.External links• Candelilla wax data sheet (http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/jecfa-additives/specs/Monograph1/Additive-100.pdf)- from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization• Candelilla wax (WHO food additives series 30) (http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v30je12.htm)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Carnauba wax 142Carnauba waxCarnauba waxCarnauba, also called Brazil wax and palm wax, is a wax of theleaves of the palm, Copernicia prunifera, a plant native to and grownonly in the northeastern Brazilian states of Piauí, Ceará, and RioGrande do Norte.[1]It is known as "queen of waxes"[2]and usuallycomes in the form of hard yellow-brown flakes. It is obtained from theleaves of the carnauba palm by collecting them, beating them to loosenthe wax, then refining and bleaching the wax.CompositionCarnauba palmThe main components of carnauba are aliphatic esters (40 wt%),diesters of 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (21.0 wt%), ω-hydroxycarboxylicacids (13.0 wt%), and fatty acid alcohols (12 wt%). The compoundsare predominantly derived from acids and alcohols in the C26-C30range. Distinctive for carnauba wax is the high content of diesters aswell as methoxycinnamic acid.[3]Carnauba wax is sold in several grades, labeled T1, T2, and T4,depending on the purity level. Purification is accomplished byfiltration, centrifugation, and bleaching.UsesSweets coated with carnauba waxCarnauba wax can produce a glossy finish and as such is used inautomobile waxes, shoe polishes, dental floss, food products such assweets, instrument polishes, and floor and furniture waxes andpolishes, especially when mixed with beeswax and with turpentine.Use for paper coatings is the most common application in the UnitedStates. It is the main ingredient in surfboard wax, combined withcoconut oil.Because of its hypoallergenic and emollient properties as well as itsshine, carnauba wax appears as an ingredient in many cosmeticsformulas where it is used to thicken lipstick, eyeliner, mascara, eyeshadow, foundation, deodorant, various skin care preparations, sun care preparations, etc. It is also used to makecutlers resin.It is the finish of choice for most briar tobacco or smoking pipes. It produces a high gloss finish when buffed on towood. This finish dulls with time rather than flaking off (as is the case with most other finishes used).FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Carnauba wax 143In foods, it is used as a formulation aid, lubricant, release agent, anticaking agent, and surface finishing agent inbaked foods and mixes, chewing gum, confections, frostings, fresh fruits and juices, gravies, sauces, processed fruitsand juices, soft sweets, Tic Tacs, Altoids, and Swedish Fish.Although too brittle to be used by itself, carnauba wax is often combined with other waxes (principally beeswax) totreat and waterproof many leather products where it provides a high-gloss finish and increases leathers hardness anddurability.It is also used in the pharmaceutical industry as a tablet-coating agent. Adding the carnuaba wax aids in theswallowing of tablets for patients. A very small amount (less than a hundredth of 1 percent by weight. i.e.: 30 gramsfor a 300 kg batch) is sprinkled onto a batch of tablets after theyve been sprayed and dried. The wax and tablets arethen tumbled together for a few minutes before being discharged from the tablet-coating machine.In 1890, Charles Tainter patented the use of carnauba wax on phonograph cylinders as a replacement for a mixture ofparaffin and beeswax.An aerosol mold release is formed by suspending carnauba wax in a solvent. This aerosol version is used extensivelyin molds for semiconductor devices. Semiconductor manufacturers also use chunks of carnauba wax to break in newepoxy molds or to release the plunger when it sticks.When used as a mold release, carnauba, unlike silicone orPTFE, is suitable for use with liquid epoxy, epoxy molding compounds (EMC), and some other plastic types.Carnauba wax is compatible with epoxies and generally enhances their properties along with those of most otherengineering plastics.Carnauba is used in melt/castable explosives to produce an insensitive explosive formula such as Composition B,which is a blend of RDX and TNT.Technical characteristics• INCI name is Copernicia Cerifera (carnauba) wax• E Number is E903.• Melting point: 82–86 °C (180–187 °F), among the highest of natural waxes.• Relative density is about 0.97• It is among the hardest of natural waxes, being harder than concrete in its pure form.• It is practically insoluble in water, soluble on heating in ethyl acetate and in xylene, practically insoluble in ethylalcohol.References[1] Steinle, J. Vernon (September 1936). "Carnauba wax: an expedition to its source". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 28 (9): 1004–1008.doi:10.1021/ie50321a003.[2] Parish, Edward J.; Terrence L. Boos; Shengrong Li (2002). "The Chemistry of Waxes and Sterols". In Casimir C. Akoh, David B. Min.. Foodlipids: chemistry, nutrition, and biochemistry (2nd ed.). New York: M. Dekker. p. 103. ISBN 0824707494.[3] Uwe Wolfmeier,Hans Schmidt, Franz-Leo Heinrichs, Georg Michalczyk, Wolfgang Payer,Wolfram Dietsche, Klaus Boehlke, Gerd Hohner,Josef Wildgruber "Waxes" in Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002.doi:10.1002/14356007.a28_103.External links• Botanical description (http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/Copernicia/index.html) - from the Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden• GE Chaplin Inc (http://www.gechaplin.com) - Custom Manufacturer of Carnauba compounds• Carnauba wax data sheet (http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/jecfa-additives/specs/Monograph1/Additive-109.pdf)- from the UN Food and Agriculture OrganizationFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Shellac 144ShellacSome of the many different colors of shellacShellac is a resin secreted by the female lac bug, on trees in the forestsof India and Thailand. It is processed and sold as dry flakes (pictured atright), which are dissolved in denatured alcohol to make liquid shellac,which is used as a brush-on colorant, food glaze and wood finish.Shellac functions as a tough all-natural primer, sanding sealant,tannin-blocker, odor-blocker, stain, and high-gloss varnish. Shellacwas once used in electrical applications as it possesses good insulationqualities and it seals out moisture. Phonograph (gramophone) recordswere also made of it during the pre-1950s, 78-rpm recording era.Shellac is often the only historically appropriate finish for early 20th-century hardwood floors, and wooden wall andceiling paneling.From the time it replaced oil and wax finishes in the 19th century, shellac was the dominant wood finish in thewestern world until it was replaced by nitrocellulose lacquer in the 1920s and 1930s.ProductionShellac is scraped from the bark of the trees where the female lac bug, Kerria lacca, Order Hemiptera, FamilyCoccidae[1]secretes it to form a tunnel-like tube as it traverses the branches of tree. Though these tunnels aresometimes referred to as "cocoons", they are not literally cocoons in the entomological sense.[2]. This insect is in thesame family as the insect from which cochineal is obtained. The insects suck the sap of the tree and excrete"stick-lac" almost constantly. The least coloured shellac is produced when the insects are parasitic upon the kursumtree, (Schleichera trijuga). The raw shellac, which contains bark shavings and lac bug parts, is placed in canvas tubes(much like long socks) and heated over a fire. This causes the shellac to liquefy, and it seeps out of the canvasleaving the bark and bug parts behind. The thick sticky shellac is then dried into a flat sheet and broken up intoflakes when dried, or dried into "buttons" (pucks/cakes), and then bagged and sold. The end-user then mixes it withdenatured alcohol on-site a few days prior to use in order to dissolve the flakes and make liquid shellac.Liquid shellac has a limited shelf life (about 1 year), hence it is also sold in dry form for dissolution prior to use.Liquid shellac sold in hardware stores is clearly marked with the production (mixing) date, so that the consumer canknow whether the shellac inside is still good. Alternatively, old shellac may be tested to see if it is still usable: a fewdrops on glass should quickly dry to a hard surface. Shellac that remains tacky for a long time is no longer usable.Storage life depends on peak temperature.The thickness (strength) of shellac is measured by the unit "pound cut", referring to the amount (in pounds) ofshellac flakes dissolved in a gallon of denatured alcohol. For example: a 1-lb. cut (said as "one pound cut") of shellacis the strength obtained by dissolving one pound of shellac flakes in a gallon of alcohol. A 5-lb. cut is the strength offive pounds of shellac flakes dissolved in a gallon of alcohol. Most pre-mixed commercial preparations come at a3-lb. cut. Multiple thin layers of shellac produce a significantly better end result than a few thick layers—thick layersof shellac do not adhere to the substrate or to each other well, and thus can be peeled off with relative ease; inaddition, thick shellac will fill in (and thus ruin) carved designs in wood and other substrates.Shellac naturally dries to a high-gloss sheen. For applications where a flatter (less shiny) sheen is desired, productscontaining amorphous silica,[3]such as "Shellac Flat," may be added to the dissolved shellac.Shellac naturally contains a small amount of wax (3%-5% by volume), which comes from the lac bug. In somepreparations, this wax is removed (the resulting product being called "dewaxed shellac"). This is done forapplications where the shellac will be coated with something else (such as paint or varnish), so that the topcoat willFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Shellac 145be able to stick. Waxy (non-dewaxed) shellac appears milky in liquid form, but dries clear.Colours and availabilityShellac comes in many warm colours, ranging from a very light blond ("platina") to a very dark brown ("garnet"),with all shades of brown and yellow and orange and red in between. The colour is influenced by the sap of the treethe lac bug is living on, as well as the time of harvest. Historically, the most commonly-sold shellac is called "orangeshellac", and was used extensively as a combination stain and protectant on wood paneling and cabinetry in the 20thcentury.Shellac was once very common, being available any place paints or varnishes were sold (such as hardware stores).However, less expensive, more transparent, and more abrasion- and chemical-resistant finishes, such aspolyurethane, have almost completely replaced it in the world of decorative residential wood finishing such as forhardwood floors, wooden wainscoting and plank paneling, and kitchen cabinets. These alternative products,however, must be applied over a stain if the user wants the wood coloured; shellac wasnt applied over a stain, as itwas orange/amber in colour by itself, and so functioned as a combination stain and protective topcoat. "Wax overshellac" (an application of buffed-on paste wax over several coats of shellac) is often regarded as a beautiful finishfor hardwood floors.[4]PropertiesA decorative medal made in France in early 20thcentury moulded from shellac compound, thesame used for phonograph records of the period.Shellac is a natural polymer and is chemically similar to syntheticpolymers, and thus can be considered a natural form of plastic. It canbe turned into a moulding compound when mixed with wood flour andmoulded under heat and pressure methods, so it can also be classifiedas thermoplastic.Shellac is soluble in alkaline solutions such as ammonia, sodiumborate, sodium carbonate, and sodium hydroxide, and also in variousorganic solvents. When dissolved in alcohol blends containing ethanoland methanol, shellac yields a coating of superior durability andhardness.Upon mild hydrolysis shellac gives a complex mix of aliphatic andalicyclic hydroxy acids and their polymers that varies in exactcomposition depending upon the source of the shellac and the seasonof collection. The major component of the aliphatic component isaleuritic acid, whereas the main alicyclic component is shellolic acid.[1]HistoryThe earliest record of shellac goes back 3000 years, but shellac is known to have been used earlier.[5]According tothe Mahabharata, an entire palace was built out of dried shellac.[5]Shellac was in rare use as a dyestuff for as long as there was a trade with the East Indies. Merrifield[6]cites 1220 forthe introduction of shellac as an artists pigment in Spain. This isnt unreasonable, given that lapis lazuli asultramarine pigment from Afghanistan was already being imported long before this.The use of overall paint or varnish decoration on large pieces of furniture was first popularised in Venice (then laterthroughout Italy). There are a number of 13th century references to painted or varnished cassone, often dowrycassone that were made deliberately impressive as part of dynastic marriages. The definition of varnish is not alwaysclear, but it seems to have been a spirit varnish based on gum benjamin or mastic, both traded around theFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Shellac 146Mediterranean. At some time, shellac began to be used as well. An article from the Journal of the American Instituteof Conservation describes the use of infrared spectroscopy to identify a shellac coating on a 16th century cassone.[7]This is also the period in history where "varnisher" was identified as a distinct trade, separate from both carpenterand artist.Another consumer of shellac is sealing wax. Woodss The Nature and Treatment of Wax and Shellac Seals[8]discusses the various formulations, and the period when shellac started to be added to the previous beeswax recipes.The "period of widespread introduction" would seem to be around 1550 to 1650, when it moves from being a rarityon highly decorated pieces to being a substance described in the standard texts of the day.UsesIn the early- and mid-20th century, orange shellac was used as a one-product finish (combination stain andvarnish-like topcoat) on decorative wood paneling used on walls and ceilings in homes, particularly in America. Inthe American South, use of knotty pine plank paneling covered with orange shellac was once as common in newconstruction as drywall is today. It was also often used on kitchen cabinets and hardwood floors, prior to the adventof polyurethane.It is the central element of the traditional "French polish" method of finishing furniture, and fine viols and guitars.Shellac was used from mid-19th century to produce small moulded goods like picture frames, boxes, toilet articles,jewelry, inkwells and even dentures. Although advancement in plastics have rendered shellac obsolete as a mouldingcompound, it remains popular for a number of other uses. In dental technology, it is still occasionally used in theproduction of custom impression trays and (partial) denture production.Shellac is used by many cyclists as a protective and decorative coating for their handlebar tape.[9]Shellac is used as ahard-drying adhesive for tubular cycle tires, particularly for track racing[10]Orange shellac is also the preferred adhesive for reattaching ink sacs when restoring vintage fountain pens. It hasalways been the preferred hot-melt adhesive for fixing leather saxophone pads into their metal key-cups.Until the advent of vinyl around the 1940s, most gramophone records were pressed from shellac compounds. Thisuse was common until the 1950s, and continued into the 1970s in some non-Western countries.Sheets of Braille were coated with shellac to help protect them from wear due to being read by hand.Shellac is used as a binder in India ink.Shellac was historically used as a protective coating on paintings.Shellac is edible and it is used as a glazing agent on pills (see excipients) and candies in the form of pharmaceuticalglaze (alternatively, confectioners glaze). Because of its alkaline properties, shellac-coated pills may be used for atimed enteric or colonic release.[11]It is also used to replace the natural wax of the apple, which is removed duringthe cleaning process.[12]When used for this purpose, it has the food additive E number E904. This coating is notvegan and most likely not vegetarian either as it may, and probably does, contain crushed insects.Because it is compatible with most other finishes, shellac is also used as a barrier or primer coat on wood to preventthe bleeding of resin or pigments into the final finish, or to prevent wood stain from blotching.[2]Shellac is an odour and stain blocker and so is often used as the base of "solves all problems" primers. Although itsdurability against abrasives and many common solvents is not very good, shellac provides an excellent barrieragainst water vapour penetration. Shellac based primers are an effective sealant to control odours associated with firedamage.Shellac was once used for fixing inductor, motor, generator and transformer windings, where it was applied directlyto single layer windings as an alcoholic solution in much the same manner as it is applied to timber. For multilayerwindings, the whole coil was submerged in the shellac solution and then removed, drained and placed in a warmplace to allow the alcohol to evaporate. The shellac then holds the turns in place, provides extra insulation andFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Shellac 147prevents movement and vibration, reducing buzz and hum. In motors and generators it also provides a medium fortransfer of forces generated by magnetic attraction and repulsion from the windings to the rotor or armature. In morerecent times synthetic resins, such as Glyptol, (Glyptal), have been substituted for the shellac. Some applications useshellac mixed with other natural or synthetic resins, such as pine resin or Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin, of whichBakelite is the best known, for electrical use. Mixed with other resins, Barium sulfate, Calcium Carbonate, ZincSulfide, Aluminum Oxide and/or Cuprous Carbonate, (Malachite), shellac forms a component of Heat CuredCapping Cement used to fasten the caps or bases to the bulbs of electric lamps.As a natural resin, shellac has similarities to other natural resins such as Myrrh and Frankincense.Shellac finds a use in pyrotechnic compositions as a low temperature fuel where it allows the creation of puregreens and blues, colours difficult to achieve with other fuel systems in fireworks formulae.Trivia• It takes about 100,000 lac bugs to make 500 g of shellac flakes.[5]• Shellac is UV-resistant, and does not darken as it ages (though the wood under it may do so on its own, as in thecase of pine).[5]• Shellac scratches less easily than most usual lacquers, and damaged areas can easily be touched-up with anothercoat of shellac (unlike with polyurethane) because the new coat merges with and bonds to the existing coat(s), butshellac is much softer than Urushi lacquer for instance, which is far superior in regards to both chemical andmechanical resistance.GalleryBlondeshellacflakesDewaxedBona (L)and Waxy#1Orange(R)shellacflakes.The latter-- orangeshellac --is thetraditionalshellacused fordecadesto finishwoodenwallpanelingandkitchencabinets.Closeupof Waxy#1Orange(L) andDewaxedBona (R)shellacflakes.Theformer --orangeshellac --is thetraditionalshellacused fordecadesto finishwoodenwallpanelingandkitchencabinets."Quick and dirty" example of apine board coated with 1-5 coatsof Dewaxed Dark shellac (adarker version of traditionalorange shellac)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Shellac 148ReferencesFootnotes[1] Merk Index, 9th Ed. page 8224.[2] Shellac, WoodworkDetails.com (http://www.woodworkdetails.com/Knowledge/Finishing/Shellac.aspx)[3] American Woodworker: Tips for Using Shellac (http://americanwoodworker.com/blogs/shop/archive/2009/07/02/shellac.aspx)[4] Naturalhandyman.com (http://www.naturalhandyman.com/iip/author/zinsser/shellac2.html)[5] Naturalhandyman.com (http://www.naturalhandyman.com/iip/author/zinsser/shellac.html)[6] Merrifield, Mary (1849). Original Treatises on the Art of Painting. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publ.. ISBN 0486404404.[7] "Furniture finish layer identification by infrared linear mapping microspectroscopy" (http://aic.stanford.edu/jaic/articles/jaic31-02-006.html). JAIC (Journal of the American Institute of Conservation) 31 (2, Article 6): 225 to 236. 1992. .[8] Woods, C. (1994). "The Nature and Treatment of Wax and Shellac Seals". Journal of the Society of Archivists (15).[9] Out Your Backdoor: Shellac & Twine makes Handlebar fine (http://www.outyourbackdoor.com/article.php?id=428)[10] mounting-tubulars Mounting Tubular Tires by Jobst Brandt (http://www.sheldonbrown.com/brandt/mounting-tubulars.html)[11] Shellac film coatings providing release at selected pH and method - US Patent 6620431 (http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6620431.html)[12] US Apple: Consumers - FAQs: Apples and Wax (http://www.usapple.org/consumers/wax.cfm)Notations• Shellac Application (http://www.frenchpolishes.com/application_information/shellac_polish_application.htm) By Smith & RodgerExternal links• Shellac.net (http://www.shellac.net) and Zinsser (http://www.zinsser.com/CompanyInfo.asp), shellacvendors in the United States• DIYinfo.orgs Shellac Wiki (http://www.diyinfo.org/wiki/All_About_Shellac), practical information oneverything to do with shellac• Reactive Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography of Shellac (http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/ancham/1999/71/i07/abs/ac981049e.html)• Jeff Jewitt, shellac – a traditional finish still yields superb results (http://antiquerestorers.com/Articles/jeff/shellac.htm)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Microcrystalline wax 149Microcrystalline waxMicrocrystalline waxes are a type of wax produced by de-oiling petrolatum, as part of the petroleum refiningprocess. In contrast to the more familiar paraffin wax which contains mostly unbranched alkanes, microcrystallinewax contains a higher percentage of isoparaffinic (branched) hydrocarbons and naphthenic hydrocarbons. It ischaracterized by the fineness of its crystals in contrast to the larger crystal of paraffin wax. It consists of highmolecular weight saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. It is generally darker, more viscous, denser, tackier and moreelastic than paraffin waxes, and has a higher molecular weight and melting point. The elastic and adhesivecharacteristics of microcrystalline waxes are related to the non-straight chain components which they contain.Typical microcrystalline wax crystal structure is small and thin, making them more flexible than paraffin wax. It iscommonly used in cosmetic formulations.Microcrystalline waxes when produced by wax refiners are typically produced to meet a number of ASTMspecifications. These include congeal point (ASTM D938), needle penetration (D1321), color (ASTM D6045), andviscosity (ASTM D445). Microcrystalline waxes can generally be put into two categories: "laminating" grades and"hardening" grades. The laminating grades typically have a melt point of 140-175 F and needle penetration of 25 orabove. The hardening grades will range from about 175-200 F, and have a needle penetration of 25 or below. Colorin both grades can range from brown to white, depending on the degree of processing done at the refinery level.Microcrystalline waxes are derived from the refining of the heavy distillates from lubricant oil production. This byproduct then must be de-oiled at a wax refinery. Depending on the end use and desired specification, the productthen may have its odor removed and color removed(which typically starts as a brown or dark yellow). This is usuallydone by means of a filtration method or by hydro-treating the wax material.Production and Market AvailabilityRecent industry trends in the base lubricant market have reduced the total number of refineries producingpurpose-made microcrystalline waxes. In North America, The International Group, Inc (IGI, http://www.igiwax.com) is one of the few remaining companies that have committed refining capacity dedicated to the long term supplyof finished microcrystalline waxes. IGIs refineries in Farmers Valley, PA, and Toronto, Ontario, Canada, both havecapabilities for refining unfinished "slack wax" (the raw material) into a finished microcrystalline wax. Exxon-Mobilis also a major North American producer, with facilities in TX and LA. There are also existing companies that willpurchase microcrystalline wax and use it internally for finished blends.Industries and ApplicationsMicrocrystalline wax is often used in industries such as the tire and rubber, candles, adhesives, corrugated board,cosmetics, castings, and a host of others. Refineries may also utilize blending facilities to combine paraffin andmicrocrystalline waxes. This type of activity is prevalent especially for industries such as tire and rubber.Microcrystalline waxes have considerable application in the custom making of jewelry and small sculptures.Different formulations produce waxes from those soft enough to be molded by hand to those hard enough to becarved with rotary tools. The melted wax can be cast to make multiple copies that are further carved with details.Jewelry suppliers sell wax molded into the basic forms of rings as well as details that can be heat welded togetherand tubes and sheets for cutting and building the wax models. Rings may be attached to a wax "tree" so many can becast in one pouring.Microcrystalline waxes are excellent materials to use when modifying the crystalline properties of paraffin wax. Themicrocrystalline wax has a significant effect on the branching of the carbon chains that are the backbone of paraffinwax. This is useful when some desired functional changes in the paraffin are needed, such as flexibility, higher meltpoint, and increased opacity. They are also used as slip agents in printing ink.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Microcrystalline wax 150Microcrystalline wax is used in sports too, specifically in ice hockey and snowboarding. It is applied to the frictiontape of a ice hockey stick to prevent degradation of the tape due to water destroying the glue on the tape and also toincrease control of the hockey puck due to the waxes adhesive quality. It is also applied to the underside ofsnowboards to reduce friction and increase the gliding ability of the board, making it easier to control anddiminishing the fatigue of the rider.Use in PetrolatumMicrocrystalline wax is also a key component in the manufacture of petrolatum. The branched structure of thecarbon chain backbone allows oil molecules to be incorporated into the crystal lattice structure. The desiredproperties of the petrolatum can be modified by using microcrystalline wax bases of different congeal points (ASTMtest D938) and needle penetration (ASTM D1321)However, key industries that utilize petrolatum, such as the personal care, cosmetic, and candle industries, havepushed for more materials that are considered "green" and based on renewable resources. As an alternative, hybridpetrolatum can be used. Hybrid petrolatum utilizes a complex mixture of vegetable oils and waxes and combinesthem with petroleum, micro wax based technologies. This allows a formulator to incorporate higher percentages ofrenewable resources while maintaining the beneficial properties of the petrolatum.External links• microcrystallinewax.net[1]: information on micro waxes• ASTM official website[2]: wax tests• [3] June 07 NCA technical presentation on microcrystalline wax• [4] Typical specifications combining natural oils and micro waxReferences[1] http://microcrystallinewax.net[2] http://astm.org[3] http://www.igiwax.com/resource/Papers_Articles[4] http://www.igicares.com/new-products/hybrid-petrolatum.htmlFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Crystalline wax 151Crystalline waxIn chemistry, paraffin is a term that can be used synonymously with "alkane", indicating hydrocarbons with thegeneral formula CnH2n+2. Paraffin wax refers to a mixture of alkanes that falls within the 20 ≤ n ≤ 40 range; theyare found in the solid state at room temperature and begin to enter the liquid phase past approximately 37°C.The simplest paraffin molecule is that of methane, CH4, a gas at room temperature. Heavier members of the series,such as octane, C8H18, and mineral oil appear as liquids at room temperature. The solid forms of paraffin, calledparaffin wax, are from the heaviest molecules from C20H42to C40H82. Paraffin wax was identified by CarlReichenbach in 1830.[1]Paraffin, or paraffin hydrocarbon, is also the technical name for an alkane in general, but in most cases it refersspecifically to a linear, or normal alkane — whereas branched, or isoalkanes are also called isoparaffins. It is distinctfrom the fuel known in the United Kingdom, Ireland and South Africa as paraffin oil or just paraffin, which is calledkerosene in most of the U.S., Canada, Australia and New Zealand.The name is derived from Latin parum ("barely") + affinis, meaning "lacking affinity" or "lacking reactivity"indicating paraffins unreactive nature[2])WaxParaffin wax (or simply "paraffin", but see alternative name for kerosene, above) is mostly found as a white,odorless, tasteless, waxy solid, with a typical melting point between about 47 °C and 64 °C ( 117°F to 147°F), andhaving a density of around 0.9 g/cm3.[3]It is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether, benzene, and certain esters.Paraffin is unaffected by most common chemical reagents, but burns readily.Pure paraffin wax is an excellent electrical insulator, with an electrical resistivity of between 1013and 1017ohmmetre.[4]This is better than nearly all other materials except some plastics (notably teflon). It is an effective neutronmoderator and was used in James Chadwicks 1932 experiments to identify the neutron.[5] [6]Paraffin wax (C25H52) is an excellent material to store heat, having a specific heat capacity of 2.14–2.9 J g−1 K−1(joule per gram per kelvin) and a heat of fusion of 200–220 J g−1.[7]This property is exploited in modified drywallfor home building material: it is infused in the drywall during manufacture so that, when installed, it melts during theday, absorbing heat, and solidifies again at night, releasing the heat.[8]Paraffin wax phase change cooling coupledwith retractable radiators was used to cool the electronics of the Lunar Rover.[9]Wax expands considerably when itmelts and this allows its use in thermostats for industrial, domestic and, particularly, automobile purposes.[10] [11]In industrial applications, it is often useful to modify the crystal properties of the paraffin wax, typically by addingbranching to the existing carbon backbone chain. The modification is usually done with additives, such as EVAcopolymers, microcrystalline wax, or forms of polyethylene. The branched properties result in a modified paraffinwith a higher viscosity, smaller crystalline structure, and modified functional properties. Pure paraffin wax is rarelyused for carving original models for casting metal and other materials in the lost wax process, as it is relatively brittleat room temperature and presents the risks of chipping and breakage when worked. Soft and pliable waxes, likebeeswax, may be preferred for such sculpture, but "investment casting waxes," often paraffin-based, are expresslyformulated for the purpose.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Crystalline wax 152Mineral oilLiquid paraffin, or mineral oil, is a mixture of heavier alkanes, and has a number of names, including nujol, adepsineoil, alboline, glymol, medicinal paraffin, or saxol. It has a density of around 0.8 g/cm3.[3]Liquid paraffin (medicinal)is used to aid bowel movement in persons suffering chronic constipation; it passes through the gastrointestinal tractwithout itself being taken into the body, but it limits the amount of water removed from the stool. In the foodindustry, where it may be called "wax", it can be used as a lubricant in mechanical mixing, applied to baking tins toensure that loaves are easily released when cooked and as a coating for fruit or other items requiring a "shiny"appearance for sale.[12]It is often used in infrared spectroscopy, as it has a relatively uncomplicated IR spectrum. When the sample to betested is made into a mull (a very thick paste), liquid paraffin is added so it can be spread on the transparent (toinfrared) mounting plates to be tested.UsesGaseous• FuelsLiquids• Fuels• Paints, Pigments, Dyes and Inks• In leather industry for "pull up finish"[13]• Medicine (Laxative)• Biomedical science (evaporation control during PCR)• Culinary• Fire breathing and fire juggling• Used in toiletries and cosmetics as a moisturiser or emollient.Paraffin wax• Candle-making• Coatings for waxed paper or cloth• Food-grade paraffin wax:• Shiny coating used in candy-making; although edible, it is nondigestible, passing right through the bodywithout being broken down• Coating for many kinds of hard cheese, like Edam cheese• Sealant for jars, cans, and bottles• Chewing gum additive• Investment casting• Anti-caking agent, moisture repellent, and dustbinding coatings for fertilizers• Agent for preparation of specimens for histology• Bullet lubricant – with other ingredients, such as olive oil and beeswax• Crayons• Solid propellant for hybrid rocket motors[14]• Component of surfwax, used for grip on surfboards in surfing• Component of glide wax, used on skis and snowboards• Friction-reducer, for use on handrails and cement ledges, commonly used in skateboardingFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Crystalline wax 153• Ink. Used as the basis for solid ink different color blocks of wax for thermal printers. The wax is melted and thensprayed on the paper producing images with a shiny surface• Microwax[15]: food additive, a glazing agent with E number E905• Forensics aid: the nitrate test uses paraffin wax to detect nitrates and nitrites on the hand of a shooting suspect• Antiozonant agents: blends of paraffin and micro waxes are used in rubber compounds to prevent cracking of therubber; the antiozonant waxes can be produced from synthetic waxes, FT wax, and Fischer Tropsch wax• Mechanical thermostats and actuators, as an expansion medium for activating such devices[11]• "Potting" guitar pickups, which reduces microphonic feedback caused from the subtle movements of the polepieces• Wax baths for beauty and therapy purposes• Thickening agent in many Paintballs, as used by Crayola• An effective, although comedogenic, moisturiser in toiletries and cosmetics such as Vaseline• Prevents oxidation on the surface of polished steel and iron[16]References[1] Britannica (1911)[2] "Paraffin, n". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. March 2009.[3] Kaye, George William Clarkson; Laby,Thomas Howell. "Mechanical properties of materials" (http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_2/2_2_1.html). Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. . Retrieved2008-03-06.[4] "Electrical insulating materials" (http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_6/2_6_3.html). Kaye and Laby Tables of Physicaland Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. 1995. . Retrieved 2007-04-23.[5] "Attenuation of fast neutrons: neutron moderation and diffusion" (http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/atomic_and_nuclear_physics/4_7/4_7_3.html). Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. . Retrieved 2007-04-23.[6] Rhodes, Richard (1986). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 163. ISBN 0-671-44133-7.[7] "Specific Heat Capacity" (http://www.diracdelta.co.uk/science/source/s/p/specific heat capacity/source.html). Diracdelta.co.ukScience and Engineering Encyclopedia. Dirac Delta Consultants Ltd, Warwick, England. . Retrieved 2007-08-18.[8] "Micronal PCM SmartBoard" (http://www.micronal.de/portal/basf/ien/dt.jsp?setCursor=1_290798). .[9] Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S. (February 1993). "Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development" (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993lock.rept.....D). Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. Report. NASA. . Retrieved 28 November 2008.[10] Wax-pellet thermostat (http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4948043.html) United States Patent 4948043[11] Bodén, Roger. "Paraffin Microactuator" (http://hermes.material.uu.se/~klas/Paraffin_lab_eng.pdf). Materials Science Sensors andActuators. University of Uppsala. . Retrieved 2007-04-23.[12] "Mineral Oil (Food Grade)" (http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v10je08.htm). WHO Food Additives Series 10. Foodand Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; World Health Organization. 1976. . Retrieved 2007-08-21.[13] "Dyed saddle leather—German pull up finish" (http://www.je-sedgwick.co.uk/jes/mib/d/dyed+saddle+leather+german+pull+up+finish/pid/7723339/). Walsall, England: J & E Sedgwick. . Retrieved 14 April 2010. "applying specially formulated mineral oils to the opengrain of the leather"[14] Staff (Fall 2004). "Rocket motor uses common household product for fuel" (http://www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis/pdf/69281main_fall.pdf). OASIS Ocean Air Space Industry Site (Stennis Space Center Pearlington, MS: NASA) 1 (3): 6. . Retrieved 28 November 2008.[15] (http://www.microcrystallinewax.net)[16] Dick, William B. "Encyclopedia Of Practical Receipts And Processes" (http://chestofbooks.com/reference/Encyclopedia-Of-Practical-Receipts-And-Processes/Steel-Part-6.html). . Retrieved 2008-04-27.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Lanolin 154LanolinLanolin (German, from Latin lāna, "wool", and oleum, "oil") also called Adeps Lanae, wool wax or wool grease, isa yellow waxy substance secreted by the sebaceous glands of wool-bearing animals. Most lanolin used by humanscomes from domestic sheep. Lanolin is also frequently, but incorrectly, referred to as ‘Wool Fat’ by many of theworld’s pharmacopoeia even though it has been known for more than 150 years that lanolin is devoid of glyceridesand is in fact a wax, not a fat.[1] [2]Lanolins waterproofing property aids sheep in shedding water from their coats.Certain breeds of sheep produce large amounts of lanolin, and the extraction can be performed by squeezing thesheeps harvested wool between rollers. Most or all of the lanolin is removed from wool when it is processed intotextiles, such as yarn or felt.Lanolins role in nature is to protect wool and skin against the ravages of climate and the environment – it also seemsto play a role in integumental hygiene.[1]It is therefore not surprising that lanolin and its many derivatives are usedextensively in products designed for the protection, treatment and beautification of human skin.[1]CompositionLike many natural products, lanolin has a complex and variable composition. For example, a typical high puritygrade of lanolin is composed predominantly of long chain waxy esters (ca. 97% by weight) the remainder beinglanolin alcohols, lanolin acids and lanolin hydrocarbons.[1]It has been estimated that there may be between 8,000 and 20,000 different types of lanolin ester present in lanolinresulting from combinations between the ca. 200 different lanolin acids and the ca. 100 different lanolin alcohols thathave so far been identified.[1] [2]Lanolins complex composition of long chain esters, hydroxy esters, diesters, lanolin alcohols, lanolin acids meansthat in addition to it being a valuable product in its own right, it is also the starting point for the production of awhole spectrum of lanolin derivatives which possess wide-ranging chemical and physical properties. The mainderivatisation routes include hydrolysis, fractional solvent crystallisation, esterification, hydrogenation, alkoxylationand quaternisation.[1] [2]Lanolin derivatives obtained from these processes are used widely in both high-valuecosmetic and skin treatment products.Hydrolysis of lanolin yields lanolin alcohols and lanolin acids. Lanolin alcohols are a rich source of cholesterol (animportant skin lipid) and are powerful water-in-oil emulsifiers; they have been used extensively in skin care productsfor over 100 years.[1]Interestingly, approximately 40% of the acids derived from lanolin are alpha hydroxy acids.[1][2]The use of alpha hydroxy acids (AHA’s) in skin care products has attracted a great deal of attention in recentyears. Details of the AHA’s isolated from lanolin can be seen in the table below.Type of lanolic acid Carbon chain length Number identifiedAlpha hydroxy normal C13– C2412Alpha hydroxy iso C13– C236Alpha hydroxy anteiso C12– C247FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Lanolin 155Modern developmentsIn addition to general purity requirements, there are now official requirements for the level of pesticide residuespermissible in lanolin. The 5thSupplement of the United States Pharmacopoeia XXII published in 1992 was the firstto specify limits for 34 named pesticides. A total limit of 40 p.p.m. (40 mg kg-1) total pesticides was stipulated forlanolin of general use, with no individual limit greater than 10 p.p.m. (10 mg kg-1).[1]A second monograph also introduced into the United States Pharmacopoeia XXII in 1992 was entitled ModifiedLanolin. Lanolin conforming to this monograph is intended for use in more exacting applications, for example onopen wounds. In the Modified Lanolin monograph, the limit of total pesticides is reduced to 3 p.p.m. (3 mg kg-1)total pesticides with no individual limit greater than 1 p.p.m. (1 mg kg-1).In 2000, the European Pharmacopoeia introduced pesticide residue limits into its lanolin monograph. Thisrequirement, which is generally regarded as the new quality standard, extends the list of pesticides to 40 and imposeseven lower concentration limits.However, some very high purity grades of lanolin surpass monograph requirements. New products obtained usingcomplex purification techniques produce lanolin esters in their natural state removing oxidative and environmentalimpurities resulting in white, odourless, hypoallergenic lanolin. These ultra-high purity grades of lanolin are ideallysuited to the treatment of dermatological disorders such as eczema and on open wounds.[3]Some years ago, lanolin attracted a great deal of attention owing to a misunderstanding concerning its sensitisingpotential.[4]A study carried out at New York University Hospital in the early 1950s had shown that approximately1% of patients with dermatological disorders were allergic to the lanolin being used at that time. However, thisfigure was misinterpreted and taken out of context and became quoted as 1% of the general healthy (American)population. It has been estimated that this simple misunderstanding by failing to differentiate between the generalhealthy population and patients with dermatological disorders exaggerates the sensitising potential of lanolin byapproximately 5,000 - 6,000 times.[4] [5]By the time the European Cosmetics Directive was introduced in July 1976, there had been so much adverse (butcompletely unfounded) publicity concerning lanolin that it contained a stipulation that cosmetics which containedlanolin should be labelled to that effect. This ruling was challenged immediately and in the early 1980s it wasoverturned and removed from the Directive. Despite only being in force for a very short period of time this ruling dida great deal of harm both to the lanolin industry and to the reputation of lanolin in general.[4]The irony is that theCosmetics Directive ruling only applied to the presence of lanolin in cosmetic products – it did not apply to themany hundreds of different lanolin derivatives used in cosmetic products or to the use lanolin in dermatologicalproducts designed for the treatment of compromised skin conditions.However, lanolins safety and efficacy is probably best illustrated taking a look at the market. High lanolin contentbaby care products (some as high as 100%) and treatment products for nursing mothers are commonplace.More recently, using modern scientific methods, attention has focused on the positive aspects of lanolin and onincreasing our understanding about how lanolin achieves its beneficial skin effects.[1]Modern analytical methods have revealed that lanolin possesses a number of important chemical and physicalsimilarities to human stratum corneum lipids; the lipids which help regulate the rate of trans-epidermal water lossand govern the hydration state of the skin.[1] [6] [7]Cryo-scanning electron microscopy has shown that lanolin, like human stratum corneum lipids, consists of a mass ofliquid crystalline material. Cross-polarised light microscopy has shown the multi-lamellar vesicles formed by lanolinare identical to those formed by human stratum corneum lipids. It is well known that the incorporation of boundwater into the stratum corneum involves the formation of multi-lamellar vesicles.[1] [8]Skin bio-engineering studies have shown that the durational effect of the emollient (skin smoothing) action producedby lanolin is very significant and lasts for many hours. Lanolin applied to the skin at 2mg cm-2has been shown toreduce roughness by ca. 35% after 1 hour and ca. 50% after 2 hours with the overall lasting for considerably moreFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Lanolin 156than 8 hours.[1]Lanolin is also known to form semi-occlusive (i.e. breathable) films on the skin.[2]When applieddaily at ca. 4 mg cm-2for five consecutive days, the positive moisturising effects of lanolin were detectable until ca.72 hours after final application.[1]It has been postulated that lanolin may achieve some of its moisturising effectsforming a secondary moisture reservoir within the skin.[9] [10]In other studies, the barrier repair properties of lanolin have been reported to be superior to those produced by bothpetrolatum and glycerin.[1]In a small clinical study conducted on volunteer subjects with terribly dry (xerotic) hands,lanolin was shown to be superior to Petrolatum in reducing the signs and symptoms of dryness and scaling, cracksand abrasions, and pain and itch.8 In another study, a high purity grade of lanolin was found to be significantlysuperior to Petrolatum in assisting the healing of superficial wounds.[11]Lanolin could thus be described as thedefinitive, natural skin barrier repair agent.ApplicationsLanolin ointmentLanolin and its many derivatives are used extensively in both thepersonal care (e.g. in high value cosmetics, facial cosmetics, lipproducts etc) and health care sectors. Lanolin is frequently used inprotective baby skin treatment (and nursing mother) markets.Lanolin is used commercially in many industrial products ranging fromrust-proof coatings to lubricants. Some sailors use lanolin to create aslippery surface on their propellers and stern gear to which barnaclescannot adhere. The water-repellent properties make it valuable as alubricant grease where corrosion would otherwise be a problem.Lanolin is often used as a raw material for producing cholecalciferol(vitamin D3).Lanolin is often used by baseball players to soften and break in their baseball gloves (shaving cream that containslanolin is popularly used for this).Anhydrous lanolin is also used as a lubricant for brass instrument tuning slides.Lanolin can also be restored to woolen garments to make them waterproof, such as for cloth diaper covers.ProductionCrude lanolin constitutes approximately 5-25% of the weight of freshly shorn wool. The wool from one Merinosheep will produce about 250-300 ml of recoverable wool grease. Lanolin is extracted by washing the wool in hotwater with a special wool scouring detergent to remove dirt, wool grease (crude lanolin), suint (sweat salts), andanything else stuck to the wool. The wool grease is continuously removed during this washing process by centrifugalseparators, which concentrate the wool grease into a wax-like substance melting at approximately 38 °C (100 °F).FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Lanolin 157References[1] The Lanolin Book, Edited by Udo Hoppe, Published by Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg 1999[2] G Barnett, Lanolin and Derivatives, Cosmetics & Toiletries, 1986, 101, 21-44[3] MR Arden Jones, I Steel and SM Powell British Journal of Dermatology, July 2002, 147, (Supplement 62), 71[4] I Steel, Lanolin Allergy: Hype or Hypersensitivity? Journal of the National Eczema Society (Exchange) December 1994, (75), 16-17[5] I Steel, IR White and MH Beck, Dilemmas in Lanolin Sensitivity, 10th International Symposium on Contact Dermatitis, Nagoya, Japan(1995)[6] EW Clark and I Steel, Poster #2, American Academy of Dermatology, Washington DC, 1993[7] EW Clark and I Steel Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, July/August 1993, 44, 181-195[8] EW Clark and I Steel Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, July/August 1993, 44, 181-195[9] EW Clark and I Steel, Poster #2, American Academy of Dermatology, Washington DC, 1993[10] EW Clark and I Steel Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, July/August 1993, 44, 181-195[11] I Steel, LB Joseph, NA Langley, AM Kligman, TJ Stoudemeyer and M Christiansen, 7th Congress of the European Society of ContactDermatitis, Copenhagen, 9-12 June 2004External links• Lanolin.com - Comprehensive view on history, manufacturing and applications (http://www.lanolin.com/home.html)• Lanolin poisoning (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002663.htm)ColophoniumLight violin rosinRosin, also called colophony or Greek pitch (Pix græca), is a solidform of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostlyconifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vaporize the volatileliquid terpene components. It is semi-transparent and varies in colorfrom yellow to black. At room temperature rosin is brittle, but it meltsat stove-top temperatures. It chiefly consists of different resin acids,especially abietic acid.The name, colophony or colophonia resina, comes from its origin inColophon, an ancient Ionic city.UsesA cake of rosin, made for use by violinists, usedhere for solderingRosin is an ingredient in printing inks, photocopying and laser printingpaper, varnishes, adhesives (glues), soap, paper sizing, soda, solderingfluxes, and sealing wax.Rosin can be used as a glazing agent in medicines and chewing gum. Itis denoted by E number E915. A related glycerol ester (E445) can beused as an emulsifier in soft drinks. In pharmaceuticals, rosin forms aningredient in several plasters and ointments.In industry, rosin is the precursor to the flux used in soldering. Thelead-tin solder commonly used in electronics has about 1% rosin as aflux core helping the molten metal flow and making a better connection by reducing the refractory solid oxide layerformed at the surface back to metal. It is frequently seen as the burnt or clear residue around new soldering.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Colophonium 158A mixture of pitch and rosin is used to make a surface against which glass is polished when making opticalcomponents such as lenses.Rosin is added in small quantities to traditional linseed oil/sand gap fillers, used in building work.When mixed with waxes and oils, rosin is the main ingredient of mystic smoke, a gum which, when rubbed andsuddenly stretched, appears to produce puffs of smoke from the finger tips.Rosin is extensively used for its friction-increasing capacity in several fields:• Players of bowed string instruments rub cakes or blocks of rosin on their bow hair so it can grip the strings andmake them speak.[1]Extra substances such as beeswax, gold, silver, tin, or meteoric iron are sometimes added tothe rosin to modify its stiction/friction properties, and (disputably) the tone it produces.[2]Powdered rosin is oftenapplied to new hair, for example with a felt pad or cloth, to reduce the time taken in getting sufficient rosin ontothe hair. Lighter rosin is used for violins, darker for cellos, special type for basses -- for more see Bow (music).• Violin rosin can be applied to the underside of bridges in other musical instruments, such as the Banjo andBanjolele, in order to prevent the bridge from moving during vigorous playing.• Ballet and flamenco dancers sometimes rub their shoes in powdered rosin to reduce slippage before going onstage - it was at one time used in the same way in fencing and is still used as such by boxers.• Gymnasts use it to improve grip.• Applied onto the starting line of drag racing courses used to improve traction.• Bull riders rub rosin on their rope and glove for additional grip.• Baseball pitchers and ten-pin bowlers may use small cloth bag of powdered rosin for better ball control.ProductionVarious types of rosin for violins, violas andcellosRosin is the resinous constituent of the oleo-resin exuded by variousspecies of pine, known in commerce as crude turpentine. Theseparation of the oleo-resin into the essential oil-spirit of turpentineand common rosin is effected by distillation in large copper stills. Theessential oil is carried off at a temperature of between 100° and 160°C,leaving fluid rosin, which is run off through a tap at the bottom of thestill, and purified by passing through straining wadding. Rosin variesin color, according to the age of the tree from which the turpentine isdrawn and the degree of heat applied in distillation, from an opaque,almost pitch-black substance through grades of brown and yellow to analmost perfectly transparent colorless glassy mass. The commercial grades are numerous, ranging by letters from A,the darkest, to N, extra pale, superior to which are W, window glass, and WW, water white varieties, the latterhaving about three times the value of the common qualities.Other sources of rosin include rosin (called tall oil rosin) obtained from the distillation of Crude Tall Oil (CTO).Crude Tall Oil is a by-product obtained from the kraft paper making process. Additionally rosin may be obtainedfrom aged pine stumps. This type of rosin is typically called wood rosin. In this process, aged wood stumps arechipped and soaked in a solvent solution. The solvents are recovered along with the rosin, fatty acids, turpentine, andother constituents through distillation. In the United States, pine stumps of trees killed during the American CivilWar were highly prized, but are now difficult to locate.On a large scale, rosin is treated by destructive distillation for the production of rosin spirit, pinoline and rosin oil.The last enters into the composition of some of the solid lubricating greases, and is also used as an adulterant ofother oils.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Colophonium 159PropertiesPharmaceutical rosinRosin is brittle and friable, with a faint piny odor. It is typically aglassy solid, though some rosins will form crystals, especially whenbrought into solution.[3]The practical melting point varies withdifferent specimens, some being semi-fluid at the temperature ofboiling water, others melting at 100°C to 120°C. It is very flammable,burning with a smoky flame, so care should be taken when melting it.It is soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene and chloroform. Rosin consistsmainly of abietic acid, and combines with caustic alkalis to form salts(rosinates or pinates) that are known as rosin soaps. In addition to itsextensive use in soap making, rosin is largely employed in makingvarnishes (including fine violin varnishes), sealing wax and variousadhesives. It is also used for preparing shoemakers wax, as a flux for soldering metals, for pitching lager beer casks,for rosining the bows of musical instruments and numerous minor purposes.Prolonged exposure to rosin fumes released during soldering can cause occupational asthma (formerly calledcolophony disease[4]in this context) in sensitive individuals, although it is not known which component of the fumescauses the problem.[5]The type of rosin used for instruments is determined by the diameter of the strings. Generally this means that thelarger the instrument is, the softer the rosin should be. For instance, double bass rosin is generally soft enough to bepliable with slow movements. A cake of bass rosin left in a single position for several months will show evidence offlow, especially in warmer weather.Prolonged over-exposure by handling rosin-coated products, for example, by the excessive and long-term handlingof laser printer or photocopying paper, can give rise to a form of industrial contact dermatitis.[6]SourcesColophony or Rosin from the Maritime PineThe chief region of rosin production is Indonesia, southern China, suchas Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Yunnan and Jiangxi, and the Northernpart of Vietnam. Chinese rosin is obtained mainly from the turpentineof Massons Pine Pinus massoniana and Slash Pine P. elliottii.The South Atlantic and Eastern Gulf states of the United States is alsoa chief region of production. American rosin is obtained from theturpentine of Longleaf Pine Pinus palustris and Loblolly Pine P. taeda.In Mexico, most of the rosin is derived from live tapping of severalspecies of pine trees, but mostly Pinus oocarpa, Pinus leiophylla,Pinus michoacana and Pinus montezumae. Most production isconcentrated in the west-central state of Michoacán.The main source of supply in Europe is the French district of Les Landes in the departments of Gironde and Landes,where the Maritime Pine P. pinaster is extensively cultivated. In the north of Europe rosin is obtained from the ScotsPine P. sylvestris, and throughout European countries local supplies are obtained from other species of pine, withAleppo Pine P. halepensis being particularly important in the Mediterranean region.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Colophonium 160References[1] Gerhard Mantel. "Cello Technique" (http://books.google.com/books?id=LD9teSPY2Z0C&pg=PA135&lpg=PA135&dq=cello+string+speak&source=web&ots=i3JbTjwEhx&sig=QttzppFDdq2yRFZMVJL9MkfiJAo&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#v=onepage&q=cello string speak&f=false). p. 135. . "How to Make a String Speak"[2] http://www.stringsmagazine.com/issues/Strings115/yourinstrument.html[3] A New Non-Crystallizing Gum Rosin (http://www.springerlink.com/content/n2213x01341230w5/fulltext.pdf)[4] "colophony disease", Archaic Medical Terms List, Occupational, on Antiquus Morbus website (http://www.antiquusmorbus.com/English/Occupational.htm)[5] Controlling health risks from rosin (colophony) based solder fluxes, IND(G)249L, United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive, 1997(online PDF) (http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg249.pdf)[6] Rosin (colophony) allergy page, from DermNet NZ (http://www.dermnet.org.nz/dermatitis/rosin-allergy.html)External links• Making violin rosin (http://www.stringsmagazine.com/issues/strings98/rosin.html)ParaffinIn chemistry, paraffin is a term that can be used synonymously with "alkane", indicating hydrocarbons with thegeneral formula CnH2n+2. Paraffin wax refers to a mixture of alkanes that falls within the 20 ≤ n ≤ 40 range; theyare found in the solid state at room temperature and begin to enter the liquid phase past approximately 37°C.The simplest paraffin molecule is that of methane, CH4, a gas at room temperature. Heavier members of the series,such as octane, C8H18, and mineral oil appear as liquids at room temperature. The solid forms of paraffin, calledparaffin wax, are from the heaviest molecules from C20H42to C40H82. Paraffin wax was identified by CarlReichenbach in 1830.[1]Paraffin, or paraffin hydrocarbon, is also the technical name for an alkane in general, but in most cases it refersspecifically to a linear, or normal alkane — whereas branched, or isoalkanes are also called isoparaffins. It is distinctfrom the fuel known in the United Kingdom, Ireland and South Africa as paraffin oil or just paraffin, which is calledkerosene in most of the U.S., Canada, Australia and New Zealand.The name is derived from Latin parum ("barely") + affinis, meaning "lacking affinity" or "lacking reactivity"indicating paraffins unreactive nature[2])WaxParaffin wax (or simply "paraffin", but see alternative name for kerosene, above) is mostly found as a white,odorless, tasteless, waxy solid, with a typical melting point between about 47 °C and 64 °C ( 117°F to 147°F), andhaving a density of around 0.9 g/cm3.[3]It is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether, benzene, and certain esters.Paraffin is unaffected by most common chemical reagents, but burns readily.Pure paraffin wax is an excellent electrical insulator, with an electrical resistivity of between 1013and 1017ohmmetre.[4]This is better than nearly all other materials except some plastics (notably teflon). It is an effective neutronmoderator and was used in James Chadwicks 1932 experiments to identify the neutron.[5] [6]Paraffin wax (C25H52) is an excellent material to store heat, having a specific heat capacity of 2.14–2.9 J g−1 K−1(joule per gram per kelvin) and a heat of fusion of 200–220 J g−1.[7]This property is exploited in modified drywallfor home building material: it is infused in the drywall during manufacture so that, when installed, it melts during theday, absorbing heat, and solidifies again at night, releasing the heat.[8]Paraffin wax phase change cooling coupledwith retractable radiators was used to cool the electronics of the Lunar Rover.[9]Wax expands considerably when itmelts and this allows its use in thermostats for industrial, domestic and, particularly, automobile purposes.[10] [11]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Paraffin 161In industrial applications, it is often useful to modify the crystal properties of the paraffin wax, typically by addingbranching to the existing carbon backbone chain. The modification is usually done with additives, such as EVAcopolymers, microcrystalline wax, or forms of polyethylene. The branched properties result in a modified paraffinwith a higher viscosity, smaller crystalline structure, and modified functional properties. Pure paraffin wax is rarelyused for carving original models for casting metal and other materials in the lost wax process, as it is relatively brittleat room temperature and presents the risks of chipping and breakage when worked. Soft and pliable waxes, likebeeswax, may be preferred for such sculpture, but "investment casting waxes," often paraffin-based, are expresslyformulated for the purpose.Mineral oilLiquid paraffin, or mineral oil, is a mixture of heavier alkanes, and has a number of names, including nujol, adepsineoil, alboline, glymol, medicinal paraffin, or saxol. It has a density of around 0.8 g/cm3.[3]Liquid paraffin (medicinal)is used to aid bowel movement in persons suffering chronic constipation; it passes through the gastrointestinal tractwithout itself being taken into the body, but it limits the amount of water removed from the stool. In the foodindustry, where it may be called "wax", it can be used as a lubricant in mechanical mixing, applied to baking tins toensure that loaves are easily released when cooked and as a coating for fruit or other items requiring a "shiny"appearance for sale.[12]It is often used in infrared spectroscopy, as it has a relatively uncomplicated IR spectrum. When the sample to betested is made into a mull (a very thick paste), liquid paraffin is added so it can be spread on the transparent (toinfrared) mounting plates to be tested.UsesGaseous• FuelsLiquids• Fuels• Paints, Pigments, Dyes and Inks• In leather industry for "pull up finish"[13]• Medicine (Laxative)• Biomedical science (evaporation control during PCR)• Culinary• Fire breathing and fire juggling• Used in toiletries and cosmetics as a moisturiser or emollient.Paraffin wax• Candle-making• Coatings for waxed paper or cloth• Food-grade paraffin wax:• Shiny coating used in candy-making; although edible, it is nondigestible, passing right through the bodywithout being broken down• Coating for many kinds of hard cheese, like Edam cheese• Sealant for jars, cans, and bottles• Chewing gum additiveFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Paraffin 162• Investment casting• Anti-caking agent, moisture repellent, and dustbinding coatings for fertilizers• Agent for preparation of specimens for histology• Bullet lubricant – with other ingredients, such as olive oil and beeswax• Crayons• Solid propellant for hybrid rocket motors[14]• Component of surfwax, used for grip on surfboards in surfing• Component of glide wax, used on skis and snowboards• Friction-reducer, for use on handrails and cement ledges, commonly used in skateboarding• Ink. Used as the basis for solid ink different color blocks of wax for thermal printers. The wax is melted and thensprayed on the paper producing images with a shiny surface• Microwax[15]: food additive, a glazing agent with E number E905• Forensics aid: the nitrate test uses paraffin wax to detect nitrates and nitrites on the hand of a shooting suspect• Antiozonant agents: blends of paraffin and micro waxes are used in rubber compounds to prevent cracking of therubber; the antiozonant waxes can be produced from synthetic waxes, FT wax, and Fischer Tropsch wax• Mechanical thermostats and actuators, as an expansion medium for activating such devices[11]• "Potting" guitar pickups, which reduces microphonic feedback caused from the subtle movements of the polepieces• Wax baths for beauty and therapy purposes• Thickening agent in many Paintballs, as used by Crayola• An effective, although comedogenic, moisturiser in toiletries and cosmetics such as Vaseline• Prevents oxidation on the surface of polished steel and iron[16]References[1] Britannica (1911)[2] "Paraffin, n". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. March 2009.[3] Kaye, George William Clarkson; Laby,Thomas Howell. "Mechanical properties of materials" (http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_2/2_2_1.html). Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. . Retrieved2008-03-06.[4] "Electrical insulating materials" (http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_6/2_6_3.html). Kaye and Laby Tables of Physicaland Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. 1995. . Retrieved 2007-04-23.[5] "Attenuation of fast neutrons: neutron moderation and diffusion" (http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/atomic_and_nuclear_physics/4_7/4_7_3.html). Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. . Retrieved 2007-04-23.[6] Rhodes, Richard (1986). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 163. ISBN 0-671-44133-7.[7] "Specific Heat Capacity" (http://www.diracdelta.co.uk/science/source/s/p/specific heat capacity/source.html). Diracdelta.co.ukScience and Engineering Encyclopedia. Dirac Delta Consultants Ltd, Warwick, England. . Retrieved 2007-08-18.[8] "Micronal PCM SmartBoard" (http://www.micronal.de/portal/basf/ien/dt.jsp?setCursor=1_290798). .[9] Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S. (February 1993). "Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development" (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993lock.rept.....D). Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. Report. NASA. . Retrieved 28 November 2008.[10] Wax-pellet thermostat (http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4948043.html) United States Patent 4948043[11] Bodén, Roger. "Paraffin Microactuator" (http://hermes.material.uu.se/~klas/Paraffin_lab_eng.pdf). Materials Science Sensors andActuators. University of Uppsala. . Retrieved 2007-04-23.[12] "Mineral Oil (Food Grade)" (http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v10je08.htm). WHO Food Additives Series 10. Foodand Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; World Health Organization. 1976. . Retrieved 2007-08-21.[13] "Dyed saddle leather—German pull up finish" (http://www.je-sedgwick.co.uk/jes/mib/d/dyed+saddle+leather+german+pull+up+finish/pid/7723339/). Walsall, England: J & E Sedgwick. . Retrieved 14 April 2010. "applying specially formulated mineral oils to the opengrain of the leather"[14] Staff (Fall 2004). "Rocket motor uses common household product for fuel" (http://www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis/pdf/69281main_fall.pdf). OASIS Ocean Air Space Industry Site (Stennis Space Center Pearlington, MS: NASA) 1 (3): 6. . Retrieved 28 November 2008.[15] (http://www.microcrystallinewax.net)[16] Dick, William B. "Encyclopedia Of Practical Receipts And Processes" (http://chestofbooks.com/reference/Encyclopedia-Of-Practical-Receipts-And-Processes/Steel-Part-6.html). . Retrieved 2008-04-27.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Petroleum wax 163Petroleum waxIn chemistry, paraffin is a term that can be used synonymously with "alkane", indicating hydrocarbons with thegeneral formula CnH2n+2. Paraffin wax refers to a mixture of alkanes that falls within the 20 ≤ n ≤ 40 range; theyare found in the solid state at room temperature and begin to enter the liquid phase past approximately 37°C.The simplest paraffin molecule is that of methane, CH4, a gas at room temperature. Heavier members of the series,such as octane, C8H18, and mineral oil appear as liquids at room temperature. The solid forms of paraffin, calledparaffin wax, are from the heaviest molecules from C20H42to C40H82. Paraffin wax was identified by CarlReichenbach in 1830.[1]Paraffin, or paraffin hydrocarbon, is also the technical name for an alkane in general, but in most cases it refersspecifically to a linear, or normal alkane — whereas branched, or isoalkanes are also called isoparaffins. It is distinctfrom the fuel known in the United Kingdom, Ireland and South Africa as paraffin oil or just paraffin, which is calledkerosene in most of the U.S., Canada, Australia and New Zealand.The name is derived from Latin parum ("barely") + affinis, meaning "lacking affinity" or "lacking reactivity"indicating paraffins unreactive nature[2])WaxParaffin wax (or simply "paraffin", but see alternative name for kerosene, above) is mostly found as a white,odorless, tasteless, waxy solid, with a typical melting point between about 47 °C and 64 °C ( 117°F to 147°F), andhaving a density of around 0.9 g/cm3.[3]It is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether, benzene, and certain esters.Paraffin is unaffected by most common chemical reagents, but burns readily.Pure paraffin wax is an excellent electrical insulator, with an electrical resistivity of between 1013and 1017ohmmetre.[4]This is better than nearly all other materials except some plastics (notably teflon). It is an effective neutronmoderator and was used in James Chadwicks 1932 experiments to identify the neutron.[5] [6]Paraffin wax (C25H52) is an excellent material to store heat, having a specific heat capacity of 2.14–2.9 J g−1 K−1(joule per gram per kelvin) and a heat of fusion of 200–220 J g−1.[7]This property is exploited in modified drywallfor home building material: it is infused in the drywall during manufacture so that, when installed, it melts during theday, absorbing heat, and solidifies again at night, releasing the heat.[8]Paraffin wax phase change cooling coupledwith retractable radiators was used to cool the electronics of the Lunar Rover.[9]Wax expands considerably when itmelts and this allows its use in thermostats for industrial, domestic and, particularly, automobile purposes.[10] [11]In industrial applications, it is often useful to modify the crystal properties of the paraffin wax, typically by addingbranching to the existing carbon backbone chain. The modification is usually done with additives, such as EVAcopolymers, microcrystalline wax, or forms of polyethylene. The branched properties result in a modified paraffinwith a higher viscosity, smaller crystalline structure, and modified functional properties. Pure paraffin wax is rarelyused for carving original models for casting metal and other materials in the lost wax process, as it is relatively brittleat room temperature and presents the risks of chipping and breakage when worked. Soft and pliable waxes, likebeeswax, may be preferred for such sculpture, but "investment casting waxes," often paraffin-based, are expresslyformulated for the purpose.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Petroleum wax 164Mineral oilLiquid paraffin, or mineral oil, is a mixture of heavier alkanes, and has a number of names, including nujol, adepsineoil, alboline, glymol, medicinal paraffin, or saxol. It has a density of around 0.8 g/cm3.[3]Liquid paraffin (medicinal)is used to aid bowel movement in persons suffering chronic constipation; it passes through the gastrointestinal tractwithout itself being taken into the body, but it limits the amount of water removed from the stool. In the foodindustry, where it may be called "wax", it can be used as a lubricant in mechanical mixing, applied to baking tins toensure that loaves are easily released when cooked and as a coating for fruit or other items requiring a "shiny"appearance for sale.[12]It is often used in infrared spectroscopy, as it has a relatively uncomplicated IR spectrum. When the sample to betested is made into a mull (a very thick paste), liquid paraffin is added so it can be spread on the transparent (toinfrared) mounting plates to be tested.UsesGaseous• FuelsLiquids• Fuels• Paints, Pigments, Dyes and Inks• In leather industry for "pull up finish"[13]• Medicine (Laxative)• Biomedical science (evaporation control during PCR)• Culinary• Fire breathing and fire juggling• Used in toiletries and cosmetics as a moisturiser or emollient.Paraffin wax• Candle-making• Coatings for waxed paper or cloth• Food-grade paraffin wax:• Shiny coating used in candy-making; although edible, it is nondigestible, passing right through the bodywithout being broken down• Coating for many kinds of hard cheese, like Edam cheese• Sealant for jars, cans, and bottles• Chewing gum additive• Investment casting• Anti-caking agent, moisture repellent, and dustbinding coatings for fertilizers• Agent for preparation of specimens for histology• Bullet lubricant – with other ingredients, such as olive oil and beeswax• Crayons• Solid propellant for hybrid rocket motors[14]• Component of surfwax, used for grip on surfboards in surfing• Component of glide wax, used on skis and snowboards• Friction-reducer, for use on handrails and cement ledges, commonly used in skateboardingFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Petroleum wax 165• Ink. Used as the basis for solid ink different color blocks of wax for thermal printers. The wax is melted and thensprayed on the paper producing images with a shiny surface• Microwax[15]: food additive, a glazing agent with E number E905• Forensics aid: the nitrate test uses paraffin wax to detect nitrates and nitrites on the hand of a shooting suspect• Antiozonant agents: blends of paraffin and micro waxes are used in rubber compounds to prevent cracking of therubber; the antiozonant waxes can be produced from synthetic waxes, FT wax, and Fischer Tropsch wax• Mechanical thermostats and actuators, as an expansion medium for activating such devices[11]• "Potting" guitar pickups, which reduces microphonic feedback caused from the subtle movements of the polepieces• Wax baths for beauty and therapy purposes• Thickening agent in many Paintballs, as used by Crayola• An effective, although comedogenic, moisturiser in toiletries and cosmetics such as Vaseline• Prevents oxidation on the surface of polished steel and iron[16]References[1] Britannica (1911)[2] "Paraffin, n". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. March 2009.[3] Kaye, George William Clarkson; Laby,Thomas Howell. "Mechanical properties of materials" (http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_2/2_2_1.html). Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. . Retrieved2008-03-06.[4] "Electrical insulating materials" (http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_6/2_6_3.html). Kaye and Laby Tables of Physicaland Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. 1995. . Retrieved 2007-04-23.[5] "Attenuation of fast neutrons: neutron moderation and diffusion" (http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/atomic_and_nuclear_physics/4_7/4_7_3.html). Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. . Retrieved 2007-04-23.[6] Rhodes, Richard (1986). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 163. ISBN 0-671-44133-7.[7] "Specific Heat Capacity" (http://www.diracdelta.co.uk/science/source/s/p/specific heat capacity/source.html). Diracdelta.co.ukScience and Engineering Encyclopedia. Dirac Delta Consultants Ltd, Warwick, England. . Retrieved 2007-08-18.[8] "Micronal PCM SmartBoard" (http://www.micronal.de/portal/basf/ien/dt.jsp?setCursor=1_290798). .[9] Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S. (February 1993). "Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development" (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993lock.rept.....D). Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. Report. NASA. . Retrieved 28 November 2008.[10] Wax-pellet thermostat (http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4948043.html) United States Patent 4948043[11] Bodén, Roger. "Paraffin Microactuator" (http://hermes.material.uu.se/~klas/Paraffin_lab_eng.pdf). Materials Science Sensors andActuators. University of Uppsala. . Retrieved 2007-04-23.[12] "Mineral Oil (Food Grade)" (http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v10je08.htm). WHO Food Additives Series 10. Foodand Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; World Health Organization. 1976. . Retrieved 2007-08-21.[13] "Dyed saddle leather—German pull up finish" (http://www.je-sedgwick.co.uk/jes/mib/d/dyed+saddle+leather+german+pull+up+finish/pid/7723339/). Walsall, England: J & E Sedgwick. . Retrieved 14 April 2010. "applying specially formulated mineral oils to the opengrain of the leather"[14] Staff (Fall 2004). "Rocket motor uses common household product for fuel" (http://www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis/pdf/69281main_fall.pdf). OASIS Ocean Air Space Industry Site (Stennis Space Center Pearlington, MS: NASA) 1 (3): 6. . Retrieved 28 November 2008.[15] (http://www.microcrystallinewax.net)[16] Dick, William B. "Encyclopedia Of Practical Receipts And Processes" (http://chestofbooks.com/reference/Encyclopedia-Of-Practical-Receipts-And-Processes/Steel-Part-6.html). . Retrieved 2008-04-27.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Paraffin wax 166Paraffin waxIn chemistry, paraffin is a term that can be used synonymously with "alkane", indicating hydrocarbons with thegeneral formula CnH2n+2. Paraffin wax refers to a mixture of alkanes that falls within the 20 ≤ n ≤ 40 range; theyare found in the solid state at room temperature and begin to enter the liquid phase past approximately 37°C.The simplest paraffin molecule is that of methane, CH4, a gas at room temperature. Heavier members of the series,such as octane, C8H18, and mineral oil appear as liquids at room temperature. The solid forms of paraffin, calledparaffin wax, are from the heaviest molecules from C20H42to C40H82. Paraffin wax was identified by CarlReichenbach in 1830.[1]Paraffin, or paraffin hydrocarbon, is also the technical name for an alkane in general, but in most cases it refersspecifically to a linear, or normal alkane — whereas branched, or isoalkanes are also called isoparaffins. It is distinctfrom the fuel known in the United Kingdom, Ireland and South Africa as paraffin oil or just paraffin, which is calledkerosene in most of the U.S., Canada, Australia and New Zealand.The name is derived from Latin parum ("barely") + affinis, meaning "lacking affinity" or "lacking reactivity"indicating paraffins unreactive nature[2])WaxParaffin wax (or simply "paraffin", but see alternative name for kerosene, above) is mostly found as a white,odorless, tasteless, waxy solid, with a typical melting point between about 47 °C and 64 °C ( 117°F to 147°F), andhaving a density of around 0.9 g/cm3.[3]It is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether, benzene, and certain esters.Paraffin is unaffected by most common chemical reagents, but burns readily.Pure paraffin wax is an excellent electrical insulator, with an electrical resistivity of between 1013and 1017ohmmetre.[4]This is better than nearly all other materials except some plastics (notably teflon). It is an effective neutronmoderator and was used in James Chadwicks 1932 experiments to identify the neutron.[5] [6]Paraffin wax (C25H52) is an excellent material to store heat, having a specific heat capacity of 2.14–2.9 J g−1 K−1(joule per gram per kelvin) and a heat of fusion of 200–220 J g−1.[7]This property is exploited in modified drywallfor home building material: it is infused in the drywall during manufacture so that, when installed, it melts during theday, absorbing heat, and solidifies again at night, releasing the heat.[8]Paraffin wax phase change cooling coupledwith retractable radiators was used to cool the electronics of the Lunar Rover.[9]Wax expands considerably when itmelts and this allows its use in thermostats for industrial, domestic and, particularly, automobile purposes.[10] [11]In industrial applications, it is often useful to modify the crystal properties of the paraffin wax, typically by addingbranching to the existing carbon backbone chain. The modification is usually done with additives, such as EVAcopolymers, microcrystalline wax, or forms of polyethylene. The branched properties result in a modified paraffinwith a higher viscosity, smaller crystalline structure, and modified functional properties. Pure paraffin wax is rarelyused for carving original models for casting metal and other materials in the lost wax process, as it is relatively brittleat room temperature and presents the risks of chipping and breakage when worked. Soft and pliable waxes, likebeeswax, may be preferred for such sculpture, but "investment casting waxes," often paraffin-based, are expresslyformulated for the purpose.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Paraffin wax 167Mineral oilLiquid paraffin, or mineral oil, is a mixture of heavier alkanes, and has a number of names, including nujol, adepsineoil, alboline, glymol, medicinal paraffin, or saxol. It has a density of around 0.8 g/cm3.[3]Liquid paraffin (medicinal)is used to aid bowel movement in persons suffering chronic constipation; it passes through the gastrointestinal tractwithout itself being taken into the body, but it limits the amount of water removed from the stool. In the foodindustry, where it may be called "wax", it can be used as a lubricant in mechanical mixing, applied to baking tins toensure that loaves are easily released when cooked and as a coating for fruit or other items requiring a "shiny"appearance for sale.[12]It is often used in infrared spectroscopy, as it has a relatively uncomplicated IR spectrum. When the sample to betested is made into a mull (a very thick paste), liquid paraffin is added so it can be spread on the transparent (toinfrared) mounting plates to be tested.UsesGaseous• FuelsLiquids• Fuels• Paints, Pigments, Dyes and Inks• In leather industry for "pull up finish"[13]• Medicine (Laxative)• Biomedical science (evaporation control during PCR)• Culinary• Fire breathing and fire juggling• Used in toiletries and cosmetics as a moisturiser or emollient.Paraffin wax• Candle-making• Coatings for waxed paper or cloth• Food-grade paraffin wax:• Shiny coating used in candy-making; although edible, it is nondigestible, passing right through the bodywithout being broken down• Coating for many kinds of hard cheese, like Edam cheese• Sealant for jars, cans, and bottles• Chewing gum additive• Investment casting• Anti-caking agent, moisture repellent, and dustbinding coatings for fertilizers• Agent for preparation of specimens for histology• Bullet lubricant – with other ingredients, such as olive oil and beeswax• Crayons• Solid propellant for hybrid rocket motors[14]• Component of surfwax, used for grip on surfboards in surfing• Component of glide wax, used on skis and snowboards• Friction-reducer, for use on handrails and cement ledges, commonly used in skateboardingFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Paraffin wax 168• Ink. Used as the basis for solid ink different color blocks of wax for thermal printers. The wax is melted and thensprayed on the paper producing images with a shiny surface• Microwax[15]: food additive, a glazing agent with E number E905• Forensics aid: the nitrate test uses paraffin wax to detect nitrates and nitrites on the hand of a shooting suspect• Antiozonant agents: blends of paraffin and micro waxes are used in rubber compounds to prevent cracking of therubber; the antiozonant waxes can be produced from synthetic waxes, FT wax, and Fischer Tropsch wax• Mechanical thermostats and actuators, as an expansion medium for activating such devices[11]• "Potting" guitar pickups, which reduces microphonic feedback caused from the subtle movements of the polepieces• Wax baths for beauty and therapy purposes• Thickening agent in many Paintballs, as used by Crayola• An effective, although comedogenic, moisturiser in toiletries and cosmetics such as Vaseline• Prevents oxidation on the surface of polished steel and iron[16]References[1] Britannica (1911)[2] "Paraffin, n". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. March 2009.[3] Kaye, George William Clarkson; Laby,Thomas Howell. "Mechanical properties of materials" (http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_2/2_2_1.html). Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. . Retrieved2008-03-06.[4] "Electrical insulating materials" (http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_6/2_6_3.html). Kaye and Laby Tables of Physicaland Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. 1995. . Retrieved 2007-04-23.[5] "Attenuation of fast neutrons: neutron moderation and diffusion" (http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/atomic_and_nuclear_physics/4_7/4_7_3.html). Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. . Retrieved 2007-04-23.[6] Rhodes, Richard (1986). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 163. ISBN 0-671-44133-7.[7] "Specific Heat Capacity" (http://www.diracdelta.co.uk/science/source/s/p/specific heat capacity/source.html). Diracdelta.co.ukScience and Engineering Encyclopedia. Dirac Delta Consultants Ltd, Warwick, England. . Retrieved 2007-08-18.[8] "Micronal PCM SmartBoard" (http://www.micronal.de/portal/basf/ien/dt.jsp?setCursor=1_290798). .[9] Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S. (February 1993). "Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development" (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993lock.rept.....D). Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. Report. NASA. . Retrieved 28 November 2008.[10] Wax-pellet thermostat (http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4948043.html) United States Patent 4948043[11] Bodén, Roger. "Paraffin Microactuator" (http://hermes.material.uu.se/~klas/Paraffin_lab_eng.pdf). Materials Science Sensors andActuators. University of Uppsala. . Retrieved 2007-04-23.[12] "Mineral Oil (Food Grade)" (http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v10je08.htm). WHO Food Additives Series 10. Foodand Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; World Health Organization. 1976. . Retrieved 2007-08-21.[13] "Dyed saddle leather—German pull up finish" (http://www.je-sedgwick.co.uk/jes/mib/d/dyed+saddle+leather+german+pull+up+finish/pid/7723339/). Walsall, England: J & E Sedgwick. . Retrieved 14 April 2010. "applying specially formulated mineral oils to the opengrain of the leather"[14] Staff (Fall 2004). "Rocket motor uses common household product for fuel" (http://www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis/pdf/69281main_fall.pdf). OASIS Ocean Air Space Industry Site (Stennis Space Center Pearlington, MS: NASA) 1 (3): 6. . Retrieved 28 November 2008.[15] (http://www.microcrystallinewax.net)[16] Dick, William B. "Encyclopedia Of Practical Receipts And Processes" (http://chestofbooks.com/reference/Encyclopedia-Of-Practical-Receipts-And-Processes/Steel-Part-6.html). . Retrieved 2008-04-27.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Rice bran wax 169Rice bran waxRice bran wax is the vegetable wax extracted from the bran oil of rice (Oryza sativa).Chemical CompositionThe main components of rice bran wax are aliphatic acids (wax acids) and higher alcohol esters. The aliphatic acidsconsist of palmitic acid (C16), behenic acid (C22), lignoceric acid (C24), other wax acids, (C26) etc. The higheralcohol esters consist of ceryl alcohol (C26), melissyl alcohol (C30), etc. Rice bran wax also contains constituentssuch as free fatty acids (palmitic acid), squalene and phospholipids.UsesRice bran wax is used in paper coating, textiles, explosives, fruit & vegetable coatings, pharmaceuticals, candles,moulded novelties, electric insulation, textile and leather sizing, waterproofing, carbon paper, typewriter ribbons,printing inks, lubricants, crayons, adhesives, chewing gum and cosmetics.In cosmetics, rice bran wax is used as an emollient, and is the basis material for some exfoliation particles. It mayalso serve as a substitute for Carnauba wax.Physical PropertiesMelting point = 77 - 86 °CSaponification value = 75 -120Iodine number = 10Color: Off-white to moderate orange/brownOdor: typical fatty, crayola-ishRice bran wax bleaches and deodorizes readilyINCI name: Oryza Sativa (Rice) Bran Wax.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Spermaceti 170SpermacetiProcessing of SpermacetiSpermaceti (from Greek sperma, seed, and Latin cetus, whale)sometimes erroneously called parmaceti is a wax present in thehead cavities of the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus).Spermaceti is extracted from sperm oil by crystallisation at6 °C, when treated by pressure and a chemical solution ofcaustic alkali. Spermaceti forms brilliant white crystals that arehard but oily to the touch, and are devoid of taste or smell,making it very useful as an ingredient in cosmetics,leatherworking, and lubricants. The substance was also used inmaking candles of a standard photometric value, in the dressingof fabrics, and as a pharmaceutical excipient, especially incerates and ointments.Originally mistaken for the whales sperm (hence the name),spermaceti is created in the spermaceti organ inside the whaleshead and connected to its nasal passage, among other functions.PropertiesSpermaceti is insoluble in water, very slightly soluble in coldalcohol, but easily dissolved in ether, chloroform, carbondisulfide, and boiling alcohol. Spermaceti consists principally ofcetyl palmitate (the ester of cetyl alcohol and palmitic acid),C15H31COO-C16H33.A botanical alternative to spermaceti is a derivative of jojobaoil, jojoba esters, C19H41COO-C20H41, a solid wax which is chemically and physically very similar to spermacetiand may be used in many of the same applications. Esters of cetyl alcohol and jojoba oil are used as a substitute forspermaceti.Spermaceti processingSpermaceti was gathered during whaling and was considered a valuable resource by whalers due to the high pricethat could be fetched for it. The sperm whales head was either brought on deck or lashed to the side of the shipwhere the whalemen would cut a hole in the case. The spermaceti could then be drawn out by bucket or a whalemanwould enter the hole and manually remove the fluid. Once gathered the spermaceti would be placed in barrels for thevoyage home. A large whale would have as much as three tons of spermaceti.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Spermaceti 171Biological functionCurrently there is no agreement on what biological purpose spermaceti serves. There are however theories on itsfunction. It might be used as a means of altering the whales buoyancy, since the density of the spermaceti alters withits phase[1]. There is the theory is that it is used to focus sound waves to stun its prey. Another theory is that it isused as a cushion to protect the sperm whales delicate snout while diving.[2] [3]References[1] Clarke, M.R. (November 1970). "Function of the Spermaceti Organ of the Sperm Whale". Nature 228 (5274): 873–874.doi:10.1038/228873a0. PMID 16058732.[2] Christopher Grayce, NEWTON, Sperm whales name, " (http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/bio99/bio99253.htm)", Last accessedOctober 2, 2010[3] Doug Lennox, Dundurn Press, 2006, Now You Know: The Book of Answers, " (http://books.google.ca/books?id=fQ7NosjSRQUC&lpg=PA149&ots=jytx97Uo0L&dq=The material is, in fact, used by the whale to cushion its sensitive snout as it dives and has nothing to dowith the animal’s reproductive functions.&pg=PP4#v=onepage&q=The material is, in fact, used by the whale to cushion its sensitive snoutas it dives and has nothing to do with the animal’s reproductive functions.&f=false)", Last accessed October 2, 2010.• David R. Carrier, Stephen M. Deban and Jason Otterstrom, The face that sank the Essex: potential function of thespermaceti organ in aggression (http://autodax.net/Carrieretal2002.pdf), Journal of Experimental Biology205:1755–1763, 2002.• Dolin, Eric Jay (2007). Leviathan, The History of Whaling in America. W.W. Norton & Co..ISBN 978-0-393-6057-7. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911).Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press.Wax esterAn ester, found in some fish such as orange roughy, oilfish, escolar, black oreo, smooth oreo and other fish,primarily deep water. Wax esters are also found in some plants, notably jojoba.References• Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep: Medical Physiology (2005)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Fatty acid 172Fatty acidButyric acid, a short-chain fatty acidIn chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acidwith a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturatedor unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have a chain of aneven number of carbon atoms, from four to 28.[1]Fatty acids areusually derived from triglycerides or phospholipids. When they are notattached to other molecules, they are known as "free" fatty acids. Fattyacids are important sources of fuel because their metabolism yieldlarge quantities of ATP. Many cell types can use either glucose or fattyacids for this purpose. In particular, heart and skeletal muscle prefer fatty acids. The brain cannot use fatty acids as asource of fuel; it relies on glucose or on ketone bodies.Types of fatty acidsThree dimensional representations of several fatty acidsFatty acids can be saturated and unsaturated,depending on double bonds. They differ inlength as well.Long and short fatty acidsIn addition to saturation, fatty acids havedifferent lengths, often categorized as short,medium, or long.• Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are fattyacids with aliphatic tails of fewer than sixcarbons.• Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) arefatty acids with aliphatic tails of 6–12.[2]carbons, which can form medium-chaintriglycerides.• Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails longer than 12 carbons.[3]• Very-Long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails longer than 22 carbonsFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Fatty acid 173Unsaturated fatty acidsComparison of the trans isomer (top) Elaidic acid and the cis-isomer oleic acid.Unsaturated fatty acids resemble saturatedfatty acids, except that the chain has one ormore double-bonds between carbon atoms.The two carbon atoms in the chain that arebound next to either side of the double bondcan occur in a cis or trans configuration.cisA cis configuration means thatadjacent hydrogen atoms are on thesame side of the double bond. Therigidity of the double bond freezes itsconformation and, in the case of thecis isomer, causes the chain to bendand restricts the conformationalfreedom of the fatty acid. The moredouble bonds the chain has in the cisconfiguration, the less flexibility ithas. When a chain has many cis bonds, it becomes quite curved in its most accessible conformations. Forexample, oleic acid, with one double bond, has a "kink" in it, whereas linoleic acid, with two double bonds,has a more pronounced bend. Alpha-linolenic acid, with three double bonds, favors a hooked shape. The effectof this is that, in restricted environments, such as when fatty acids are part of a phospholipid in a lipid bilayer,or triglycerides in lipid droplets, cis bonds limit the ability of fatty acids to be closely packed, and thereforecould affect the melting temperature of the membrane or of the fat.transA trans configuration, by contrast, means that the next two hydrogen atoms are bound to opposite sides of thedouble bond. As a result, they do not cause the chain to bend much, and their shape is similar to straightsaturated fatty acids.In most naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids, each double bond has three n carbon atoms after it, for some n,and all are cis bonds. Most fatty acids in the trans configuration (trans fats) are not found in nature and are the resultof human processing (e.g., hydrogenation).The differences in geometry between the various types of unsaturated fatty acids, as well as between saturated andunsaturated fatty acids, play an important role in biological processes, and in the construction of biological structures(such as cell membranes).FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Fatty acid 174Examples of Unsaturated Fatty AcidsCommonnameChemical structure Δx C:D n−xMyristoleic acid CH3(CH2)3CH=CH(CH2)7COOH cis-Δ914:1n−5Palmitoleic acid CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH cis-Δ916:1n−7Sapienic acid CH3(CH2)8CH=CH(CH2)4COOH cis-Δ616:1n−10Oleic acid CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH cis-Δ918:1n−9Linoleic acid CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH cis,cis-Δ9,Δ1218:2n−6α-LinolenicacidCH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH cis,cis,cis-Δ9,Δ12,Δ1518:3n−3ArachidonicacidCH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)3COOHNIST [4]cis,cis,cis,cis-Δ5Δ8,Δ11,Δ1420:4n−6EicosapentaenoicacidCH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)3COOH cis,cis,cis,cis,cis-Δ5,Δ8,Δ11,Δ14,Δ1720:5n−3Erucic acid CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)11COOH cis-Δ1322:1n−9DocosahexaenoicacidCH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)2COOH cis,cis,cis,cis,cis,cis-Δ4,Δ7,Δ10,Δ13,Δ16,Δ1922:6n−3Essential fatty acidsFatty acids that are required by the body but cannot be made in sufficient quantity from other substrates, thereforemust be obtained from food and are called essential fatty acids. Essential fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acidsand are the parent compounds of the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid series, respectively. Humans lack the ability tointroduce double bonds in fatty acids beyond carbons 9 and 10,[5]Two fatty acids are essential in humans, linoleicacid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). They are widely distributed in plant oils. In addition, fish, flax, and hempoils contain the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Fatty acid 175Saturated fatty acidsSaturated fatty acids are long-chain carboxylic acids that usually have between 12 and 24 carbon atoms and have nodouble bonds. Thus, saturated fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen (since double bonds reduce the number ofhydrogens on each carbon). Because saturated fatty acids have only single bonds, each carbon atom within the chainhas 2 hydrogen atoms (except for the omega carbon at the end that has 3 hydrogens).Examples of Saturated Fatty AcidsCommon name Chemical structure C:DLauric acid CH3(CH2)10COOH 12:0Myristic acid CH3(CH2)12COOH 14:0Palmitic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH 16:0Stearic acid CH3(CH2)16COOH 18:0Arachidic acid CH3(CH2)18COOH 20:0Behenic acid CH3(CH2)20COOH 22:0Lignoceric acid CH3(CH2)22COOH 24:0Cerotic acid CH3(CH2)24COOH 26:0NomenclatureNumbering of carbon atomsSeveral different systems ofnomenclature are used for fatty acids.The following table describes the mostcommon systems.System Example ExplanationTrivialnomenclaturePalmitoleic acid Trivial names (or common names) are non-systematic historical names, which are the mostfrequent naming system used in literature. Most common fatty acids have trivial names in additionto their systematic names (see below). These names frequently do not follow any pattern, but theyare concise and often unambiguous.Systematicnomenclature(9Z)-octadecenoic acidSystematic names (or IUPAC names) derive from the standard IUPAC Rules for the Nomenclatureof Organic Chemistry, published in 1979,[6]along with a recommendation published specifically forlipids in 1977.[7]Counting begins from the carboxylic acid end. Double bonds are labelled withcis-/trans- notation or E-/Z- notation, where appropriate. This notation is generally more verbosethan common nomenclature, but has the advantage of being more technically clear and descriptive.Δxnomenclaturecis,cis-Δ9,Δ12octadecadienoic acidIn Δx(or delta-x) nomenclature, each double bond is indicated by Δx, where the double bond islocated on the xth carbon–carbon bond, counting from the carboxylic acid end. Each double bond ispreceded by a cis- or trans- prefix, indicating the conformation of the molecule around the bond. Forexample, linoleic acid is designated "cis-Δ9, cis-Δ12octadecadienoic acid". This nomenclature hasthe advantage of being more verbose than systematic nomenclature, but is no more technically clearor descriptive.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Fatty acid 176n−xnomenclaturen−3n−x (n minus x; also ω−x or omega-x) nomenclature both provides names for individualcompounds and classifies them by their likely biosynthetic properties in animals. A double bond islocated on the xthcarbon–carbon bond, counting from the terminal methyl carbon (designated as n orω) toward the carbonyl carbon. For example, α-Linolenic acid is classified as a n−3 or omega-3fatty acid, and so it is likely to share a biosynthetic pathway with other compounds of this type. Theω−x, omega-x, or "omega" notation is common in popular nutritional literature, but IUPAC hasdeprecated it in favor of n−x notation in technical documents.[6]The most commonly researchedfatty acid biosynthetic pathways are n−3 and n−6, which are hypothesized to increase or decreaseinflammation.Lipid numbers18:318:3, n−618:3, cis,cis,cis-Δ9,Δ12,Δ15Lipid numbers take the form C:D, where C is the number of carbon atoms in the fatty acid and D isthe number of double bonds in the fatty acid. This notation can be ambiguous, as some differentfatty acids can have the same numbers. Consequently, when ambiguity exists this notation is usuallypaired with either a Δxor n−x term.[6]ProductionFatty acids are usually produced industrially by the hydrolysis of triglycerides), with the removal of glycerol (seeoleochemicals). Phospholipids represent another source. Some fatty acids are produced synthetically byhydrocarboxylation of alkenes.Free fatty acidsThe biosynthesis of fatty acids involves the condensation of acetyl-CoA. Since this coenzyme carries atwo-carbon-atom group, almost all natural fatty acids have even numbers of carbon atoms.The "uncombined fatty acids" or "free fatty acids" found in organism come from the breakdown of a triglyceride .Because they are insoluble in water, thse fatty acids are transported (solubilized, circulated) while bound to plasmaprotein albumin. The levels of "free fatty acid" in the blood are limited by the availability of albumin binding sites.Fatty acids in dietary fatsThe following table gives the fatty acid, vitamin E and cholesterol composition of some common dietary fats.[8] [9]Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Cholesterol Vitamin Eg/100g g/100g g/100g mg/100g mg/100gAnimal fatsLard 40.8 43.8 9.6 93 0.00Duck fat[10] 33.2 49.3 12.9 100 2.70Butter 54.0 19.8 2.6 230 2.00Vegetable fatsCoconut oil 85.2 6.6 1.7 0 .66Palm oil 45.3 41.6 8.3 0 33.12Cottonseed oil 25.5 21.3 48.1 0 42.77Wheat germ oil 18.8 15.9 60.7 0 136.65Soya oil 14.5 23.2 56.5 0 16.29Olive oil 14.0 69.7 11.2 0 5.10Corn oil 12.7 24.7 57.8 0 17.24Sunflower oil 11.9 20.2 63.0 0 49.0FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Fatty acid 177Safflower oil 10.2 12.6 72.1 0 40.68Hemp oil 10 15 75 0Canola/Rapeseed oil 5.3 64.3 24.8 0 22.21Reactions of fatty acidsFatty acids exhibit reactions like other carboxylic acid, i.e. they undergo esterification and acid-base reactions.AcidityFatty acids do not show a great variation in their acidities, as indicated by their pKas. Nonanoic acid, for example,has a pKaof 4.96, being only slightly weaker than acetic acid (4.76). As the chain length increases the solubility ofthe fatty acids in water decreases very rapidly, so that the longer-chain fatty acids have minimal effect on the pH ofan aqueous solution. Even those fatty acids that are insoluble in water will dissolve in warm ethanol, and can betitrated with sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein as an indicator to a pale-pink endpoint. This analysisis used to determine the free fatty acid content of fats; i.e., the proportion of the triglycerides that have beenhydrolyzed.Hydrogenation and hardeningHydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is widely practiced to give saturated fatty acids, which are less pronetoward rancidification. Since the saturated fatty acids are higher melting that the unsaturated relatives, the process iscalled hardening. This technology is used to convert vegetable oils into margarine. During partial hydrogenation,unsaturated fatty acids can be isomerized from cis to trans configuration.[11]More forcing hydrogenation, i.e. using higher pressures of H2and higher temperatures, converts fatty acids fattyalcohols. Fatty alcohols are, however, more easily produced from fatty acid esters.In the Varrentrapp reaction certain unsaturated fatty acids are cleaved in molten alkali, a reaction at one time ofrelevance to structure elucidation.Auto-oxidation and rancidityUnsaturated fatty acids undergo a chemical change known as auto-oxidation. The process requires oxygen (air) andis accelerated by the presence of trace metals. Vegetable oils resists this process because they contain antioxidants,such as tocopherol. Fats and oils often are treated with chelating agents such as citric acid to remove the metalcatalysts.OzonolysisUnsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to degradation by ozone. This reaction is practiced in the production azelaicacid ((CH2)7(CO2H)2) from oleic acid.[11]CirculationDigestion and intakeShort- and medium-chain fatty acids are absorbed directly into the blood via intestine capillaries and travel throughthe portal vein just as other absorbed nutrients do. However, long-chain fatty acids are too large to be directlyreleased into the tiny intestine capillaries. Instead they are absorbed into the fatty walls of the intestine villi andreassembled again into triglycerides. The triglycerides are coated with cholesterol and protein (protein coat) into acompound called a chylomicron.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Fatty acid 178Within the villi, the chylomicron enters a lymphatic capillary called a lacteal, which merges into larger lymphaticvessels. It is transported via the lymphatic system and the thoracic duct up to a location near the heart (where thearteries and veins are larger). The thoracic duct empties the chylomicrons into the bloodstream via the left subclavianvein. At this point the chylomicrons can transport the triglycerides to where they are needed.DistributionBlood fatty acids are in different forms in different stages in the blood circulation. They are taken in through theintestine in chylomicrons, but also exist in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL)after processing in the liver. In addition, when released from adipocytes, fatty acids exist in the blood as free fattyacids.It is proposed that the blend of fatty acids exuded by mammalian skin, together with lactic acid and pyruvic acid, isdistinctive and enables animals with a keen sense of smell to differentiate individuals.[12]References[1] IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology (http://goldbook.iupac.org/F02330.html) (2nd ed.). International Union of Pure andApplied Chemistry. 1997. ISBN 052151150X. . Retrieved 2007-10-31.[2] Medscape: Free CME, Medical News, Full-text Journal Articles & More (http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/946755-overview)[3] Christopher Beermann1, J Jelinek1, T Reinecker2, A Hauenschild2, G Boehm1, and H-U Klör2, " Short term effects of dietary medium-chainfatty acids and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fat metabolism of healthy volunteers (http://lipidworld.com/content/2/1/10)"[4] http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?Name=Arachidonic+Acid&Units=SI[5] as counted from the carboxylic acid side, because they do not have the enzymes necessary to introduce a double bond at the omega-3 positionor omega-6 position Cell Biology: A Short Course (http://books.google.com/books?id=3a6p9pA5gZ8C&pg=PA42)[6] Rigaudy, J.; Klesney, S.P. (1979). Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry. Pergamon. ISBN 0080223699. OCLC 5008199.[7] "The Nomenclature of Lipids. Recommendations, 1976" (http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1977.tb11778.x). European Journal of Biochemistry 79 (1): 11–21. 1977. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1977.tb11778.x. .[8] Food Standards Agency (1991). "Fats and Oils". McCance & Widdowsons the Composition of Foods. Royal Society of Chemistry.[9] Ted Altar. "More Than You Wanted To Know About Fats/Oils" (http://www.efn.org/~sundance/fats_and_oils.html). Sundance NaturalFoods Online. . Retrieved 2006-08-31.[10] U. S. Department of Agriculture.. "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference" (http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/). U. S. Department of Agriculture.. . Retrieved 2010-02-17.[11] David J. Anneken, Sabine Both, Ralf Christoph, Georg Fieg, Udo Steinberner, Alfred Westfechtel "Fatty Acids" in Ullmanns Encyclopediaof Industrial Chemistry 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. {DOI|10.1002/14356007.a10_245.pub2}}[12] "Electronic Nose Created To Detect Skin Vapors" (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090721091839.htm). Science Daily.July 21, 2009. . Retrieved 2010-05-18.External links• Lipid Library (http://www.lipidlibrary.co.uk/)• Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids Journal (http://intl.elsevierhealth.com/journals/plef/)• Fatty Blood Acids (http://www.dmfpolska.eu/Diagnostics.html)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • 1795 - OTHER ADDITIVESAcidity regulatorAcidity regulators, or pH control agents, are food additives added to change or maintain pH (acidity or basicity).They can be organic or mineral acids, bases, neutralizing agents, or buffering agents.Acidity regulators are indicated by their E-number, such as E260 (acetic acid), or simply listed as "food acid".Commonly used acidity regulators are citric, acetic and lactic acids.See also• Acetic acid• adipate• E number• Citric acid• Heinz Tomato Ketchup• List of food additives• Sodium bicarbonateExternal links• E-numbers on Food-Info.net[1]• Quality control - free spreadsheet for titration of acids and bases, pH calculation and distribution diagramgeneration[2]References[1] http://www.food-info.net/uk/index.htm[2] http://www2.iq.usp.br/docente/gutz/Curtipot_.htmlFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food coloring 180Food coloringFood coloring spreading on a thin water film.Food coloring is any substance, liquid or powder, thatis added to food or drink to change its color. Foodcoloring is used both in commercial food productionand in domestic cooking. Due to its safety and generalavailability, food coloring is also used in a variety ofnon-food applications, for example in home craftprojects and educational settings.Purpose of food coloringPeople associate certain colors with certain flavors, andthe color of food can influence the perceived flavor inanything from candy to wine.[1]For this reason, foodmanufacturers add dyes to their products. Sometimesthe aim is to simulate a color that is perceived by theconsumer as natural, such as adding red coloring to glacé cherries (which would otherwise be beige), but sometimesit is for effect, like the green ketchup that Heinz launched in 2000.While most consumers are aware that food with bright or unnatural colors (such as the green ketchup mentionedabove, or childrens cereals such as Froot Loops) likely contain food coloring, far fewer people know that seemingly"natural" foods such as oranges and salmon are sometimes also dyed to mask natural variations in color.[2]Colorvariation in foods throughout the seasons and the effects of processing and storage often make color additioncommercially advantageous to maintain the color expected or preferred by the consumer. Some of the primaryreasons include• Offsetting color loss due to light, air, extremes of temperature, moisture, and storage conditions.• Masking natural variations in color.• Enhancing naturally occurring colors.• Providing identity to foods.• Protecting flavors and vitamins from damage by light.• Decorative or artistic purposes such as cake icing.• Birthdays and other celebrations.RegulationFood colorings are tested for safety by various bodies around the world and sometimes different bodies havedifferent views on food color safety. In the United States, FD&C numbers (which generally indicates that the FDAhas approved the colorant for use in foods, drugs and cosmetics) are given to approved synthetic food dyes that donot exist in nature, while in the European Union, E numbers are used for all additives, both synthetic and natural,that are approved in food applications.Most other countries have their own regulations and list of food colors which can be used in various applications,including maximum daily intake limits.Natural colors are not required to be tested by a number of regulatory bodies throughout the world, including theUnited States FDA. The FDA lists "color additives exempt from certification" for food in subpart A of the Code ofFederal Regulations - Title 21 Part 73[3]. However, this list contains substances which may have synthetic origins.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food coloring 181Natural food dyesA growing number of natural food dyes are being commercially produced, partly due to consumer concernssurrounding synthetic dyes. Some examples include:• Caramel coloring (E150), made from caramelized sugar, used in cola products and also in cosmetics• Annatto (E160b), a reddish-orange dye made from the seed of the achiote.• A green dye made from chlorella algae (chlorophyll, E140)• Cochineal (E120), a red dye derived from the cochineal insect, Dactylopius coccus• Betanin extracted from beets• Turmeric (curcuminoids, E100)• Saffron (carotenoids, E160a)• Paprika (E160c)• Elderberry juice• Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius), a green food coloring• Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea), a blue food dyeTo ensure reproducibility, the colored components of these substances are often provided in highly purified form,and for increased stability and convenience, they can be formulated in suitable carrier materials (solid and liquids.Hexane, acetone and other solvents break down cell walls in the fruit and vegetables and allow for maximumextraction of the coloring. Residues of these often remain in the finished product, but they do not need to be declaredon the product. This is because they are part of a group of substances known as carry-over ingredients.Artificial coloring in United StatesSeven dyes were initially approved under the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, but several have been delisted andreplacements have been found.[4]Current sevenIn the USA, the following seven artificial colorings are permitted in food (the most common in bold) as of 2007:• FD&C Blue No. 1 – Brilliant Blue FCF, E133 (blue shade)• FD&C Blue No. 2 – Indigotine, E132 (indigo shade)• FD&C Green No. 3 – Fast Green FCF, E143 (turquoise shade)• FD&C Red No. 40 – Allura Red AC, E129 (red shade)• FD&C Red No. 3 – Erythrosine, E127 (pink shade, commonly used in glacé cherries)[5]• FD&C Yellow No. 5 – Tartrazine, E102 (yellow shade)• FD&C Yellow No. 6 – Sunset Yellow FCF, E110 (orange shade)The above are known as "primary colors"; when they are mixed to produce other colors, those colors are then knownas "secondary colors".Delisted• FD&C Red No. 2 – Amaranth (dye)• FD&C Red No. 4[6] [7]• FD&C Red No. 32‎ was used to color Florida oranges.[4] [6]• FD&C Orange No. 1, was one of the first water soluble dyes to be commercialized, and one of seven originalfood dyes allowed under the Pure Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906.[4] [6]• FD&C Orange No. 2‎ was used to color Florida oranges.[4]• FD&C Yellows No. 1, 2, 3, and 4[6]• FD&C Violet No. 1[6]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food coloring 182Dyes and lakesColor additives are available for use in food as either "dyes" or lake pigments (commonly known as "lakes").Dyes dissolve in water, but are not soluble in oil. Dyes are manufactured as powders, granules, liquids or otherspecial purpose forms. They can be used in beverages, dry mixes, baked goods, confections, dairy products, petfoods, and a variety of other products. Dyes also have side effects which lakes do not, including the fact that largeamounts of dyes ingested can color stools.Lakes are made by combining dyes with salts to make insoluble compounds. Lakes tint by dispersion. Lakes are notoil soluble, but are oil dispersible. Lakes are more stable than dyes and are ideal for coloring products containing fatsand oils or items lacking sufficient moisture to dissolve dyes. Typical uses include coated tablets, cake and doughnutmixes, hard candies and chewing gums, lipsticks, soaps, shampoos, talc, etc.Other usesBecause food dyes are generally safer to use than normal artists dyes and pigments, some artists have used foodcoloring as a means of making pictures, especially in forms such as body-painting.Food colorings can be used to dye fabric, but are usually not wash-fast when used on cotton, hemp and other plantfibers. Some food dyes can be fixed on Nylon and animal fibers. Red food dye is often used as theatrical blood.Criticism and health implicationsThough past research showed no correlation between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and fooddyes,[8] [9]new studies now point to synthetic preservatives and artificial coloring agents as aggravating ADD andADHD symptoms, both in those affected by these disorders and in the general population.[10] [11]Older studies wereinconclusive, quite possibly due to inadequate clinical methods of measuring offending behavior. Parental reportswere more accurate indicators of the presence of additives than clinical tests.[12]Several major studies showacademic performance increased and disciplinary problems decreased in large non-ADD student populations whenartificial ingredients, including artificial colors, were eliminated from school food programs.[13] [14]• Norway banned all products containing coal tar and coal tar derivatives in 1978. New legislation lifted this ban in2001 after EU regulations. As such, many FD&C approved colorings have been banned.• Tartrazine causes hives in less than 0.01% of those exposed to it.[2]• Erythrosine is linked to thyroid tumors in rats.[15]• Cochineal, also known as carmine, is derived from insects and therefore is neither vegan nor vegetarian norkosher. It has also been known to cause severe, even life-threatening, allergic reactions in rare cases.[16]This criticism originated during the 1950s. In effect, many foods that used dye (such as red velvet cake) became lesspopular.Brilliant Blue (BBG) food coloring was cited in a recent study in which rats that had suffered a spinal injury weregiven an injection of the dye immediately after the injury, and were able to regain or retain motor control. BBG helpsprotect spine from ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which the body sends to the area after a spinal injury, whichfurther damages the spine by killing motor neurons at the site of the injury[17]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Food coloring 183References[1] Jeannine Delwiche (2004). "The impact of perceptual interactions on perceived flavor". Food Quality and Preference. 15: 137–146.doi:10.1016/S0950-3293(03)00041-7.[2] "FDA/CFSAN Food Color Facts" (http://web.archive.org/web/20060818132159/http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/colorfac.html). Foodand Drug Administration. Archived from the original (http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/colorfac.html) on 2006-08-18. . Retrieved2006-09-07.[3] http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_01/21cfr73_01.html[4] "News of Food; U.S. May Outlaw Dyes Used to Tint Oranges and Other Foods". New York Times. January 19, 1954, Tuesday. "The use ofartificial colors to make foods more attractive to the eye may be sharply curtailed by action of the United States Food and DrugAdministration. Three of the most extensively used coal tar dyes are being considered for removal from the Governments list of colorscertified as safe for internal and external use and consumption."[5] "Red No. 3 and Other Colorful Controversies" (http://web.archive.org/web/20070809080710/http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/CONSUMER/CON00063.html). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original (http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/CONSUMER/CON00063.html) on 2007-08-09. . Retrieved 2007-08-26. "FDA terminated the provisional listings for FD&C Red No. 3 onJanuary 29, 1990, at the conclusion of its review of the 200 straight colors on the 1960 provisional list. Commonly called erythrosine, FD&CRed No. 3 is a tint that imparts a watermelon-red color and was one of the original seven colors on Hesses list."[6] "Food coloring" (http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9034796). Encyclopædia Britannica. . Retrieved 2007-08-21. "Among the coloursthat have been “delisted,” or disallowed, in the United States are FD&C Orange No. 1; FD&C Red No. 32; FD&C Yellows No. 1, 2, 3, and 4;FD&C Violet No. 1; and FD&C Reds No. 2 and 4. Many countries with similar food colouring controls (including Canada and Great Britain)also ban the use of Red No. 40, and Yellow No. 5 is also undergoing testing."[7] CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 (http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?FR=81.10)[8] Wilens TE, Biederman J, Spencer TJ. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Annual Review of Medicine,2002:53:113–131[9] The MTA Cooperative Group. A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD). Archives of General Psychiatry, 1999;56:1073–1086[10] "Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomized, double-blinded,placebo-controlled trial", Lancet, Sept 2007[11] 1997 Graduate Student Research Project conducted at the University of South Florida. Author: Richard W. Pressinger M.Ed.[12] "Food Additives May Affect Kids Hyperactivity", WebMD Medical News, May 24, 2004.[13] "A different kind of school lunch", PURE FACTS, October 2002[14] "The Impact of a Low Food Additive and Sucrose Diet on Academic Performance in 803 New York City Public Schools," Schoenthaler SJ,Doraz WE, Wakefield JA, Int J Biosocial Res., 1986, 8(2); 185–195[15] Jpn J Cancer Res. 1988 Mar; 79(3):314–9[16] "Bugs in your snacks." The Week, Jan 23, 2009[17] "Same blue dye in M&Ms linked to reducing spine injury - CNN.com" (http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/07/28/spinal.injury.blue.dye/index.html). CNN. 2009-07-28. . Retrieved 2010-05-02.External links• Food coloring (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9034796) at Encyclopædia Britannica• FDA/CFSAN Food Color Facts (http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/colorfac.html)• Natural Food Colors (Food-Info) (http://www.food-info.net/uk/colour/natcolour.htm)• Report on the Certification of Color Additives by US FDA (http://www.fda.gov/ForIndustry/ColorAdditives/ColorCertification/ColorCertificationReports/default.htm)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Emulsifier 184EmulsifierA. Two immiscible liquids, notyet emulsified.B. An emulsion of Phase IIdispersed in Phase I.C. The unstable emulsionprogressively separates.D. The surfactant (purple outlinearound particles) positions itselfon the interfaces between Phase IIand Phase I, stabilizing theemulsionAn emulsion (pronounced /ɨˈmʌlʃən/[1]) is a mixture of two or more immiscible(unblendable) liquids. Emulsions are part of a more general class of two-phasesystems of matter called colloids. Although the terms colloid and emulsion aresometimes used interchangeably, emulsion tends to imply that both the dispersedand the continuous phase are liquid. In an emulsion, one liquid (the dispersedphase) is dispersed in the other (the continuous phase).Examples of emulsions include vinaigrettes, the photo-sensitive side ofphotographic film, milk and cutting fluid for metal working.Structure and Properties of EmulsionsIt is still common belief, that emulsions basically do not display any structure, i.e.,the droplets(or in case of dispersions: particles) dispersed in the liquid matrix (the"dispersion medium") are assumed to be statistically distributed. Therefore, foremulsions (like for dispersions) usually percolation theory is assumed toappropriately describe their properties.However, percolation theory can only be applied if the system it should describe isin or close to thermodynamic equilibrium. There are only very few studies aboutthe structure of emulsions (dispersions), although they are plentiful in type and inuse all over the world in innumerable applications.In the following, only such emulsions will be discussed with a dispersed phasediameter of less than 1 µm. To understand the formation and properties of suchemulsions (incl dispersions ), it must be considered, that the dispersed phaseexhibits a "surface", which is covered ("wet") by a different "surface" which henceare forming an interface (chemistry). Both surfaces have to be created (whichrequires a huge amount of energy), and the interfacial tension (difference of surfacetension) is not compensating the energy input, if at all.A review article inNalwaintroduces into various attempts to describe dispersions /emulsions. Dispersion is a process by which (in the case of solids becomingdispersed in a liquid) agglomerated particles are separated from each other and anew interface, between an inner surface of the liquid dispersion medium and thesurface of the particles to be dispersed, is generated. Dispersion is a much more complicated (and less wellunderstood) process than most people believe.The above cited review article also displays experimental evidence for that dispersions have a structure very muchdifferent from any kind of statistical distribution (which would be characteristic for a system in thermodynamicequilibrium, but in contrast very much showing structures similar to self-organisation which can be described bynon-equilibrium thermodynamics. This is the reason why some liquid dispersions turn to become gels or even solidat a concentration of a dispersed phase above a certain critical concentration (which is dependant on particle size andinterfacial tension). Also the sudden appearance of conductivity in a system of a dispersed conductive phase in aninsulating matrix has been explained. The above cited review article also introduces into some first completenon-equilibrium thermodynamics theory of dispersions (http:/ / www2. organic-nanometal. de/ Research/ wisslit/nonequ2.html).FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Emulsifier 185Appearance and propertiesEmulsions are made up of a dispersed and a continuous phase; the boundary between these phases is called theinterface. Emulsions tend to have a cloudy appearance, because the many phase interfaces scatter light that passesthrough the emulsion. Emulsions are unstable and thus do not form spontaneously. The basic color of emulsions iswhite. If the emulsion is dilute, the Tyndall effect will scatter the light and distort the color to blue; if it isconcentrated, the color will be distorted towards yellow. This phenomenon is easily observable on comparingskimmed milk (with no or little fat) to cream (high concentration of milk fat). Microemulsions and nanoemulsionstend to appear clear due to the small size of the disperse phase.Energy input through shaking, stirring, homogenizing, or spray processes are needed to initially form an emulsion.Over time, emulsions tend to revert to the stable state of the phases comprising the emulsion; an example of this isseen in the separation of the oil and vinegar components of Vinaigrette, an unstable emulsion that will quicklyseparate unless shaken continuously.Whether an emulsion turns into a water-in-oil emulsion or an oil-in-water emulsion depends on the volume fractionof both phases and on the type of emulsifier. Generally, the Bancroft rule applies: emulsifiers and emulsifyingparticles tend to promote dispersion of the phase in which they do not dissolve very well; for example, proteinsdissolve better in water than in oil and so tend to form oil-in-water emulsions (that is they promote the dispersion ofoil droplets throughout a continuous phase of water).InstabilityThere are three types of instability: flocculation, creaming, and coalescence. Flocculation describes the process bywhich the dispersed phase comes out of suspension in flakes. Coalescence is another form of instability, whichdescribes when small droplets combine to form progressively larger ones. Emulsions can also undergo creaming, themigration of one of the substances to the top (or the bottom, depending on the relative densities of the two phases) ofthe emulsion under the influence of buoyancy or centripetal force when a centrifuge is used.Surface active substances (surfactants) can increase the kinetic stability of emulsions greatly so that, once formed,the emulsion does not change significantly over years of storage.“Emulsion stability refers to the ability of an emulsion to resist change in its properties over time.” D.J.McClements.[2]Technique monitoring physical stabilityMultiple light scattering coupled with vertical scanning is the most widely used technique to monitor the dispersionstate of a product, hence identifying and quantifying destabilisation phenomena.[3] [4] [5] [6]It works on concentratedemulsions without dilution. When light is sent through the sample, it is backscattered by the droplets. Thebackscattering intensity is directly proportional to the size and volume fraction of the dispersed phase. Therefore,local changes in concentration (Creaming) and global changes in size (flocculation, coalescence) are detected andmonitored.Accelerating methods for shelf life predictionThe kinetic process of destabilisation can be rather long (up to several months or even years for some products) andit is often required for the formulator to use further accelerating methods in order to reach reasonable developmenttime for new product design. Thermal methods are the most commonly used and consists in increasing temperatureto accelerate destabilisation (below critical temperatures of phase inversion or chemical degradation). Temperatureaffects not only the viscosity, but also interfacial tension in the case of non-ionic surfactants or more generallyinteractions forces inside the system. Storing a dispersion at high temperatures enables to simulate real lifeconditions for a product (e.g. tube of sunscreen cream in a car in the summer), but also to accelerate destabilisationFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Emulsifier 186processes up to 200 times.Mechanical acceleration including vibration, centrifugation and agitation are sometimes used. They subject theproduct to different forces that pushes the droplets against one another, hence helping in the film drainage. However,some emulsions would never coalesce in normal gravity, while they do under artificial gravity.[7]Moreoversegregation of different populations of particles have been highlighted when using centrifugation and vibration.[8]EmulsifierAn emulsifier (also known as an emulgent) is a substance which stabilizes an emulsion by increasing its kineticstability. One class of emulsifiers is known as surface active substances, or surfactants. Examples of food emulsifiersare egg yolk (where the main emulsifying agent is lecithin), honey, and mustard, where a variety of chemicals in themucilage surrounding the seed hull act as emulsifiers; proteins and low-molecular weight emulsifiers are common aswell. Soy lecithin is another emulsifier and thickener. In some cases, particles can stabilize emulsions as wellthrough a mechanism called Pickering stabilization. Both mayonnaise and Hollandaise sauce are oil-in-wateremulsions that are stabilized with egg yolk lecithin or other types of food additives such as Sodium stearoyl lactylate.Detergents are another class of surfactant, and will physically interact with both oil and water, thus stabilizing theinterface between oil or water droplets in suspension. This principle is exploited in soap to remove grease for thepurpose of cleaning. A wide variety of emulsifiers are used in pharmacy to prepare emulsions such as creams andlotions. Common examples include emulsifying wax, cetearyl alcohol, polysorbate 20, and ceteareth 20.[9]Sometimes the inner phase itself can act as an emulsifier, and the result is nanoemulsion - the inner state dispersesinto nano-size droplets within the outer phase. A well-known example of this phenomenon, the ouzo effect, happenswhen water is poured in a strong alcoholic anise-based beverage, such as ouzo, pastis, arak or raki. The anisoliccompounds, which are soluble in ethanol, now form nano-sized droplets and emulgate within the water. The colourof such diluted drink is opaque and milky.In foodOil-in-water emulsions are common in food. Notable examples include:• Vinaigrette – vegetable oil in vinegar; if prepared with only oil and vinegar (without an emulsifier), yields anunstable emulsion• Mayonnaise – vegetable oil in lemon juice or vinegar, with egg yolk lecithin as emulsifier• Hollandaise sauce – similar to mayonnaise• Crema in espresso – coffee oil in water (brewed coffee), unstableFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Emulsifier 187In medicine20 ml ampule of 1% propofol emulsion suitablefor intravenous injection. The manufacturersemulsify the lipid soluble propofol in a mixture ofwater, soy oil and egg lecithin.In pharmaceutics, hairstyling, personal hygiene and cosmetics,emulsions are frequently used. These are usually oil and wateremulsions, but which is dispersed and which is continuous depends onthe pharmaceutical formulation. These emulsions may be calledcreams, ointments, liniments (balms), pastes, films or liquids,depending mostly on their oil and water proportions and their route ofadministration.[10] [11]The first 5 are topical dosage forms, and may beused on the surface of the skin, transdermally, ophthalmically, rectallyor vaginally. A very liquidy emulsion may also be used orally, or itmay be injected using various routes (typically intravenously orintramuscularly).[10]Popular medicated emulsions include calaminelotion, cod liver oil, Polysporin, cortisol cream, Canesten and Fleet.Microemulsions are used to deliver vaccines and kill microbes.[12]Typically, the emulsions used in these techniques are nanoemulsions ofsoybean oil, with particles that are 400-600 nm in diameter.[13]Theprocess is not chemical, as with other types of antimicrobialtreatments, but mechanical. The smaller the droplet, the greater thesurface tension and thus the greater the force to merge with otherlipids. The oil is emulsified using a high shear mixer with detergents tostabilize the emulsion, so when they encounter the lipids in themembrane or envelope of bacteria or viruses, they force the lipids tomerge with themselves. On a mass scale, this effectively disintegratesthe membrane and kills the pathogen. This soybean oil emulsion doesnot harm normal human cells nor the cells of most other higherorganisms. The exceptions are sperm cells and blood cells, which arevulnerable to nanoemulsions due to their membrane structures. For this reason, these nanoemulsions are notcurrently used intravenously. The most effective application of this type of nanoemulsion is for the disinfection ofsurfaces. Some types of nanoemulsions have been shown to effectively destroy HIV-1 and various tuberculosispathogens, for example, on non-porous surfaces.In fire fightingEmulsifying agents are effective at extinguishing fires on small thin layer spills of flammable liquids (Class B fires).Extinguishment is achieved by encapsulating the fuel in a fuel-water emulsion thereby trapping the flammablevapors in the water phase. This emulsion is achieved by applying an aqueous surfactant solution to the fuel through ahigh pressure nozzle.Emulsifiers are not effective at extinguishing large Class B fuel in depth fires. This is because the amount of agentneeded for extinguishment is a function of the volume of the fuel whereas agents such as aqueous film forming foam(AFFF) need only cover the surface of the fuel to achieve vapor mitigation.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Emulsifier 188UsesEmulsions are mainly used in many major chemical industries. In the pharmaceutical industry they are used to makemedicines with a more appealing flavor and to improve value by controlling the amount of active ingredients. Themost widely-used emulsions are non-ionic because they have low toxicity, but cationic emulsions are also used insome products because of their antimicrobial properties. Emulsions are also used in making many hair and skinproducts, such as various types of oils and waxes.See also• Emulsion dispersion• Microemulsion• Miniemulsion• Pickering emulsionExternal links• Oil in Water Reverse Emulsions and Effects on SAGD[14]References[1] Emulsion - Definitions from Dictionary.com (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Emulsion)[2] “Food emulsions, principles, practices and techniques” CRC Press 2005.2- M.P.C. Silvestre, E.A. Decker, McClements Food hydrocolloids 13(1999) 419-424 (http://books.google.com/books?id=wTrzBPbf_WQC&pg=PA269&dq=emulsion+stability#v=onepage&q=emulsionstability&f=false)[3] I. Roland, G. Piel, L. Delattre, B. Evrard International Journal of Pharmaceutics 263 (2003) 85-94[4] C. Lemarchand, P. Couvreur, M. Besnard, D. Costantini, R. Gref, Pharmaceutical Research, 20-8 (2003) 1284-1292[5] O. Mengual, G. Meunier, I. Cayre, K. Puech, P. Snabre, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 152 (1999)111–123[6] P. Bru, L. Brunel, H. Buron, I. Cayré, X. Ducarre, A. Fraux, O. Mengual, G. Meunier, A. de Sainte Marie and P. Snabre Particle sizing andcharacterisation Ed T. Provder and J. Texter (2004)[7] J-L Salager, Pharmaceutical emulsions and suspensions Ed Françoise Nielloud,Gilberte Marti-Mestres (2000) (http://books.google.fr/books?id=hDOS5OfL_pQC&pg=PA89&lpg=PA89&dq=acceleration+emulsion+stability&source=bl&ots=n9jfknfxiF&sig=88NyDSJQAMzjGuGQD9kompR0vSk&hl=fr&ei=_HjUSqzAD6LLjAeisoyFBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBAQ6AEwAjgU#v=onepage&q=acceleration emulsion stability&f=false)[8] P. Snabre, B. Pouligny Langmuir, 24 (2008) 13338-13347[9] Anne-Marie Faiola (2008-05-21). "Using Emulsifying Wax" (http://www.teachsoap.com/emulsifywax.html). TeachSoap.com.TeachSoap.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-22.[10] Aulton, Michael E., ed (2007). Aultons Pharmaceutics: The Design and Manufacture of Medicines (3rd ed.). Churchill Livingstone.pp. 92–97, 384, 390–405, 566–69, 573–74, 589–96, 609–10, 611,. ISBN 9780443101083.[11] Troy, David A.; Remington, Joseph P.; Beringer, Paul (2006). Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy (21st ed.). Philadelphia:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 325–336, 886–87. ISBN 0-7817-4673-6.[12] "Adjuvant Vaccine Development" (http://www.nano.med.umich.edu/Platforms/Adjuvant-Vaccine-Development.html). . Retrieved2008-07-23.[13] "Nanoemulsion vaccines show increasing promise" (http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-02/uomh-nvs022608.php).Eurekalert! Public News List. University of Michigan Health System. 2008-02-26. . Retrieved 2008-07-22.[14] http://sagd.wikispaces.com/1. Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology; Nalwa, H.S., Ed.; Academic Press: New York, NY,USA, 2000; Volume 5, pp. 501-575FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Thickener 189Thickener"Thickener" redirects here. For a separation method see gravity separation.Thickening agents, or thickeners, are substances which, when added to an aqueous mixture, increase its viscositywithout substantially modifying its other properties, such as taste. They provide body, increase stability, and improvesuspension of added ingredients. Thickening agents are often used as food additives and in cosmetics and personalhygiene products. Some thickening agents are gelling agents, forming a gel. The agents are materials used to thickenand stabilize liquid solutions, emulsions, and suspensions. They dissolve in the liquid phase as a colloid mixture thatforms a weakly cohesive internal structure.FoodFood thickeners frequently are based on either polysaccharides (starches, vegetable gums, and pectin), or proteins.A flavourless powdered starch used for this purpose is a fecula (from the Latin faecula, diminutive of faex meaning"dregs"). This category includes arrowroot, cornstarch, katakuri starch, potato starch, sago, and tapioca. Vegetablegums used as food thickeners include alginin, guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum. Proteins used as foodthickeners include collagen, egg whites, furcellaran, gelatin. Sugars include agar and carrageenan. Other thickeningagents act on the proteins already present in a food. One example is sodium pyrophosphate, which acts on casein inmilk during the preparation of instant pudding.Different thickeners may be more or less suitable in a given application, due to differences in taste, clarity, and theirresponses to chemical and physical conditions. For example, for acidic foods, arrowroot is a better choice thancornstarch, which loses thickening potency in acidic mixtures. At (acidic) pH levels below 4.5, guar gum has sharplyreduced aqueous solubility, thus also reducing its thickening capability. If the food is to be frozen, tapioca orarrowroot are preferable over cornstarch, which becomes spongy when frozen.Many other food ingredients are used as thickeners, usually in the final stages of preparation of specific foods. Thesethickeners have a flavor and are not markedly stable, thus are not suitable for general use. However, they are veryconvenient and effective, and hence are widely used.Functional flours are produced from specific cereal variety (wheat, maize, rice or other) conjugated to specific heattreatment able to increase stability, consistency and general functionalities. These functional flours are resistance toindustrial stresses such as acidic pH, sterilisation, freeze conditions, and can help food industries to formulate withnatural ingredients. For the final consumer, these ingredients are more accepted because they are shown as "flour" inthe ingredient list.Flour is often used for thickening gravies, gumbos, and stews. It must be cooked in thoroughly to avoid the taste ofuncooked flour. Roux, a mixture of flour and fat (usually butter) cooked into a paste, is used for gravies, sauces andstews. Cereal grains (oatmeal, couscous, farina, etc.) are used to thicken soups. Yogurt is popular in Eastern Europeand Middle East for thickening soups. Soups can also be thickened by adding grated starchy vegetables beforecooking, though these will add their own flavour. Tomato puree also adds thickness as well as flavour. Egg yolks area traditional sauce thickener in professional cooking; they have rich flavor and offer a velvety smooth texture butachieve the desired thickening effect only in a narrow temperature range. Overheating easily ruins such a sauce,which can make egg yolk difficult to use as a thickener for amateur cooks. Other thickeners used by cooks are nuts(including rehan) or glaces made of meat or fish.Many thickening agents require extra care in cooking. Some starches lose their thickening quality when cooked fortoo long or at too high a temperature; on the other hand, cooking starches too short or not hot enough might lead toan unpleasant starchy taste or cause water to seep out of the finished product after cooling. Many thickeners causethe thickened food to burn more easily during cooking. As an alternative to adding more thickener, recipes may callfor reduction of the foods water content by lengthy simmering. When cooking, it is generally better to add thickenerFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Thickener 190cautiously; if over-thickened, more water may be added but loss of flavour and texture may result.Gelling agents are food additives used to thicken and stabilize various foods, like jellies, desserts and candies. Theagents provide the foods with texture through formation of a gel. Some stabilizers and thickening agents are gellingagents.Typical gelling agents include natural gums, starches, pectins, agar-agar and gelatin. Often they are based onpolysaccharides or proteins.Examples are:• Alginic acid (E400), sodium alginate (E401), potassium alginate (E402), ammonium alginate (E403), calciumalginate (E404) - polysaccharides from brown algae• Agar (E406, a polysaccharide obtained from red algaes)• Carrageenan (E407, a polysaccharide obtained from red seaweeds)• Locust bean gum (E410, a natural gum from the seeds of the Carob tree)• Pectin (E440, a polysaccharide obtained from apple or citrus-fruit)• Gelatin (E441, made by partial hydrolysis of animal collagen)Extracts of plants such as konjac and Ficus pumila are also commonly made into jellies and used in many East Asiancuisines.Food thickening can be important for people facing medical issues with chewing or swallowing, as foods with athicker consistency can reduce the chances of choking, or of inhalation of liquids or food particles, which can lead toaspiration pneumonia.CosmeticsThickening agents used in cosmetics or personal hygiene products include polyethylene glycol, synthetic polymerssuch as carbomer (a trade name for polyacrylic acid) and vegetable gums. Some thickening agents may also functionas stabilizers when they are used to maintain the stability of an emulsion. Some emollients, such as petroleum jellyand various waxes may also function as thickening agents in an emulsionPaint and printing thickenersOne of the main use of thickeners is in the paint and printing industries. For example, acrylic thickener is the mainitem used in both textile printing with water base and water base paints. Also, polyvenyle co-polymer andhomopolymer are thickeners that can be used in the paint industries.PetrochemistryIn petrochemistry, gelling agents, also called solidifiers, are chemicals capable of reacting with oil spills andforming rubber-like solids. The gelled coagulated oil then can be removed from the water surface by skimming,suction devices, or nets. Calm or only moderately rough sea is required.Explosives and incendiariesVarious materials are used to convert liquid explosives to a gel form. Nitrocellulose and other nitro esters are oftenused. Other possibilities include nitrated guar gum[1].Many fuels used in incendiary devices require thickening for increased performance. Aluminium salts of fatty acidsare frequently used. Some formulations (e.g. Napalm-B) use polymeric thickeners, namely polystyrene. Hydroxylaluminium bis(2-ethylhexanoate) is also used. Thickened pyrophoric agent, a pyrophoric replacement of napalm, is atriethylaluminium thickened with polyisobutylene.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Thickener 191External links• Cooks Thesaurus: Thickeners[2]References[1] http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4112220.html[2] http://www.foodsubs.com/ThickenStarch.htmlColor retention agentColour retention agents are food additives that are added to food to prevent the color from changing. Many of themwork by absorbing or binding to oxygen before it can damage food (antioxidants). For example, ascorbic acid(vitamin C) is often added to brightly colored fruits, such as peaches during canning .List of colour retention agentEnumberCommonnameMax permitted level Sources ApplicationE300 AscorbicacidGMP[1]Standard 1.3.1 - FoodAdditives (Australian)[2]Wine, sparkling wine and fortified wine0.03% (w/w), or 0.02%(w/w) depending on thematrix[3]The Miscellaneous FoodAdditives Regulations 1995[4]Fruit and vegetable-based drinks, juices and baby foodsFat-containing cereal-based foods including biscuits andrusksNotes[1] Food Standards Australia New Zealand. "Schedule 1" (http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/_srcfiles/Standard_1_3_1_Additives_Part_2_v103.pdf). . Retrieved 3 May 2009.[2] Food Standards Australia New Zealand. "Standard 1.3.1 Food Additives" (http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/thecode/foodstandardscode/standard131foodaddit4239.cfm). . Retrieved 3 May 2009.[3] Office of Public Sector Information. "Schedule 8" (http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1995/Uksi_19953187_en_10.htm). . Retrieved 3 May2009.[4] Office of Public Sector Information. "Statutory Instrument 1995 No. 3187: The Miscellaneous Food Additives Regulations 1995" (http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1995/Uksi_19953187_en_1.htm). . Retrieved 3 May 2009.See also• Artificial sweetener• Acidity regulator• Codex Alimentarius• E number• Food coloring• Food safety• List of antioxidants in food• List of food additives• List of food additives, Codex Alimentarius• List of fruits• List of vegetablesFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antifoaming agent 192Antifoaming agentDosage of defoamerA defoamer or an anti-foaming agent is a chemicaladditive that reduces and hinders the formation of foamin industrial process liquids. The terms anti-foam agentand defoamer are often used interchangeably.A defoamer is normally used in industrial processes toincrease speed and reduce other problems. It addressesboth problems with surface foam and entrained orentrapped air. A wide variety of chemical formulas areavailable to promote coalescence of foam.PropertiesGenerally a defoamer is insoluble in the foamingmedium and has surface active properties. An essentialfeature of a defoamer product is a low viscosity and afacility to spread rapidly on foamy surfaces. It hasaffinity to the air-liquid surface where it destabilizesthe foam lamellas. This causes rupture of the airbubbles and breakdown of surface foam. Entrained airbubbles are agglomerated, and the larger bubbles rise tothe surface of the bulk liquid more quickly.[1]HistoryThe first defoamers were aimed at breaking down visible foam at the surface. Kerosene, fuel oil and other light oilproducts were used to break down foam. Other vegetable oils also found some use. Fatty alcohols (C7 - C22) wereeffective but expensive antifoams. They were added to oil products to boost the efficiency. Milk and cream wereforbears for modern day emulsion type defoamers.[2]During the 1950s experiments with silicone based defoamers started. These were based on polydimethylsiloxane(silicone oil) dispersed in water or light oil. Silicone oils worked well, but caused surface disturbances in manyapplications like paints and papermaking. In 1963 the first antifoams with hydrophobic particles (hydrophobic silica)in light oil were patented. In the early 1970s, hydrophobic waxes like ethylene bis stearamide dispersed in oilsdeveloped. These types of defoamers were very efficient, but the oil crisis of 1973 made these too expensive andresulted in a push for reduction of the oil content. The solution was adding water. So water extended (water in oilemulsion) and water based (oil in water emulsion) defoamers appeared.[3]The development of silicone based defoamers has continued, using different emulsifiers and modified silicone oils.In the early 1990s, silicone emulsion defoamers that caused less surface disturbances were used in the wood pulpingindustry with great success. These caused better washing, reduced biological oxygen demand (BOD) in effluent andreduced deposits.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antifoaming agent 193ChemistryOil based defoamersOil based defoamers have an oil carrier. The oil might be mineral oil, vegetable oil, white oil or any other oil that isinsoluble in the foaming medium, except silicone oil. An oil based defoamer also contains a wax and/or hydrophobicsilica to boost the performance. Typical waxes are ethylene bis stearamide (EBS), paraffinic waxes, ester waxes andfatty alcohol waxes. These products might also have surfactants to improve emulsification and spreading in thefoaming medium.These are heavy duty defoamers and are normally best at knocking down surface foam.Powder defoamersPowder defoamers are in principle oil based defoamers on a pariculate carrier like silica. These are added topowdered products like cement, plaster and detergents.Water based defoamersWater based defoamers are different types of oils and waxes dispersed in a water base. The oils are often white oilsor vegetable oils and the waxes are long chain fatty alcohol, fatty acid soaps or esters. These are normally best asdeaerators, which means they are best at releasing entrained air.Silicone based defoamersSilicone based defoamers have a silicone compound as the active component. These might be delivered as an oil or awater based emulsion. The silicone compound consists of an hydrophobic silica dispersed in a silicone oil.Emulsifiers are added to ensure that the silicone spreads fast and well in the foaming medium. The siliconecompound might also contain silicone glycols and other modified silicone fluids.These are also heavy duty defoamers and are good at both knocking down surface foam and releasing entrained air.Silicone based defoamers are also suitable in non-aquaous foaming systems like crude oil and oil refining. For verydifficult systems flourosilicones may be suitable.EO/PO based defoamersEO/PO based defoamers contain polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol copolymers. They are delivered asoils, water solutions, or water based emulsions. EO/PO copolymers normally have good dispersing properties andare often well suited when deposit problems are an issue.Alkyl polyacrylatesAlkyl polyacrylates are suitable for use as defoamers in non-aqueous systems where air release is more importantthan the breakdown of surface foam. These defoamers are often delivered in a solvent carrier like petroleumdistillates.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antifoaming agent 194Industrial problemsThe most noticeable form of foam is foam floating on the stock surface. It is easy to monitor and relatively easy tohandle. Surface foam may cause problems with liquid levels and give overflow. This might reduce the process speedand availability of process equipment.Mechanical problem factorsMechanical factors that may generate foam and entrapped air:• Leaky seals on pumps• High pressure pumps• Poor system design (tank, pump inlet, outlet and manifold design)• Pressure releaseThe main classes of air that are of concern to the mechanical systems are• Dissolved air behaves as part of the fluid phase, except that it can come out of solution as small bubbles(entrained air)• Entrained air consists of bubbles that are small enough to collect on top of a fluid• Bubbles that have sufficient buoyancy to rise to the surface and are described as foamFoam in process and coolant liquidsFoam, entrained and dissolved air that are present in coolants and processing liquids, may cause various kinds ofproblems, including:• Reduction of pump efficiency (cavitation)• Reduced capacity of pumps and storage tanks• Bacterial growth• Dirt flotation / Deposit formation• Reduced effectiveness of the fluid solution(s)• Eventual downtime to clean tanks• Drainage problems in sieves and filters• Formation problems (i.e in a paper mill it may cause the fibers to form an inhomogeneous sheet)• Cost of replenishing the liquid• Cost of entire material rejection due to imperfectionsTest methodsThere are several ways to test defoamers.The easiest is looking at the surface foam. All that is needed is a system for generating foam. This might be donewith a round pumping system with a nozzle and a cylinder or an air injection system into a cylinder. The cylinder isfitted with a scale to measure the foam height. This equipment may have a heater to control the temperature.Entrained air can be tested with a similar equipment that have a density meter that can record changes of the liquordensity over time.Drainage can be tested with a filter system for measuring the time to drain a liquid through the filter. The filter mightbe pressurized or have a vacuum.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antifoaming agent 195ApplicationsDetergentsAnti-foams are added in certain types of detergents to reduce foaming that might decrease the action of the detergent.For example dishwasher detergents have to be low foaming for the dishwasher to work properly.FoodWhen used as an ingredient in food, antifoaming agents are intended to curb effusion or effervescence in preparationor serving. The agents are included in a variety of foods such as Diet Pepsi, Diet Coke, Sprite, and chicken nuggetsin the form of polydimethylsiloxane (a type of silicone).[4]Silicone oil is also added to cooking oil to prevent foaming in deep-frying.Industrial useDefoamers are used in many industrial processes and products: wood pulp, paper, paint, industrial wastewatertreatment, food processing, oil drilling, machine tool industry, oils cutting tools, hydraulics, etcPharmaceuticalsAntifoaming agents are also sold commercially to relieve bloating. A familiar example is the drug Simethicone,which is the active ingredient in drugs such as Maalox, Mylanta, and Gas-X.References[1] http://www4.ncsu.edu/~hubbe/DFOM.htm[2] Garret, P.R., ed. (1992) "3" Defoaming. Theory and Industrial Applications Surfactant Science Series 45 CRC Press pp. 164ISBN 0-8247-8770-6[3] Garret, P.R., ed. (1992) "3" Defoaming. Theory and Industrial Applications Surfactant Science Series 45 CRC Press pp. 164–165ISBN 0-8247-8770-6[4] McDonalds (2007-01). McDonalds USA Ingredients Listing for Popular Menu Items. Retrieved from http://www.mcdonalds.com/app_controller.nutrition.categories.ingredients.index.html.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antioxidant 196AntioxidantSpace-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. The yellow sphere isthe redox-active sulfur atom that provides antioxidant activity, while the red, blue,white, and dark grey spheres represent oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbonatoms, respectively.An antioxidant is a molecule capable ofinhibiting the oxidation of other molecules.Oxidation is a chemical reaction thattransfers electrons from a substance to anoxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions canproduce free radicals. In turn, these radicalscan start chain reactions that damage cells.Antioxidants terminate these chain reactionsby removing free radical intermediates, andinhibit other oxidation reactions. They dothis by being oxidized themselves, soantioxidants are often reducing agents suchas thiols, ascorbic acid or polyphenols.[1]Although oxidation reactions are crucial forlife, they can also be damaging; hence, plants and animals maintain complex systems of multiple types ofantioxidants, such as glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalase, superoxidedismutase and various peroxidases. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes, causeoxidative stress and may damage or kill cells.As oxidative stress might be an important part of many human diseases, the use of antioxidants in pharmacology isintensively studied, particularly as treatments for stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. However, it is unknownwhether oxidative stress is the cause or the consequence of disease.Antioxidants are widely used as ingredients in dietary supplements in the hope of maintaining health and preventingdiseases such as cancer, coronary heart disease and even altitude sickness. Although initial studies suggested thatantioxidant supplements might promote health, later large clinical trials did not detect any benefit and suggestedinstead that excess supplementation may be harmful.[2] [3]In addition to these uses of natural antioxidants inmedicine, these compounds have many industrial uses, such as preservatives in food and cosmetics and preventingthe degradation of rubber and gasoline.HistoryAs part of their adaptation from marine life, terrestrial plants began producing non-marine antioxidants such asascorbic acid (Vitamin C), polyphenols and tocopherols. Further development of angiosperm plants between 50 and200 million years ago, particularly during the Jurassic period, produced many antioxidant pigments evolved duringthe late Jurassic period as chemical defences against reactive oxygen species produced during photosynthesis.[4] [5]The term antioxidant originally was used to refer specifically to a chemical that prevented the consumption ofoxygen. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, extensive study was devoted to the uses of antioxidants inimportant industrial processes, such as the prevention of metal corrosion, the vulcanization of rubber, and thepolymerization of fuels in the fouling of internal combustion engines.[6]Early research on the role of antioxidants in biology focused on their use in preventing the oxidation of unsaturatedfats, which is the cause of rancidity.[7]Antioxidant activity could be measured simply by placing the fat in a closedcontainer with oxygen and measuring the rate of oxygen consumption. However, it was the identification of vitaminsA, C, and E as antioxidants that revolutionized the field and led to the realization of the importance of antioxidants inthe biochemistry of living organisms.[8] [9]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antioxidant 197The possible mechanisms of action of antioxidants were first explored when it was recognized that a substance withanti-oxidative activity is likely to be one that is itself readily oxidized.[10]Research into how vitamin E prevents theprocess of lipid peroxidation led to the identification of antioxidants as reducing agents that prevent oxidativereactions, often by scavenging reactive oxygen species before they can damage cells.[11]The oxidative challenge in biologyThe structure of the antioxidant vitamin ascorbicacid (vitamin C).A paradox in metabolism is that while the vast majority of complex lifeon Earth requires oxygen for its existence, oxygen is a highly reactivemolecule that damages living organisms by producing reactive oxygenspecies.[12]Consequently, organisms contain a complex network ofantioxidant metabolites and enzymes that work together to preventoxidative damage to cellular components such as DNA, proteins andlipids.[1] [13]In general, antioxidant systems either prevent thesereactive species from being formed, or remove them before they candamage vital components of the cell.[1] [12]However, since reactiveoxygen species do have useful functions in cells, such as redoxsignaling, the function of antioxidant systems is not to remove oxidantsentirely, but instead to keep them at an optimum level.[14]The reactive oxygen species produced in cells include hydrogenperoxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and free radicals such as the hydroxyl radical (·OH) and the superoxideanion (O2−).[15]The hydroxyl radical is particularly unstable and will react rapidly and non-specifically with mostbiological molecules. This species is produced from hydrogen peroxide in metal-catalyzed redox reactions such asthe Fenton reaction.[16]These oxidants can damage cells by starting chemical chain reactions such as lipidperoxidation, or by oxidizing DNA or proteins.[1]Damage to DNA can cause mutations and possibly cancer, if notreversed by DNA repair mechanisms,[17] [18]while damage to proteins causes enzyme inhibition, denaturation andprotein degradation.[19]The use of oxygen as part of the process for generating metabolic energy produces reactive oxygen species.[20]Inthis process, the superoxide anion is produced as a by-product of several steps in the electron transport chain.[21]Particularly important is the reduction of coenzyme Q in complex III, since a highly reactive free radical is formed asan intermediate (Q·−). This unstable intermediate can lead to electron "leakage", when electrons jump directly tooxygen and form the superoxide anion, instead of moving through the normal series of well-controlled reactions ofthe electron transport chain.[22]Peroxide is also produced from the oxidation of reduced flavoproteins, such ascomplex I.[23]However, although these enzymes can produce oxidants, the relative importance of the electrontransfer chain to other processes that generate peroxide is unclear.[24] [25]In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, reactiveoxygen species are also produced during photosynthesis,[26]particularly under conditions of high light intensity.[27]This effect is partly offset by the involvement of carotenoids in photoinhibition, which involves these antioxidantsreacting with over-reduced forms of the photosynthetic reaction centres to prevent the production of reactive oxygenspecies.[28] [29]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antioxidant 198MetabolitesOverviewAntioxidants are classified into two broad divisions, depending on whether they are soluble in water (hydrophilic) orin lipids (hydrophobic). In general, water-soluble antioxidants react with oxidants in the cell cytosol and the bloodplasma, while lipid-soluble antioxidants protect cell membranes from lipid peroxidation.[1]These compounds may besynthesized in the body or obtained from the diet.[13]The different antioxidants are present at a wide range ofconcentrations in body fluids and tissues, with some such as glutathione or ubiquinone mostly present within cells,while others such as uric acid are more evenly distributed (see table below). Some antioxidants are only found in afew organisms and these compounds can be important in pathogens and can be virulence factors.[30]The relative importance and interactions between these different antioxidants is a very complex question, with thevarious metabolites and enzyme systems having synergistic and interdependent effects on one another.[31] [32]Theaction of one antioxidant may therefore depend on the proper function of other members of the antioxidantsystem.[13]The amount of protection provided by any one antioxidant will also depend on its concentration, itsreactivity towards the particular reactive oxygen species being considered, and the status of the antioxidants withwhich it interacts.[13]Some compounds contribute to antioxidant defense by chelating transition metals and preventing them fromcatalyzing the production of free radicals in the cell. Particularly important is the ability to sequester iron, which isthe function of iron-binding proteins such as transferrin and ferritin.[33]Selenium and zinc are commonly referred toas antioxidant nutrients, but these chemical elements have no antioxidant action themselves and are instead requiredfor the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, as is discussed below.Antioxidant metabolite SolubilityConcentration in human serum (μM)[34] Concentration in liver tissue (μmol/kg)Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) Water50 – 60[35]260 (human)[36]Glutathione Water4[37]6,400 (human)[36]Lipoic acid Water0.1 – 0.7[38]4 – 5 (rat)[39]Uric acid Water200 – 400[40]1,600 (human)[36]Carotenes Lipidβ-carotene: 0.5 – 1[41]retinol (vitamin A): 1 – 3[42]5 (human, total carotenoids)[43]α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) Lipid10 – 40[42]50 (human)[36]Ubiquinol (coenzyme Q) Lipid5[44]200 (human)[45]Uric acidThe antioxidant in highest concentration in human blood is uric acid,[40]which provides about half of the totalantioxidant capacity of human serum.[46]Uric acid is an oxypurine produced from xanthine by the enzyme xanthineoxidase, and is a waste product of purine metabolism in primates, birds, and reptiles. An overabundance of thischemical in the body causes gout. The effects of uric acid in conditions such as stroke and heart attacks are still notwell understood, with some studies linking higher levels of uric acid with increased mortality.[47] [48]This apparenteffect might either be due to uric acid being activated as a defense mechanism against oxidative stress, or uric acidacting as a pro-oxidant and contributing to the damage caused in these diseases.[47] [48]Uric acid is released fromtissues that are short of oxygen and elevated uric acid levels may be an important part of acclimatisation to highaltitude.[49]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antioxidant 199Ascorbic acidAscorbic acid or "vitamin C" is a monosaccharide oxidation-reduction (redox) catalyst found in both animals andplants. As one of the enzymes needed to make ascorbic acid has been lost by mutation during primate evolution,humans must obtain it from the diet; it is therefore a vitamin.[50]Most other animals are able to produce thiscompound in their bodies and do not require it in their diets.[51]Ascorbic acid is required for the conversion of theprocollagen to collagen by oxidizing proline residues to hydroxyproline. In other cells, it is maintained in its reducedform by reaction with glutathione, which can be catalysed by protein disulfide isomerase and glutaredoxins.[52] [53]Ascorbic acid is redox catalyst which can reduce, and thereby neutralize, reactive oxygen species such as hydrogenperoxide.[54]In addition to its direct antioxidant effects, ascorbic acid is also a substrate for the redox enzymeascorbate peroxidase, a function that is particularly important in stress resistance in plants.[55]Ascorbic acid ispresent at high levels in all parts of plants and can reach concentrations of 20 millimolar in chloroplasts.[56]GlutathioneThe free radical mechanism of lipid peroxidation.Glutathione is a cysteine-containing peptide found in most forms ofaerobic life.[57]It is not required in the diet and is instead synthesizedin cells from its constituent amino acids.[58]Glutathione hasantioxidant properties since the thiol group in its cysteine moiety is areducing agent and can be reversibly oxidized and reduced. In cells,glutathione is maintained in the reduced form by the enzymeglutathione reductase and in turn reduces other metabolites and enzymesystems, such as ascorbate in the glutathione-ascorbate cycle,glutathione peroxidases and glutaredoxins, as well as reacting directlywith oxidants.[52]Due to its high concentration and its central role inmaintaining the cells redox state, glutathione is one of the mostimportant cellular antioxidants.[57]In some organisms glutathione isreplaced by other thiols, such as by mycothiol in the Actinomycetes, or by trypanothione in the Kinetoplastids.[59][60]MelatoninMelatonin is a powerful antioxidant and, unlike conventional antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and glutathione,it is both produced in the human body and is acquired in the diet (fruits, vegetables, cereals and herbs etc., containmelatonin).[61]Melatonin easily crosses cell membranes and the blood-brain barrier[62]Unlike other antioxidants,melatonin does not undergo redox cycling, which is the ability of a molecule to undergo repeated reduction andoxidation. Redox cycling may allow other antioxidants (such as vitamin C) to act as pro-oxidants and promote freeradical formation. Melatonin, once oxidized, cannot be reduced to its former state because it forms several stableend-products upon reacting with free radicals. Therefore, it has been referred to as a terminal (or suicidal)antioxidant.[63]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antioxidant 200Tocopherols and tocotrienols (vitamin E)Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of eight related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat-solublevitamins with antioxidant properties.[64] [65]Of these, α-tocopherol has been most studied as it has the highestbioavailability, with the body preferentially absorbing and metabolising this form.[66]It has been claimed that the α-tocopherol form is the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, and that it protectsmembranes from oxidation by reacting with lipid radicals produced in the lipid peroxidation chain reaction.[64] [67]This removes the free radical intermediates and prevents the propagation reaction from continuing. This reactionproduces oxidised α-tocopheroxyl radicals that can be recycled back to the active reduced form through reduction byother antioxidants, such as ascorbate, retinol or ubiquinol.[68]This is in line with findings showing that α-tocopherol,but not water-soluble antioxidants, efficiently protects glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4)-deficient cells from celldeath.[69]GPx4 is the only known enzyme that efficiently reduces lipid-hydroperoxides within biologicalmembranes.However, the roles and importance of the various forms of vitamin E are presently unclear,[70] [71]and it has evenbeen suggested that the most important function of α-tocopherol is as a signaling molecule, with this moleculehaving no significant role in antioxidant metabolism.[72] [73]The functions of the other forms of vitamin E are evenless well-understood, although γ-tocopherol is a nucleophile that may react with electrophilic mutagens,[66]andtocotrienols may be important in protecting neurons from damage.[74]Pro-oxidant activitiesAntioxidants that are reducing agents can also act as pro-oxidants. For example, vitamin C has antioxidant activitywhen it reduces oxidizing substances such as hydrogen peroxide,[75]however, it will also reduce metal ions thatgenerate free radicals through the Fenton reaction.[76] [77]2 Fe3++ Ascorbate → 2 Fe2++ Dehydroascorbate2 Fe2++ 2 H2O2→ 2 Fe3++ 2 OH· + 2 OH−The relative importance of the antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of antioxidants are an area of current research,but vitamin C, for example, appears to have a mostly antioxidant action in the body.[76] [78]However, less data isavailable for other dietary antioxidants, such as vitamin E,[79]or the polyphenols.[80] [81]Potential of antioxidant supplements to damage healthThere is evidence antioxidant supplements may be disease-promoting and increase mortality in humans.[81] [82]Itwas previously proposed on a hypothetical basis that free radicals may induce an endogenous response culminatingin more effective adaptations which protect against exogenous radicals (and possibly other toxic compounds).[83]Recent experimental evidence strongly suggests that this is indeed the case, and that such induction of endogenousfree radical production extends life span of a model organism. Most importantly, this induction of life span isprevented by antioxidants, providing direct evidence that toxic radicals may mitohormetically exert life extendingand health promoting effects.[84] [81] [82]Enzyme systemsEnzymatic pathway for detoxification of reactiveoxygen species.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antioxidant 201OverviewAs with the chemical antioxidants, cells are protected against oxidative stress by an interacting network ofantioxidant enzymes.[1] [12]Here, the superoxide released by processes such as oxidative phosphorylation is firstconverted to hydrogen peroxide and then further reduced to give water. This detoxification pathway is the result ofmultiple enzymes, with superoxide dismutases catalysing the first step and then catalases and various peroxidasesremoving hydrogen peroxide. As with antioxidant metabolites, the contributions of these enzymes to antioxidantdefenses can be hard to separate from one another, but the generation of transgenic mice lacking just one antioxidantenzyme can be informative.[85]Superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxiredoxinsSuperoxide dismutases (SODs) are a class of closely related enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of the superoxideanion into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.[86] [87]SOD enzymes are present in almost all aerobic cells and inextracellular fluids.[88]Superoxide dismutase enzymes contain metal ion cofactors that, depending on the isozyme,can be copper, zinc, manganese or iron. In humans, the copper/zinc SOD is present in the cytosol, while manganeseSOD is present in the mitochondrion.[87]There also exists a third form of SOD in extracellular fluids, which containscopper and zinc in its active sites.[89]The mitochondrial isozyme seems to be the most biologically important ofthese three, since mice lacking this enzyme die soon after birth.[90]In contrast, the mice lacking copper/zinc SOD(Sod1) are viable but have numerous pathologies and a reduced lifespan (see article on superoxide), while micewithout the extracellular SOD have minimal defects (sensitive to hyperoxia).[85] [91]In plants, SOD isozymes arepresent in the cytosol and mitochondria, with an iron SOD found in chloroplasts that is absent from vertebrates andyeast.[92]Catalases are enzymes that catalyse the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, using either an iron ormanganese cofactor.[93] [94]This protein is localized to peroxisomes in most eukaryotic cells.[95]Catalase is anunusual enzyme since, although hydrogen peroxide is its only substrate, it follows a ping-pong mechanism. Here, itscofactor is oxidised by one molecule of hydrogen peroxide and then regenerated by transferring the bound oxygen toa second molecule of substrate.[96]Despite its apparent importance in hydrogen peroxide removal, humans withgenetic deficiency of catalase — "acatalasemia" — or mice genetically engineered to lack catalase completely, sufferfew ill effects.[97] [98]Decameric structure of AhpC, a bacterial2-cysteine peroxiredoxin from Salmonellatyphimurium.[99]Peroxiredoxins are peroxidases that catalyze the reduction of hydrogenperoxide, organic hydroperoxides, as well as peroxynitrite.[100]Theyare divided into three classes: typical 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins;atypical 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins; and 1-cysteine peroxiredoxins.[101]These enzymes share the same basic catalytic mechanism, in which aredox-active cysteine (the peroxidatic cysteine) in the active site isoxidized to a sulfenic acid by the peroxide substrate.[102]Over-oxidation of this cysteine residue in peroxiredoxins inactivatesthese enzymes, but this can be reversed by the action ofsulfiredoxin.[103]Peroxiredoxins seem to be important in antioxidantmetabolism, as mice lacking peroxiredoxin 1 or 2 have shortenedlifespan and suffer from hemolytic anaemia, while plants useperoxiredoxins to remove hydrogen peroxide generated inchloroplasts.[104] [105] [106]Thioredoxin and glutathione systemsFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antioxidant 202The thioredoxin system contains the 12-kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion thioredoxin reductase.[107]Proteins related to thioredoxin are present in all sequenced organisms with plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana,having a particularly great diversity of isoforms.[108]The active site of thioredoxin consists of two neighboringcysteines, as part of a highly conserved CXXC motif, that can cycle between an active dithiol form (reduced) and anoxidized disulfide form. In its active state, thioredoxin acts as an efficient reducing agent, scavenging reactiveoxygen species and maintaining other proteins in their reduced state.[109]After being oxidized, the active thioredoxinis regenerated by the action of thioredoxin reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor.[110]The glutathione system includes glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases and glutathioneS-transferases.[57]This system is found in animals, plants and microorganisms.[57] [111]Glutathione peroxidase is anenzyme containing four selenium-cofactors that catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide and organichydroperoxides. There are at least four different glutathione peroxidase isozymes in animals.[112]Glutathioneperoxidase 1 is the most abundant and is a very efficient scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, while glutathioneperoxidase 4 is most active with lipid hydroperoxides. Surprisingly, glutathione peroxidase 1 is dispensable, as micelacking this enzyme have normal lifespans,[113]but they are hypersensitive to induced oxidative stress.[114]Inaddition, the glutathione S-transferases show high activity with lipid peroxides.[115]These enzymes are atparticularly high levels in the liver and also serve in detoxification metabolism.[116]Oxidative stress in diseaseOxidative stress is thought to contribute to the development of a wide range of diseases including Alzheimersdisease,[117] [118]Parkinsons disease,[119]the pathologies caused by diabetes,[120] [121]rheumatoid arthritis,[122]andneurodegeneration in motor neuron diseases.[123]In many of these cases, it is unclear if oxidants trigger the disease,or if they are produced as a secondary consequence of the disease and from general tissue damage;[15]One case inwhich this link is particularly well-understood is the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease. Here, lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation appears to trigger the process of atherogenesis, which results in atherosclerosis,and finally cardiovascular disease.[124] [125]A low calorie diet extends median and maximum lifespan in many animals. This effect may involve a reduction inoxidative stress.[126]While there is some evidence to support the role of oxidative stress in aging in model organismssuch as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans,[127] [128]the evidence in mammals is less clear.[129][130] [131]Indeed, a 2009 review of experiments in mice concluded that almost all manipulations of antioxidantsystems had no effect on aging.[132]Diets high in fruit and vegetables, which are high in antioxidants, promote healthand reduce the effects of aging, however antioxidant vitamin supplementation has no detectable effect on the agingprocess, so the effects of fruit and vegetables may be unrelated to their antioxidant contents.[133] [134]One reason forthis might be the fact that consuming antioxidant molecules such as polyphenols and vitamin E will produce changesin other parts of metabolism, so it may be these other effects that are the real reason these compounds are importantin human nutrition.[72] [135]Health effectsDisease treatmentThe brain is uniquely vulnerable to oxidative injury, due to its high metabolic rate and elevated levels ofpolyunsaturated lipids, the target of lipid peroxidation.[136]Consequently, antioxidants are commonly used asmedications to treat various forms of brain injury. Here, superoxide dismutase mimetics,[137]sodium thiopental andpropofol are used to treat reperfusion injury and traumatic brain injury,[138]while the experimental drugNXY-059[139] [140]and ebselen[141]are being applied in the treatment of stroke. These compounds appear to preventoxidative stress in neurons and prevent apoptosis and neurological damage. Antioxidants are also being investigatedas possible treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, andFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antioxidant 203amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,[142] [143]and as a way to prevent noise-induced hearing loss.[144]Disease preventionStructure of the polyphenol antioxidantresveratrol.People who eat fruits and vegetables have a lower risk of heart diseaseand some neurological diseases,[145]and there is evidence that sometypes of vegetables, and fruits in general, protect against somecancers.[146]Since fruits and vegetables happen to be good sources ofantioxidants, this suggested that antioxidants might prevent some typesof diseases. This idea has been tested in clinical trials and does notseem to be true, as antioxidant supplements have no clear effect on therisk of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease.[145] [147]Thissuggests that these health benefits come from other substances in fruitsand vegetables (possibly flavonoids), or come from a complex mix ofsubstances.[148] [149]It is thought that oxidation of low density lipoprotein in the blood contributes to heart disease, and initialobservational studies found that people taking Vitamin E supplements had a lower risk of developing heartdisease.[150]Consequently, at least seven large clinical trials were conducted to test the effects of antioxidantsupplement with Vitamin E, in doses ranging from 50 to 600 mg per day. None of these trials found a statisticallysignificant effect of Vitamin E on overall number of deaths or on deaths due to heart disease.[151]Further studieshave also been negative.[152] [153]It is not clear if the doses used in these trials or in most dietary supplements arecapable of producing any significant decrease in oxidative stress.[154]Overall, despite the clear role of oxidativestress in cardiovascular disease, controlled studies using antioxidant vitamins have observed no reduction in eitherthe risk of developing heart disease, or the rate of progression of existing disease.[155] [156]While several trials have investigated supplements with high doses of antioxidants, the "Supplémentation enVitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants" (SU.VI.MAX) study tested the effect of supplementation with dosescomparable to those in a healthy diet.[157]Over 12,500 French men and women took either low-dose antioxidants(120 mg of ascorbic acid, 30 mg of vitamin E, 6 mg of beta carotene, 100 µg of selenium, and 20 mg of zinc) orplacebo pills for an average of 7.5 years. The investigators found there was no statistically significant effect of theantioxidants on overall survival, cancer, or heart disease. In a post-hoc analysis they found a 31% reduction in therisk of cancer in men, but not women.Many nutraceutical and health food companies sell formulations of antioxidants as dietary supplements and these arewidely used in industrialized countries.[158]These supplements may include specific antioxidant chemicals, like thepolyphenol, resveratrol (from grape seeds or knotweed roots),[159]combinations of antioxidants, like the "ACES"products that contain beta carotene (provitamin A), vitamin C, vitamin E and Selenium, or herbs that containantioxidants - such as green tea and jiaogulan. Although some levels of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in the dietare required for good health, there is considerable doubt as to whether these antioxidant supplements are beneficialor harmful, and if they are actually beneficial, which antioxidant(s) are needed and in what amounts.[145] [147] [160]Indeed, some authors argue that the hypothesis that antioxidants could prevent chronic diseases has now beendisproved and that the idea was misguided from the beginning.[161]Rather, dietary polyphenols may havenon-antioxidant roles in minute concentrations that affect cell-to-cell signaling, receptor sensitivity, inflammatoryenzyme activity or gene regulation.[162] [163]For overall life expectancy, it has even been suggested that moderate levels of oxidative stress may increase lifespanin the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, by inducing a protective response to increased levels of reactive oxygenspecies.[164]The suggestion that increased life expectancy comes from increased oxidative stress conflicts withresults seen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae,[165]and the situation in mammals is even less clear.[129] [130] [131]Nevertheless, antioxidant supplements do not appear to increase life expectancy in humans.[166]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antioxidant 204Physical exerciseDuring exercise, oxygen consumption can increase by a factor of more than 10.[167]This leads to a large increase inthe production of oxidants and results in damage that contributes to muscular fatigue during and after exercise. Theinflammatory response that occurs after strenuous exercise is also associated with oxidative stress, especially in the24 hours after an exercise session. The immune system response to the damage done by exercise peaks 2 to 7 daysafter exercise, which is the period during which most of the adaptation that leads to greater fitness occurs. Duringthis process, free radicals are produced by neutrophils to remove damaged tissue. As a result, excessive antioxidantlevels may inhibit recovery and adaptation mechanisms.[168]Antioxidant supplements may also prevent any of thehealth gains that normally come from exercise, such as increased insulin sensitivity.[169]The evidence for benefits from antioxidant supplementation in vigorous exercise is mixed. There is strong evidencethat one of the adaptations resulting from exercise is a strengthening of the bodys antioxidant defenses, particularlythe glutathione system, to regulate the increased oxidative stress.[170]This effect may be to some extent protectiveagainst diseases which are associated with oxidative stress, which would provide a partial explanation for the lowerincidence of major diseases and better health of those who undertake regular exercise.[171]However, no benefits for physical performance to athletes are seen with vitamin E supplementation.[172]Indeed,despite its key role in preventing lipid membrane peroxidation, 6 weeks of vitamin E supplementation had no effecton muscle damage in ultramarathon runners.[173]Although there appears to be no increased requirement for vitaminC in athletes, there is some evidence that vitamin C supplementation increased the amount of intense exercise thatcan be done and vitamin C supplementation before strenuous exercise may reduce the amount of muscledamage.[174] [175]However, other studies found no such effects, and some research suggests that supplementationwith amounts as high as 1000 mg inhibits recovery.[176]Adverse effectsStructure of the metal chelator phytic acid.Relatively strong reducing acids can have antinutrient effects bybinding to dietary minerals such as iron and zinc in the gastrointestinaltract and preventing them from being absorbed.[177]Notable examplesare oxalic acid, tannins and phytic acid, which are high in plant-baseddiets.[178]Calcium and iron deficiencies are not uncommon in diets indeveloping countries where less meat is eaten and there is highconsumption of phytic acid from beans and unleavened whole grainbread.[179]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antioxidant 205Foods Reducing acid presentCocoa bean and chocolate, spinach, turnip and rhubarb.[180] Oxalic acidWhole grains, maize, legumes.[181] Phytic acidTea, beans, cabbage.[180] [182] TanninsNonpolar antioxidants such as eugenol—a major component of oil of cloves—have toxicity limits that can beexceeded with the misuse of undiluted essential oils.[183]Toxicity associated with high doses of water-solubleantioxidants such as ascorbic acid are less of a concern, as these compounds can be excreted rapidly in urine.[184]More seriously, very high doses of some antioxidants may have harmful long-term effects. The beta-Carotene andRetinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) study of lung cancer patients found that smokers given supplements containingbeta-carotene and vitamin A had increased rates of lung cancer.[185]Subsequent studies confirmed these adverseeffects.[186]These harmful effects may also be seen in non-smokers, as a recent meta-analysis including data from approximately230,000 patients showed that β-carotene, vitamin A or vitamin E supplementation is associated with increasedmortality but saw no significant effect from vitamin C.[82]No health risk was seen when all the randomizedcontrolled studies were examined together, but an increase in mortality was detected only when the high-quality andlow-bias risk trials were examined separately. However, as the majority of these low-bias trials dealt with eitherelderly people, or people already suffering disease, these results may not apply to the general population.[187]Thismeta-analysis was later repeated and extended by the same authors, with the new analysis published by the CochraneCollaboration; confirming the previous results.[188]These two publications are consistent with some previousmeta-analyzes that also suggested that Vitamin E supplementation increased mortality,[189]and that antioxidantsupplements increased the risk of colon cancer.[190]However, the results of this meta-analysis are inconsistent withother studies such as the SU.VI.MAX trial, which suggested that antioxidants have no effect on cause-allmortality.[157] [191] [192] [193]Overall, the large number of clinical trials carried out on antioxidant supplementssuggest that either these products have no effect on health, or that they cause a small increase in mortality in elderlyor vulnerable populations.[82] [145] [147]While antioxidant supplementation is widely used in attempts to prevent the development of cancer, it has beenproposed that antioxidants may, paradoxically, interfere with cancer treatments.[194]This was thought to occur sincethe environment of cancer cells causes high levels of oxidative stress, making these cells more susceptible to thefurther oxidative stress induced by treatments. As a result, by reducing the redox stress in cancer cells, antioxidantsupplements could decrease the effectiveness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.[195] [196]On the other hand, otherreviews have suggested that antioxidants could reduce side effects or increase survival times.[197] [198]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antioxidant 206Measurement and levels in foodFruits and vegetables are good sources ofantioxidants.Measurement of antioxidants is not a straightforward process, as this isa diverse group of compounds with different reactivities to differentreactive oxygen species. In food science, the oxygen radicalabsorbance capacity (ORAC) has become the current industry standardfor assessing antioxidant strength of whole foods, juices and foodadditives.[199] [200]Other measurement tests include theFolin-Ciocalteu reagent, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacityassay.[201]Antioxidants are found in varying amounts in foods such as vegetables,fruits, grain cereals, eggs, meat, legumes and nuts. Some antioxidantssuch as lycopene and ascorbic acid can be destroyed by long-termstorage or prolonged cooking.[202] [203]Other antioxidant compoundsare more stable, such as the polyphenolic antioxidants in foods such aswhole-wheat cereals and tea.[204] [205]The effects of cooking and foodprocessing are complex, as these processes can also increase thebioavailability of antioxidants, such as some carotenoids invegetables.[206]In general, processed foods contain fewer antioxidantsthan fresh and uncooked foods, since the preparation processes mayexpose the food to oxygen.[207]Antioxidant compoundsFoods containing high levels of these antioxidants[182] [208] [209]Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Fresh Fruits and vegetablesVitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols) Vegetable oilsPolyphenolic antioxidants (resveratrol, flavonoids) Tea, coffee, soy, fruit, olive oil, chocolate, cinnamon, oregano and red wineCarotenoids (lycopene, carotenes, lutein)Fruit, vegetables and eggs.[210]Other antioxidants are not vitamins and are instead made in the body. For example, ubiquinol (coenzyme Q) ispoorly absorbed from the gut and is made in humans through the mevalonate pathway.[45]Another example isglutathione, which is made from amino acids. As any glutathione in the gut is broken down to free cysteine, glycineand glutamic acid before being absorbed, even large oral doses have little effect on the concentration of glutathionein the body.[211] [212]Although large amounts of sulfur-containing amino acids such as acetylcysteine can increaseglutathione,[213]no evidence exists that eating high levels of these glutathione precursors is beneficial for healthyadults.[214]Supplying more of these precursors may be useful as part of the treatment of some diseases, such as acuterespiratory distress syndrome, protein-energy malnutrition, or preventing the liver damage produced by paracetamoloverdose.[213] [215]Other compounds in the diet can alter the levels of antioxidants by acting as pro-oxidants. Here, consuming thecompound causes oxidative stress, which the body responds to by inducing higher levels of antioxidant defensessuch as antioxidant enzymes.[161]Some of these compounds, such as isothiocyanates and curcumin, may bechemopreventive agents that either block the transformation of abnormal cells into cancerous cells, or even killexisting cancer cells.[161] [216]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antioxidant 207Uses in technologyFood preservativesAntioxidants are used as food additives to help guard against food deterioration. Exposure to oxygen and sunlight arethe two main factors in the oxidation of food, so food is preserved by keeping in the dark and sealing it in containersor even coating it in wax, as with cucumbers. However, as oxygen is also important for plant respiration, storingplant materials in anaerobic conditions produces unpleasant flavors and unappealing colors.[217]Consequently,packaging of fresh fruits and vegetables contains an ~8% oxygen atmosphere. Antioxidants are an especiallyimportant class of preservatives as, unlike bacterial or fungal spoilage, oxidation reactions still occur relativelyrapidly in frozen or refrigerated food.[218]These preservatives include natural antioxidants such as ascorbic acid(AA, E300) and tocopherols (E306), as well as synthetic antioxidants such as propyl gallate (PG, E310), tertiarybutylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, E320) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT,E321).[219] [220]The most common molecules attacked by oxidation are unsaturated fats; oxidation causes them to turn rancid.[221]Since oxidized lipids are often discolored and usually have unpleasant tastes such as metallic or sulfurous flavors, itis important to avoid oxidation in fat-rich foods. Thus, these foods are rarely preserved by drying; instead, they arepreserved by smoking, salting or fermenting. Even less fatty foods such as fruits are sprayed with sulfurousantioxidants prior to air drying. Oxidation is often catalyzed by metals, which is why fats such as butter should neverbe wrapped in aluminium foil or kept in metal containers. Some fatty foods such as olive oil are partially protectedfrom oxidation by their natural content of antioxidants, but remain sensitive to photooxidation.[222]Antioxidantpreservatives are also added to fat-based cosmetics such as lipstick and moisturizers to prevent rancidity.Industrial usesAntioxidants are frequently added to industrial products. A common use is as stabilizers in fuels and lubricants toprevent oxidation, and in gasolines to prevent the polymerization that leads to the formation of engine-foulingresidues.[223]In 2007, the worldwide market for industrial antioxidants had a total volume of around 0.88 milliontons. This created a revenue of circa 3.7 billion US-dollars (2.4 billion Euros).[224]They are widely used to prevent the oxidative degradation of polymers such as rubbers, plastics and adhesives thatcauses a loss of strength and flexibility in these materials.[225]Polymers containing double bonds in their mainchains, such as such as natural rubber and polybutadiene, are especially susceptible to oxidation and ozonolysis.They can be protected by antiozonants. Solid polymer products start to crack on exposed surfaces as the materialdegrades and the chains break. The mode of cracking varies between oxygen and ozone attack, the former causing a"crazy paving" effect, while ozone attack produces deeper cracks aligned at right angles to the tensile strain in theproduct. Oxidation and UV degradation are also frequently linked, mainly because UV radiation creates free radicalsby bond breakage. The free radicals then react with oxygen to produce peroxy radicals which cause yet furtherdamage, often in a chain reaction. Other polymers susceptible to oxidation include polypropylene and polyethylene.The former is more sensitive owing to the presence of secondary carbon atoms present in every repeat unit. Attackoccurs at this point because the free radical formed is more stable than one formed on a primary carbon atom.Oxidation of polyethylene tends to occur at weak links in the chain, such as branch points in low densitypolyethylene.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Antioxidant 208FueladditiveComponents[226]Applications[226]AO-22 N,N-di-2-butyl-1,4-phenylenediamine Turbine oils, transformer oils, hydraulic fluids, waxes, and greasesAO-24 N,N-di-2-butyl-1,4-phenylenediamine Low-temperature oilsAO-29 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol Turbine oils, transformer oils, hydraulic fluids, waxes, greases,and gasolinesAO-30 2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol Jet fuels and gasolines, including aviation gasolinesAO-31 2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol Jet fuels and gasolines, including aviation gasolinesAO-32 2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol and2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenolJet fuels and gasolines, including aviation gasolinesAO-37 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol Jet fuels and gasolines, widely approved for aviation fuelsSee also• Forensic engineering• Free radical theory• Nootropics• Nutrition• Phytochemical• Mitohormesis• Polymer degradation• Antiozonant• Evolution of dietary antioxidants• SuperfoodFurther reading• Nick Lane Oxygen: The Molecule That Made the World (Oxford University Press, 2003) ISBN 0-198-60783-0• Barry Halliwell and John M.C. Gutteridge Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine(Oxford University Press,2007) ISBN 0-198-56869-X• Jan Pokorny, Nelly Yanishlieva and Michael H. Gordon Antioxidants in Food: Practical Applications (CRC PressInc, 2001) ISBN 0-849-31222-1References[1] Sies H (1997). "Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants" (http://ep.physoc.org/cgi/reprint/82/2/291.pdf) (PDF). Exp Physiol 82 (2):291–5. PMID 9129943. .[2] Baillie, J K; A A R Thompson, J B Irving, M G D Bates, A I Sutherland, W Macnee, S R J Maxwell, D J Webb (2009-03-09). "Oralantioxidant supplementation does not prevent acute mountain sickness: double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial" (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19273551). QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians 102 (5): 341–8. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcp026.ISSN 1460-2393. PMID 19273551. . Retrieved 2009-03-25.[3] Bjelakovic G; Nikolova, D; Gluud, LL; Simonetti, RG; Gluud, C (2007). "Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements forprimary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis". JAMA 297 (8): 842–57. doi:10.1001/jama.297.8.842.PMID 17327526.[4] Benzie, IF (2003). "Evolution of dietary antioxidants". Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrativephysiology 136 (1): 113–26. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(02)00368-9. PMID 14527634.[5] Venturi, S; Donati, FM; Venturi, A; Venturi, M (2000). "Environmental iodine deficiency: A challenge to the evolution of terrestrial life?".Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association 10 (8): 727–9. doi:10.1089/10507250050137851. PMID 11014322.[6] Matill HA (1947). "Antioxidants.". Annu Rev Biochem 16: 177–192. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.16.070147.001141. PMID 20259061.[7] German J (1999). "Food processing and lipid oxidation". Adv Exp Med Biol 459: 23–50. PMID 10335367.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
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PMID 16872360.[184] Hornig D, Vuilleumier J, Hartmann D (1980). "Absorption of large, single, oral intakes of ascorbic acid". Int J Vitam Nutr Res 50 (3):309–14. PMID 7429760.[185] Omenn G, Goodman G, Thornquist M, Balmes J, Cullen M, Glass A, Keogh J, Meyskens F, Valanis B, Williams J, Barnhart S, CherniackM, Brodkin C, Hammar S (1996). "Risk factors for lung cancer and for intervention effects in CARET, the Beta-Carotene and RetinolEfficacy Trial". J Natl Cancer Inst 88 (21): 1550–9. doi:10.1093/jnci/88.21.1550. PMID 8901853.[186] Albanes D (1 June 1999). "Beta-carotene and lung cancer: a case study" (http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/69/6/1345S). Am JClin Nutr 69 (6): 1345S–50S. PMID 10359235. .[187] Study Citing Antioxidant Vitamin Risks Based On Flawed Methodology, Experts Argue (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/02/070228172604.htm) News release from Oregon State University published on ScienceDaily, Accessed 19 April 2007[188] Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Gluud, LL; Simonetti, RG; Gluud, C (2008). "Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthyparticipants and patients with various diseases". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD007176.doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007176. PMID 18425980.[189] Miller E, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma R, Appel L, Guallar E (2005). "Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementationmay increase all-cause mortality". Ann Intern Med 142 (1): 37–46. PMID 15537682.[190] Bjelakovic G, Nagorni A, Nikolova D, Simonetti R, Bjelakovic M, Gluud C (2006). "Meta-analysis: antioxidant supplements for primaryand secondary prevention of colorectal adenoma". 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    • Antioxidant 216[192] Bjelakovic G, Nagorni A, Nikolova D, Simonetti R, Bjelakovic M, Gluud C (2006). "Meta-analysis: antioxidant supplements for primaryand secondary prevention of colorectal adenoma". Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 24 (2): 281–91. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.02970.x.PMID 16842454.[193] Coulter I, Hardy M, Morton S, Hilton L, Tu W, Valentine D, Shekelle P (2006). "Antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin e for the preventionand treatment of cancer" (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1924689). Journal of generalinternal medicine: official journal of the Society for Research and Education in Primary Care Internal Medicine 21 (7): 735–44.doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00483.x. PMID 16808775. PMC 1924689.[194] Schumacker P (2006). "Reactive oxygen species in cancer cells: Live by the sword, die by the sword". Cancer Cell 10 (3): 175–6.doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2006.08.015. 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J Med Food 8 (4): 413–22.doi:10.1089/jmf.2005.8.413. PMID 16379550.[203] Rodriguez-Amaya D (2003). "Food carotenoids: analysis, composition and alterations during storage and processing of foods". Forum Nutr56: 35–7. PMID 15806788.[204] Baublis A, Lu C, Clydesdale F, Decker E (1 June 2000). "Potential of wheat-based breakfast cereals as a source of dietary antioxidants"(http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/19/suppl_3/308S). J Am Coll Nutr 19 (3 Suppl): 308S–311S. PMID 10875602. .[205] Rietveld A, Wiseman S (1 October 2003). "Antioxidant effects of tea: evidence from human clinical trials" (http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/133/10/3285S). J Nutr 133 (10): 3285S–3292S. PMID 14519827. .[206] Maiani G, Periago Castón MJ, Catasta G (November 2008). "Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability andbioavailability and their protective role in humans". Mol Nutr Food Res 53: NA. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200800053. PMID 19035552.[207] Henry C, Heppell N (2002). "Nutritional losses and gains during processing: future problems and issues" (http://journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=804076). Proc Nutr Soc 61 (1): 145–8. doi:10.1079/PNS2001142. PMID 12002789. .[208] "Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention: Fact Sheet" (http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/antioxidantsprevention). NationalCancer Institute. . Retrieved 2007-02-27.[209] Ortega RM (2006). "Importance of functional foods in the Mediterranean diet". Public Health Nutr 9 (8A): 1136–40.doi:10.1017/S1368980007668530. PMID 17378953.[210] Goodrow EF, Wilson TA, Houde SC (October 2006). "Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthinconcentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations". J. Nutr. 136 (10): 2519–24.PMID 16988120.[211] Witschi A, Reddy S, Stofer B, Lauterburg B (1992). "The systemic availability of oral glutathione". 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    • Antioxidant 217[218] Zallen E, Hitchcock M, Goertz G (1975). "Chilled food systems. Effects of chilled holding on quality of beef loaves". J Am Diet Assoc 67(6): 552–7. PMID 1184900.[219] Iverson F (1995). "Phenolic antioxidants: Health Protection Branch studies on butylated hydroxyanisole". Cancer Lett 93 (1): 49–54.doi:10.1016/0304-3835(95)03787-W. PMID 7600543.[220] "E number index" (http://www.ukfoodguide.net/enumeric.htm#antioxidants). UK food guide. . Retrieved 2007-03-05.[221] Robards K, Kerr A, Patsalides E (1988). "Rancidity and its measurement in edible oils and snack foods. A review". Analyst 113 (2):213–24. doi:10.1039/an9881300213. PMID 3288002.[222] Del Carlo M, Sacchetti G, Di Mattia C, Compagnone D, Mastrocola D, Liberatore L, Cichelli A (2004). "Contribution of the phenolicfraction to the antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of olive oil". J Agric Food Chem 52 (13): 4072–9. doi:10.1021/jf049806z.PMID 15212450.[223] CE Boozer, GS Hammond, CE Hamilton (1955) "Air Oxidation of Hydrocarbons. The Stoichiometry and Fate of Inhibitors in Benzene andChlorobenzene". Journal of the American Chemical Society, 3233–3235[224] "Market Study: Antioxidants" (http://www.ceresana.com/en/market-studies/additives/antioxidants/). Ceresana Research (http://www.ceresana.com/en/). .[225] "Why use Antioxidants?" (http://www.specialchem4adhesives.com/tc/antioxidants/index.aspx?id=). SpecialChem Adhesives. .Retrieved 2007-02-27.[226] "Fuel antioxidants" (http://web.archive.org/web/20061015202259/http://www.innospecinc.com/americas/products/fuel_antitoxidants.cfm). Innospec Chemicals. Archived from the original (http://www.innospecinc.com/americas/products/fuel_antitoxidants.cfm) on October 15, 2006. . Retrieved 2007-02-27.External links• U.S. National Institute Health, Office on Dietary Supplements (http://ods.od.nih.gov/index.aspx)• List of antioxidants, food sources, and Potential Benefits (http://www.ific.org/publications/factsheets/antioxidantfs.cfm)• MedlinePlus: Antioxidants. (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/antioxidants.html)HumectantA humectant is a hygroscopic substance. It is often a molecule with several hydrophilic groups, most often hydroxylgroups, but amines and carboxyl groups, sometimes esterified, can be encountered as well; the affinity to formhydrogen bonds with molecules of water is crucial here.Since hygroscopic substances absorb water from the air, they are frequently used in desiccation.When used as a food additive, the humectant has the effect of keeping the foodstuff moist. Humectants aresometimes used as a component of antistatic coatings for plastics. Humectants are also found in many cosmeticproducts where moisturization is desired, including treatments such as moisturizing hair conditioners and alsocommonly used in body lotions.Humectants are also used in the manufacture of some cigarettes and other tobacco products.Humectants are also used in topical dosage forms to increase the solubility of the active ingredient, to elevate its skinpenetration and increase its activity time. Humectants elevate also the hydration of the skin to minimize thedehydrating effect of some active ingredients like corticoids.Examples of humectants include glycerol, propylene glycol (E 1520) and glyceryl triacetate (E1518). Others can besugar polyols like sorbitol (E420), xylitol and maltitol (E965), polymeric polyols like polydextrose (E1200), ornatural extracts like quillaia (E999), lactic acid or urea.The chemical compound lithium chloride is an excellent humectant, but is toxic.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Preservative 218PreservativeA preservative is a naturally occurring or synthetic substance that is added to products such as foods,pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, wood, etc. to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or byundesirable chemical changes.Preservatives in woodPreservatives may be added to wood to prevent the growth of fungi as well as to repel insects and termites. Typicallyarsenic, copper, chromium, borate, and petroleum based chemical compounds are used. For more information onwood preservatives, see timber treatment.Preservatives in foodsPreservative food additives can be used alone or in conjunction with other methods of food preservation.Preservatives may be antimicrobial preservatives, which inhibit the growth of bacterium|bacteria or fungi, includingmold, or antioxidants such as oxygen absorbers, which inhibit the oxidation of food constituents. Commonantimicrobial preservatives include calcium propionate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sulfites sulfur dioxide,sodium bisulfite, potassium hydrogen sulfite, etc. and EDTA|disodium EDTA. Antioxidants include. Butylatedhydroxyanisole|BHA and Butylated hydroxytoluene|BHT. Other preservatives include formaldehyde (usually insolution), glutaraldehydekills insects, ethanol and methylchloroisothiazolinoneFDA standards do not currentlyrequire fruit and vegetable product labels to reflect the type of chemical preservative(s) used on the produce.Citationneeded|date=July 2009} The benefits and safety of many artificial food additives (including preservatives) are thesubject of debate among academics and regulators specializing in food science, toxicology, and biology.Natural food preservationNatural substances such as salt,sugar, vinegar, alcohol, and diatomaceous earth are also used as traditionalpreservatives. Certain processes such as freezing, pickling, Smoking (cooking)|smoking and salting (food)|saltingcan also be used to preserve food. Another group of preservatives targets enzymes in fruits and vegetables thatcontinue to metabolize after they are cut. For instance, citric acid|citric and ascorbic acids from lemon or other citrusjuice can inhibit the action of the enzyme phenolase which turns surfaces of cut apples and potatoes brown.Health concernsSome modern synthetic preservatives have become controversial because they have been shown to cause respiratoryor other health problems. Some studies point to synthetic preservatives and artificial coloring agents aggravatingADD & ADHD symptoms in those affected.“Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and8-to-9-year-old children in the community: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial”, The Lancet, Sept2007 1997 Graduate Student Research Project conducted at the University of South Florida. Richard W. PressingerM.Ed. Older studies were inconclusive, quite possibly due to inadequate clinical methods of measuring offendingbehavior. Parental reports were more accurate indicators of the presence of additives than clinical tests. "FoodAdditives May Affect Kids Hyperactivity", May 24, 2004 Several major studies show academic performanceincreased and disciplinary problems decreased in large non-ADD student populations when artificial ingredients,including preservatives were eliminated from school food programs. A different kind of school lunch", PUREFACTS, October 2002The impact of a low food additive and sucrose diet on academic performance in 803 NewYork City public schools, Schoenthaler SJ, Doraz WE, Wakefield JA, Int J Biosocial Res., 1986, 185-195 Allergenicpreservatives in food or medicine can cause Anaphylaxis|anaphylactic shock in susceptible individuals, a conditionwhich is often fatal within minutes without emergency treatment. `FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Preservative 219ReferencesStabilizer (chemistry)In chemistry a stabilizer is a chemical which tends to inhibit the reaction between two or more other chemicals. Itcan be thought of as the antonym to a catalyst. The term can also refer to a chemical that inhibits separation ofsuspensions, emulsions, and foams.Some kinds of stabilizers are:• antioxidants, preventing unwanted oxidation of materials• sequestrants, forming chelate complexes and inactivating traces of metal ions that would otherwise act as catalysts• emulsifiers and surfactants, for stabilization of emulsions• ultraviolet stabilizers, protecting materials, especially plastics, from harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation• UV absorbers, chemicals absorbing ultraviolet radiation and preventing it from penetrating the materials;principally the same as sunscreens• quenchers, dissipating the radiation energy as heat instead of letting it break chemical bonds; often organicnickel salts, e.g. nickel phenolates• scavengers, eliminating the free radicals formed by ultraviolet radiation; often hindered amine light stabilizers(HALS)SweetenersPackets of Assugrin, a brand of cyclamate.A sugar substitute is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugarin taste, usually with less food energy. Some sugar substitutes arenatural and some are synthetic. Those that are not natural are, ingeneral, called artificial sweeteners.An important class of sugar substitutes are known as high-intensitysweeteners. These are compounds with sweetness that is many timesthat of sucrose, common table sugar. As a result, much less sweeteneris required, and energy contribution often negligible. The sensation ofsweetness caused by these compounds (the "sweetness profile") issometimes notably different from sucrose, so they are often used incomplex mixtures that achieve the most natural sweet sensation.If the sucrose (or other sugar) replaced has contributed to the texture of the product, then a bulking agent is oftenalso needed. This may be seen in soft drinks labeled as "diet" or "light," which contain artificial sweeteners and oftenhave notably different mouthfeel, or in table sugar replacements that mix maltodextrins with an intense sweetener toachieve satisfactory texture sensation.In the United States, six intensely-sweet sugar substitutes have been approved for use. They are stevia, aspartame,sucralose, neotame, acesulfame potassium, and saccharin. There is some ongoing controversy over whether artificialsweetener usage poses health risks. The US Food and Drug Administration regulates artificial sweeteners as foodadditives.[1]Food additives must be approved by the FDA, which publishes a Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)list of additives.[2]To date, the FDA has not been presented with scientific information that would support a changein conclusions about the safety of these approved high-intensity sweeteners (with the exception of Stevia which isexempt under FDAs GRAS policy due to its being a natural substance in wide use well before 1958, and has beenFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sweeteners 220approved by FDA). The safe conclusions are based on a detailed review of a large body of information, includinghundreds of toxicological and clinical studies.[3]The majority of sugar substitutes approved for food use are artificially-synthesized compounds. However, some bulknatural sugar substitutes are known, including sorbitol and xylitol, which are found in berries, fruit, vegetables, andmushrooms. It is not commercially viable to extract these products from fruits and vegetables, so they are producedby catalytic hydrogenation of the appropriate reducing sugar. For example, xylose is converted to xylitol, lactose tolactitol, and glucose to sorbitol. Still other natural substitutes are known, but are yet to gain official approval for fooduse.Some non-sugar sweeteners are polyols, also known as "sugar alcohols." These are, in general, less sweet thansucrose, but have similar bulk properties and can be used in a wide range of food products. Sometimes the sweetnessprofile is fine-tuned by mixing with high-intensity sweeteners. As with all food products, the development of aformulation to replace sucrose is a complex proprietary process.Food industry usage of artificial sweetenersThe food and beverage industry is increasingly replacing sugar or corn syrup with artificial sweeteners in a range ofproducts traditionally containing sugar.According to market analysts Mintel, a total of 3,920 products containing artificial sweeteners were launched in theU.S. between 2000 and 2005. In 2004 alone, 1,649 artificially-sweetened products were launched. According tomarket analysts Freedonia, the United States artificial sweetener market is set to grow at around 8.3% per year to$189 million in 2008.[4]Aspartame is currently the most popular artificial sweetener in the U.S. food industry, as the price has droppedsignificantly since the Monsanto Company patent expired in 1992. However, sucralose may soon replace it, asalternative processes to Tate & Lyles patent seem to be emerging. According to Morgan Stanley, this can mean thatthe price of sucralose will drop by 30%.[5]Alternative sweeteners are highly consumed in America. According to research studies explained by The AmericanJournal of Clinical Nutrition, in 2003-2004 Americans 2 years and older consumed 585g per day of beverages and375g per day of foods with caloric sweeteners. More than 66% of Americans consumed these beverages withalternative sweeteners and 90.3% of Americans consumed foods with added caloric sweeteners. On the other hand,10.8% of Americans in 2003-2004 consumed non-caloric alternative sweetener flavored beverages and 5.8%consumed non-caloric alternative sweetener flavored foods.[6]Some commonly consumed foods with alternative sweeteners are diet sodas, cereals, sugar-free desserts such as icecream. Alternative sweeteners are found in many products today due to their low or non-caloric characteristics. Thiscan be used as a method of advertisement for dieters or those conscious of their sugar intake. Those with diabetescan greatly benefit from alternative sweeteners that do not affect their blood sugar levels drastically. This aids inmaintaining low insulin use in the body and blood sugar levels.[7]Alternative sweeteners such as xylitol andsaccharin have many positive research results that show qualities of dental decay prevention.[8]Reasons for useSugar substitutes are used for a number of reasons, including:• To assist in weight loss — some people choose to limit their food energy intake by replacing high-energy sugar orcorn syrup with other sweeteners having little or no food energy. This allows them to eat the same foods theynormally would, while allowing them to lose weight and avoid other problems associated with excessive caloricintake.• Dental care — sugar substitutes are tooth-friendly, as they are not fermented by the microflora of the dentalplaque. An example of a sweetener that can benefit dental health is xylitol. Xylitol works to prevent bacteria fromFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sweeteners 221adhering to the tooth surface, thus preventing plaque formation and eventually decay. The carbohydrates andsugars consumed usually adheres to the tooth enamel. Bacteria can feed upon this food source allowing them toquickly multiply. As the bacteria feed upon the sugar, they convert it to acid waste that in turn decays the toothstructure. Xylitol cannot be fermented by these bacteria, so the bacteria have difficulty thriving, thus helping toprevent plaque formation.[9]• Diabetes mellitus — people with diabetes have difficulty regulating their blood sugar levels. By limiting theirsugar intake with artificial sweeteners, they can enjoy a varied diet while closely controlling their sugar intake.Also, some sugar substitutes do release energy, but are metabolized more slowly, allowing blood sugar levels toremain more stable over time.• Reactive hypoglycemia — individuals with reactive hypoglycemia will produce an excess of insulin after quicklyabsorbing glucose into the bloodstream. This causes their blood glucose levels to fall below the amount neededfor proper body and brain function. As a result, like diabetics, they must avoid intake of high-glycemic foods likewhite bread, and often choose artificial sweeteners as an alternative.• Avoiding processed foods — individuals may opt to substitute refined white sugar with less-processed sugars,such as fruit juice or maple syrup. (See List of unrefined sweeteners).• Cost — many sugar substitutes are cheaper than sugar. Alternative sweeteners are often low in cost because oftheir long shelf-life. This allows alternative sweeteners to be used in products that will not perish after a shortperiod of time.[10]SteviaUsed as a natural sweetener, the herbal supplement Stevia has been widely used for centuries in South America aswell as in Japan since 1970 as a natural sweetener. It is fast becoming popular in many other countries. In USA therehad been some controversy surrounding stevia as the artificial sweetener industry allegedly pressured FDA intokeeping stevia banned for many years, even against FDAs own policies for GRAS substances in wide use before1958.[11]It is believed that artificial sweetener industry allegedly felt too threatened by stevia, which is a naturalplant that needs no patent and can be grown by anyone.[12]After being repeatedly provided with significant amountof scientific data proving that there was no side effect of using stevia as a sweetener, from companies such as Cargilland Coca-cola, finally in December 2008, the FDA gave a "no objection" approval for GRAS status to Truvia(developed by Cargill and The Coca-Cola Company) and PureVia (developed by PepsiCo and the Whole EarthSweetener Company, a subsidiary of Merisant), both of which use rebaudioside A derived from the Stevia plant.[13]Health issuesControversy over healthA 2005 study by the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio showed that increased weight gainand obesity was associated with increased use of diet soda in a population based study. The study did not establishwhether increased weight leads to increased consumption of diet drinks or whether consumption of diet drinks couldhave an effect on weight gain.[14]Animal studies have indicated that artificial sweeteners can cause body weight gain. A sweet taste induces an insulinresponse, which causes blood sugar to be stored in tissues (including fat), but because blood sugar does not increasewith artificial sugars, there is hypoglycemia and increased food intake the next time there is a meal. After a while,rats given sweeteners have steadily increased calorie intake, increased body weight, and increased adiposity(fatness). Furthermore, the natural responses to eating sugary foods (eating less at the next meal and using some ofthe extra calories to warm the body after the sugary meal) are gradually lost.[15]FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sweeteners 222CyclamateIn the United States, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the sale of cyclamate in 1970 after labtests in rats involving a 10:1 mixture of cyclamate and saccharin indicated that large amounts of cyclamates causesbladder cancer, a disease to which rats are particularly susceptible. Cyclamates are still used as sweeteners in manyparts of the world.SaccharinAside from sugar of lead, saccharin was the first artificial sweetener and was originally synthesized in 1879 byRemsen and Fahlberg. Its sweet taste was discovered by accident. It had been created in an experiment with toluenederivatives. A process for the creation of saccharin from phthalic anhydride was developed in 1950, and, currently,saccharin is created by this process as well as the original process by which it was discovered. It is 300 to 500 timesas sweet as sugar (sucrose) and is often used to improve the taste of toothpastes, dietary foods, and dietarybeverages. The bitter aftertaste of saccharin is often minimized by blending it with other sweeteners.Fear about saccharin increased when a 1960 study showed that high levels of saccharin may cause bladder cancer inlaboratory rats. In 1977, Canada banned saccharin due to the animal research. In the United States, the FDAconsidered banning saccharin in 1977, but Congress stepped in and placed a moratorium on such a ban. Themoratorium required a warning label and also mandated further study of saccharin safety.Subsequently, it was discovered that saccharin causes cancer in male rats by a mechanism not found in humans. Athigh doses, saccharin causes a precipitate to form in rat urine. This precipitate damages the cells lining the bladder(urinary bladder urothelial cytotoxicity) and a tumor forms when the cells regenerate (regenerative hyperplasia).According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization, "Saccharinand its salts was (sic) downgraded from Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans, to Group 3, not classifiable asto carcinogenicity to humans, despite sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity to animals, because it is carcinogenic bya non-DNA-reactive mechanism that is not relevant to humans because of critical interspecies differences in urinecomposition."In 2001, the United States repealed the warning label requirement, while the threat of an FDA ban had already beenlifted in 1991. Most other countries also permit saccharin, but restrict the levels of use, while other countries haveoutright banned it.The EPA has officially removed saccharin and its salts from their list of hazardous constituents and commercialchemical products. In a December 14, 2010 release, the EPA stated that saccharin is no longer considered a potentialhazard to human health.AspartameAspartame was discovered in 1965 by James M. Schlatter at the G.D. Searle company (later purchased byMonsanto). He was working on an anti-ulcer drug and spilled some aspartame on his hand by accident. When helicked his finger, he noticed that it had a sweet taste. It is an odorless, white crystalline powder that is derived fromthe two amino acids aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 200 times as sweet as sugar and can be used as atabletop sweetener or in frozen desserts, gelatins, beverages, and chewing gum. When cooked or stored at hightemperatures, aspartame breaks down into its constituent amino acids. This makes aspartame undesirable as a bakingsweetener. It is more stable in somewhat acidic conditions, such as in soft drinks. Though it does not have a bitteraftertaste like saccharin, it may not taste exactly like sugar. When eaten, aspartame is metabolized into its originalamino acids. It has the same food energy as proteins, but because it is so intensely sweet, relatively little of it isneeded to sweeten a food product, and is thus useful for reducing the number of calories in a product.The safety of aspartame has been studied extensively since its discovery with research that includes animal studies,clinical and epidemiological research, and post-marketing surveillance,[16]with aspartame being one of the mostFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sweeteners 223rigorously tested food ingredients to date.[17]Aspartame has been subject to multiple claims against its safety,including supposed links to cancer as well as complaints of neurological or psychiatric side effects.[18]Multiplepeer-reviewed comprehensive review articles and independent reviews by governmental regulatory bodies haveanalyzed the published research on the safety of aspartame and have found aspartame is safe for consumption atcurrent levels.[18] [16] [19] [20]Aspartame has been deemed safe for human consumption by over 100 regulatoryagencies in their respective countries,[20]including the UK Food Standards Agency,[21]the European Food SafetyAuthority (EFSA)[22]and Canadas Health Canada.[23]SucraloseSucralose is a chlorinated sugar that is about 600 times as sweet as sugar. It is produced from sucrose when threechlorine atoms replace three hydroxyl groups. It is used in beverages, frozen desserts, chewing gum, baked goods,and other foods. Unlike other artificial sweeteners, it is stable when heated and can therefore be used in baked andfried goods. About 15% of sucralose is absorbed by the body and most of it passes out of the body unchanged.[24]The FDA approved sucralose in 1998.[25]Most of the controversy surrounding Splenda, a sucralose sweetener, is focused not on safety, but on its marketing. Ithas been marketed with the slogan, "Splenda is made from sugar, so it tastes like sugar." Sucralose is a chlorinatedsugar prepared from either sucrose or raffinose. With either base sugar, processing replaces three oxygen-hydrogengroups in the sugar molecule with three chlorine atoms.[26]The "Truth About Splenda" website was created in 2005 by The Sugar Association, an organization representingsugar beet and sugar cane farmers in the United States,[27]to provide its view of sucralose. In December 2004, fiveseparate false-advertising claims were filed by the Sugar Association against Splenda manufacturers Merisant andMcNeil Nutritionals for claims made about Splenda related to the slogan, "Made from sugar, so it tastes like sugar".French courts ordered the slogan to no longer be used in France, while in the U.S. the case came to an undisclosedsettlement during the trial.[26]Safety concerns pertaining to sucralose revolve around the fact that it belongs to a class of chemicals calledorganochlorides, some types of which are toxic or carcinogenic; however, the presence of chlorine in an organiccompound does not in any way ensure toxicity. The way sucralose is metabolized may suggest a reduced risk oftoxicity. For example, sucralose is extremely insoluble in fat and thus does not accumulate in fat as do some otherorganochlorides; sucralose also does not break down and will dechlorinate only under conditions that are not foundduring regular digestion (i.e. high heat applied to the powder form of the molecule).[24]Lead acetateLead acetate (sometimes called sugar of lead) is an artificial sugar substitute made from lead that is of historicalinterest because of its widespread use in the past, such as by ancient Romans. The use of lead acetate as a sweetenereventually produced lead poisoning in any individual ingesting it habitually. Lead acetate was abandoned as a foodadditive throughout most of the world after the high toxicity of lead compounds became apparent.List of sugar substitutesThe three primary compounds used as sugar substitutes in the United States are saccharin (e.g., SweetN Low),aspartame (e.g., Equal, NutraSweet) and sucralose (e.g., Splenda, Altern). Maltitol and sorbitol are often used,frequently in toothpaste, mouth wash, and in foods such as "no sugar added" ice cream. Erythritol is gainingmomentum as a replacement for these other sugar alcohols in foods as it is much less likely to producegastrointestinal distress when consumed in large amounts. In many other countries xylitol, cyclamate and the herbalsweetener stevia are used extensively.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sweeteners 224Natural sugar substitutes• Brazzein — protein, 800× sweetness of sucrose (by weight)• Curculin — protein, 550× sweetness (by weight)• Erythritol — 0.7× sweetness (by weight), 14× sweetness of sucrose (by food energy), 0.05× energy density ofsucrose• Glycyrrhizin — 50× sweetness (by weight)• Glycerol — 0.6× sweetness (by weight), 0.55× sweetness (by food energy), 1.075× energy density, E422• Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates — 0.4–0.9× sweetness (by weight), 0.5×–1.2× sweetness (by food energy),0.75× energy density• Inulin• Isomalt — 0.45–0.65× sweetness (by weight), 0.9–1.3× sweetness (by food energy), 0.5× energy density, E953• Lactitol — 0.4× sweetness (by weight), 0.8× sweetness (by food energy), 0.5× energy density, E966• Luo han guo - 300× sweetness (by weight)• Mabinlin — protein, 100× sweetness (by weight)• Maltitol — 0.9× sweetness (by weight), 1.7× sweetness (by food energy), 0.525× energy density, E965• Malto-oligosaccharide• Mannitol — 0.5× sweetness (by weight), 1.2× sweetness (by food energy), 0.4× energy density, E421• Miraculin — protein, does not taste sweet by itself, but modifies taste receptors to make sour things taste sweettemporarily• Monatin — naturally-occurring sweetener isolated from the plant Sclerochiton ilicifolius• Monellin — protein, 3,000× sweetness (by weight); the sweetening ingredient in serendipity berries• Pentadin — protein, 500× sweetness (by weight)• Sorbitol — 0.6× sweetness (by weight), 0.9× sweetness (by food energy), 0.65× energy density, E420• Stevia — 250× sweetness (by weight) - extracts known as rebiana, Truvia, PureVia; mainly containingrebaudioside A, a steviol glycoside• Tagatose — 0.92× sweetness (by weight), 2.4× sweetness (by food energy), 0.38× energy density• Thaumatin — protein, 2,000× sweetness (by weight), E957• Xylitol — 1.0× sweetness (by weight), 1.7× sweetness (by food energy), 0.6× energy density, E967Artificial sugar substitutesNote that because many of these have little or no food energy, comparison of sweetness based on energy content isnot meaningful.• Acesulfame potassium — 200× sweetness (by weight), Nutrinova, E950, FDA Approved 1988• Alitame — 2,000× sweetness (by weight), Pfizer, Pending FDA Approval• Aspartame — 160–200× sweetness (by weight), NutraSweet, E951, FDA Approved 1981• Salt of aspartame-acesulfame — 350× sweetness (by weight), Twinsweet, E962• Cyclamate — 30× sweetness (by weight), Abbott, E952, FDA Banned 1969• Dulcin — 250× sweetness (by weight), FDA Banned 1950• Glucin — 300× sweetness (by weight)• Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone — 1,500× sweetness (by weight), E959• Neotame — 8,000× sweetness (by weight), NutraSweet, FDA Approved 2002• P-4000 — 4,000× sweetness (by weight), FDA Banned 1950• Saccharin — 300× sweetness (by weight), E954, FDA Approved 1958• Sucralose — 600× sweetness (by weight), Kaltame, Splenda, Tate & Lyle, E955, FDA Approved 1998FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Sweeteners 225See also• List of unrefined sweetenersReferences[1] FDA No Calories... Sweet! http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2006/406_sweeteners.html[2] US FDA Website Guidance Documents http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/grasguid.html#Q1[3] FDAs response to European Aspartame Study http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2006/NEW01369.html[4] Sugar demand rising at expense of sweeteners, claims sugar industry (http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/news-by-product/news.asp?id=63947&idCat=88&k=sugar-demand-rising)[5] Sucralose breakthrough could smash Tate & Lyle monopoly (http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/news/ng.asp?id=65046)[6] Mattes, R.D. & Popkin, B.M. (January 2009). "Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and theirputative mechanisms." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89(1) 1-14. Accessed 2010-11-20 doi:10.39451ajcn.2008.26792[7] Mela, D. (ed.). (2005). Food, diet and obesity. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing Limited.[8] Coultate, T. (2009). Food: The chemistry of its components. Cambridge, UK: The Royal Society of Chemistry.[9] Pierini, C. (2010). Unique Sweetener Supports Oral health. Retrieve from http://www.vrp.com/xylitol/xylitol-a-sweet-alternative-unique-sweetener-supports-oral-health[10] Coultate, T. (2009). Food: The chemistry of its components. Cambridge, UK: The Royal Society of chemistry[11] http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=cache:H0yq601JpAIJ:scholar.google.com/&hl=en&as_sdt=2000[12] Sweet on Stevia: Sugar Substitute Gains Fans (http://archive.columbiatribune.com/2008/mar/20080323puls010.asp), Columbia DailyTribune, 23 March 2008[13] Newmarker, Chris (2008). "Federal regulators give OK for Cargills Truvia sweetener" (http://www.bizjournals.com/twincities/stories/2008/12/15/daily38.html). Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal. . Retrieved 18 December 2008.[14] DeNoon, Daniel J. Reviewed by Charlotte Grayson Mathis MD. "Drink More Diet Soda, Gain More Weight? Overweight Risk Soars 41%With Each Daily Can of Diet Soft Drink" (http://www.webmd.com/diet/news/20050613/drink-more-diet-soda-gain-more-weight),WebMD Medical News (2005), accessed 2007-06-25[15] Swithers SE, Davidson TL (2008). "A role for sweet taste: calorie predictive relations in energy regulation by rats". Behav Neurosci 122 (1):161–73. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.122.1.161. PMID 18298259.[16] EFSA National Experts (May 2010). "Report of the meetings on aspartame with national experts" (http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/scdocs/doc/af100423.pdf). EFSA. . Retrieved 22 September 2010.[17] Mitchell, Helen (2006), Sweeteners and sugar alternatives in food technology, Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, p. 94, ISBN 1-4051-3434-8[18] Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Doull J, et al. (2007). "Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, andtoxicological and epidemiological studies". Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 37 (8): 629–727. doi:10.1080/10408440701516184. PMID 17828671.[19] Food Standards Australia New Zealand: "Food Standards Australia New Zealand: Aspartame – what it is and why its used in our food"(http://www.nzfsa.govt.nz/consumers/chemicals-nutrients-additives-and-toxins/aspartame/). . Retrieved 2008-12-09.[20] Butchko HH, Stargel WW, Comer CP, et al. (April 2002). "Aspartame: review of safety". Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 35 (2 Pt 2): S1–93.doi:10.1006/rtph.2002.1542. PMID 12180494.[21] "Aspartame" (http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/sweeteners/55174#h_2). UK FSA. 17 June 2008. .Retrieved 23 September 2010.[22] "Aspartame" (http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/anstopics/topic/aspartame.htm). EFSA. . Retrieved 23 September 2010.[23] "Aspartame" (http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/addit/sweeten-edulcor/aspartame-eng.php). Health Canada. . Retrieved 23September 2010.[24] Daniel JW, Renwick AG, Roberts A, Sims J (2000). "The metabolic fate of sucralose in rats". Food Chem Tox 38 (S2): S115–S121.doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(00)00034-X.[25] FDA approves new high-intensity sweetener sucralose (http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ANSWERS/ANS00859.html)[26] Bitter Battle over Truth in Sweeteners (http://www.livescience.com/health/070515_bad_sugar.html)[27] Truth About Splenda (http://www.truthaboutsplenda.com), Sugar Association websiteExternal links• Article on artificial sweeteners (http://web.unbc.ca/chemistry/CHEM110/artificial.pdf)PDF (183 KiB)• Calorie Control Council (http://www.caloriecontrol.org) — trade association for manufacturers of artificialsweeteners and productsFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Flavor 226FlavorFlavor or flavour (see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of a food or other substance, and is determinedmainly by the chemical senses of taste and smell. The "trigeminal senses", which detect chemical irritants in themouth and throat as well as temperature and texture, are also very important to the overall Gestalt of flavorperception. The flavor of the food, as such, can be altered with natural or artificial flavorants, which affect thesesenses.Flavorant is defined as a substance that gives another substance flavor, altering the characteristics of the solute,causing it to become sweet, sour, tangy, etc.Of the three chemical senses, smell is the main determinant of a food items flavor. While the taste of food is limitedto sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and savory (umami) – the basic tastes – the smells of a food are potentially limitless. Afoods flavor, therefore, can be easily altered by changing its smell while keeping its taste similar. Nowhere is thisbetter exemplified than in artificially flavored jellies, soft drinks and candies, which, while made of bases with asimilar taste, have dramatically different flavors due to the use of different scents or fragrances. The flavorings ofcommercially produced food products are typically created by flavorists.Although the terms "flavoring" or "flavorant" in common language denote the combined chemical sensations of tasteand smell, the same terms are usually used in the fragrance and flavors industry to refer to edible chemicals andextracts that alter the flavor of food and food products through the sense of smell. Due to the high cost orunavailability of natural flavor extracts, most commercial flavorants are nature-identical, which means that they arethe chemical equivalent of natural flavors but chemically synthesized rather than being extracted from the sourcematerials. Identification of nature-identical flavorants are done using technology such as headspace techniques.Flavorants or flavoringsFlavorings are focused on altering or enhancing the flavors of natural food product such as meats and vegetables, orcreating flavor for food products that do not have the desired flavors such as candies and other snacks. Most types offlavorings are focused on scent and taste. Few commercial products exist to stimulate the trigeminal senses, sincethese are sharp, astringent, and typically unpleasant flavors.There are three principal types of flavorings used in foods, under definitions agreed in the E.U. and Australia:[1]Type DescriptionNatural flavoringsubstancesFlavoring substances obtained from plant or animal raw materials, by physical, microbiological or enzymatic processes.They can be either used in their natural state or processed for human consumption, but cannot contain any nature-identicalor artificial flavoring substances.Nature-identicalflavoring substancesFlavoring substances that are obtained by synthesis or isolated through chemical processes, which are chemically andorganoleptically identical to flavoring substances naturally present in products intended for human consumption. Theycannot contain any artificial flavoring substances.Artificial flavoringsubstancesFlavoring substances not identified in a natural product intended for human consumption, whether or not the product isprocessed. These are typically produced by fractional distillation and additional chemical manipulation naturally sourcedchemicals or from crude oil or coal tar.although they are chemically different, in sensory characteristics are the same asnatural ones.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Flavor 227Regulations on natural flavoringUK Food Law defines a natural flavor as:a flavouring substance (or flavouring substances) which is (or are) obtained, by physical, enzymatic ormicrobiological processes, from material of vegetable or animal origin which material is either raw or has beensubjected to a process normally used in preparing food for human consumption and to no process other thanone normally so used.[2]The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations describes a "natural flavorant" as:the essential oil, oleoresin, essence or extractive, protein hydrolysate, distillate, or any product of roasting,heating or enzymolysis, which contains the flavoring constituents derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice,vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or any other edible portions of a plant,meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof, whose primary function in foodis flavoring rather than nutritional.[3]The European Unions guidelines for natural flavorants are slightly different. Certain artificial flavorants are given anE number, which may be included on food labels.SmellSmell flavorants, or simply, flavorants, are engineered and composed in similar ways as with industrial fragrancesand fine perfumes. To produce natural flavors, the flavorant must first be extracted from the source substance. Themethods of extraction can involve solvent extraction, distillation, or using force to squeeze it out. The extracts arethen usually further purified and subsequently added to food products to flavor them. To begin producing artificialflavors, flavor manufacturers must either find out the individual naturally occurring aroma chemicals and mix themappropriately to produce a desired flavor or create a novel non-toxic artificial compound that gives a specific flavor.Most artificial flavors are specific and often complex mixtures of singular naturally occurring flavor compoundscombined together to either imitate or enhance a natural flavor. These mixtures are formulated by flavorist to give afood product a unique flavor and to maintain flavor consistency between different product batches or after recipechanges. The list of known flavoring agents includes thousands of molecular compounds, and the flavor chemist(flavorist) can often mix these together to produce many of the common flavors. Many flavorants consists of esters,which are often described as being "sweet" or "fruity".Chemical OdorDiacetyl ButteryIsoamyl acetate BananaBenzaldehyde Bitter almondCinnamic aldehyde CinnamonEthyl propionate FruityMethyl anthranilate GrapeLimonene OrangeEthyl- (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate PearAllyl hexanoate PineappleEthyl maltol Sugar, Cotton candyEthylvanillin VanillaMethyl salicylate WintergreenFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Flavor 228The compounds used to produce artificial flavors are almost identical to those that occur naturally. It has beensuggested that artificial flavors may be safer to consume than natural flavors due to the standards of purity andmixture consistency that are enforced either by the company or by law.[4]Natural flavors in contrast may containimpurities from their sources while artificial flavors are typically more pure and are required to undergo more testingbefore being sold for consumption.[4]Flavors from food products are usually the result of a combination of natural flavors, which set up the basic smellprofile of a food product while artificial flavors modify the smell to accent it.Unlike smelling, which occurs upon inhalation, the sensing of flavors in the mouth occurs in the exhalation phase ofbreathing and is perceived differently by an individual. In otherwords, the smell of food is different depending onwhen you are smelling it in front of you or whether it has already entered your mouth.[5]TasteWhile salt and sugar can technically be considered flavorants that enhance salty and sweet tastes, usually onlycompounds that enhance umami, as well as other secondary flavors are considered and referred to as taste flavorants.Artificial sweeteners are also technically flavorants.Umami or "savory" flavorants, more commonly called taste or flavor enhancers are largely based on amino acids andnucleotides. These are typically used as sodium or calcium salts. Umami flavorants recognized and approved by theEuropean Union include:• Glutamic acid saltsThis amino acids sodium salt, monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the most commonly used flavorenhancers in food processing. Mono and diglutamate salts are also commonly used.• Glycine saltsA simple amino acid that is usually used in conjunction with glutamic acid as a flavor enhancer.• Guanylic acid saltsNucleotide salts that is usually used in conjunction with glutamic acid as a flavor enhancer.• Inosinic acid saltsNucleotide salts created from the breakdown of AMP. Due to high costs of production, it is usually used inconjunction with glutamic acid as a flavor enhancer.• 5-ribonucleotide salts:Certain organic and inorganic acids can be used to enhance sour tastes, but like salt and sugar these are usually notconsidered and regulated as flavorants under law. Each acid imparts a slightly different sour or tart taste that altersthe flavor of a food.Acid DescriptionAcetic acid gives vinegar its sour taste and distinctive smellAscorbic acid found in oranges and green peppers and gives a crisp, slightly sour taste. Better known as vitamin C.Citric acid found in citrus fruits and gives them their sour tasteFumaric acid not found in fruits, used as a substitute for citric and tartaric acidLactic acid found in various milk or fermented products and give them a rich tartnessMalic acid found in apples and gives them their sour/tart tastePhosphoric acid Used in all Cola drinks to give an acid tasteTartaric acid found in grapes and wines and gives them a tart tasteFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Flavor 229ColorThe color of food can affect flavor. For example, adding more red color to a drink increases its sweetness with darkercolored solutions being rated 2–10% higher than lighter ones even though it had 1% less sucrose concentration.[6]The effect of color is believed to be due to cognitive expectations.[7]Dietary restrictionsFood manufacturers are sometimes reluctant about informing consumers about the source from where the flavor isobtained and whether it has been produced with the incorporation of substances such as animal by-products glycerin(note that glycerin is also available from vegetable sources), gelatin, and the like, and the use of alcohol in theflavors. Many Jews, Jains, Hindus, and Muslims adhere to religious dietary laws, and vegans to personal wants andneeds, restrict the use of animal by-products and/or alcohol in foods unless subject to oversight and inspection bytheir respective religious authority or less-strict or circumstantial moral belief. In many western countries, someconsumers rely on a Jewish Kosher Pareve certification mark to indicate that natural flavorings used in a foodproduct are free of meat and dairy (although they can still contain fish). The Vegan Societys Sunflower symbol(which is currently used by over 260 companies world wide) can also be used to see which products do not use anyanimal ingredients (including flavorings and colorings)Flavor creationMost food and beverage companies do not create their own flavors but instead employ the services of a flavorcompany. Food and beverage companies may require flavors for new products, product line extensions (e.g., low fatversions of existing products) or due to changes in formula or processing for existing products.The flavor creation is done by a specially trained scientist called a "flavorist". The flavorists job combines extensivescientific knowledge of the chemical palette with artistic creativity to develop new and distinctive flavors. The flavorcreation begins when the flavorist receives a brief from the client. In the brief the client will attempt to communicateexactly what type of flavor they seek, in what application it will be used, and any special requirements (e.g., must beall natural). The communication barrier can be quite difficult to overcome since most people arent experienced atdescribing flavors. The flavorist will use his or her knowledge of the available chemical ingredients to create aformula and compound it on an electronic balance. The flavor will then be submitted to the client for testing. Severaliterations, with feedback from the client, may be needed before the right flavor is found.Additional work may also be done by the flavor company. For example, the flavor company may conduct sensorytaste tests to test consumer acceptance of a flavor before it is sent to the client or to further investigate the "sensoryspace." The flavor company may also employ application specialists who work to ensure the flavor will work in theapplication for which it is intended. This may require special flavor delivery technologies that are used to protect theflavor during processing or cooking so that the flavor is only released when eaten by the end consumer.FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Flavor 230DeterminationFew standards are available or being prepared for sensory analysis of flavors.[8]In chemical analysis of flavors, solidphase extraction (SPE), solid phase microextraction (SPME), and headspace gas chromatography are applied toextract and separate the flavor compounds in the sample. The determination is typically done by various massspectrometric techniques.[9]Scientific resources• Flavour and Fragrance JournalReferences[1] From Australian Food Standards Guidelines (http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/_srcfiles/flavourings_user_guide_0802.pdf)[2] The Flavourings in Food Regulations, Amended 1994 (http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1994/uksi_19941486_en_1.htm)[3] WAIS Document Retrieval (http://frwebgate1.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/waisgate.cgi?WAISdocID=230673388281+1+0+0&WAISaction=retrieve)[4] R.L. Smitha, S.M. Cohenb, J. Doullc, V.J. Ferond, J.I. Goodmane, L.J. Marnettf, P.S. Portogheseg, W.J. Waddellh, B.M.Wagneri, R.L. Hallj,N.A. Higleyk, C. Lucas-Gavinl and T.B. Adamsm (2005). "A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used asingredients in food: essential oils". Food and Chemical Toxicology 43 (3): 345–363. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2004.11.007. PMID 15680674.[5] Masaoka Y, Satoh H, Akai L, Homma I. (2010). Expiration: The moment we experience retronasal olfaction in flavor. Neurosci Lett.473:92–96. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2010.02.024 PMID 20171264[6] Johnson, J., & Clydesdale, F. (1982). Perceived sweetness and redness in colored sucrose solutions. Journal of Food Science, 47, 747–752.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1982.tb12706.x[7] Shankar MU, Levitan CA, Spence C. (2010). Grape expectations: the role of cognitive influences in color-flavor interactions. ConsciousCogn. Mar;19(1):380-90. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2009.08.008 PMID 19828330[8] e.g. ISO 13301:2002 Sensory analysis -- Methodology -- General guidance for measuring odor, flavor and taste detection thresholds by athree-alternative forced-choice (3-AFC) procedure. or ISO 6564:1985 Sensory analysis -- Methodology -- Flavor profile methods.[9] Use of Ozone Depleting Substances in Laboratories. TemaNord 2003:516. http://www.norden.org/pub/ebook/2003-516.pdfExternal links• How Stuff Works How do artificial flavors work? (http://science.howstuffworks.com/question391.htm)• The Science in artificial flavor creation (http://www.fks.com/flavors/tech/Science of Flavor Creation.asp)• Monell Chemical Senses Center (http://www.monell.org/)• Flavourists view (http://www.fantastic-flavour.com/)FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Article Sources and Contributors 231Article Sources and ContributorsFood additive  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=406705668  Contributors: 2D, A Sniper, Adashiel, Addshore, AdjustShift, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Alansohn, Alexdalessandro,Alphax, AnandaDaldal, Andre Engels, AndrooUK, Andux, Anna Lincoln, Apotek31, Arunchavan, Auyongcheemeng, Avono, Axfangli, Az1568, Baiji, Bangvang, Bigdottawa, Bkonrad,Boccobrock, Bombyx2, BorgQueen, Brandon, BryanHolland, Bullzeye, Calmer Waters, CanisRufus, Carey Evans, Cdc, Cherubino, CloudNine, Cometstyles, Conversion script, Cp111, D.Recorder, Daniel adjaye, Darimore, David Thrale, Dawn Bard, Deglr6328, Deli nk, DerHexer, Dlesjack, Eddideigel, Edgar181, El C, Elvire, EnigmaBurn007, Epbr123, Erianna, Erik9, Euelulz,Evans1551, Everyking, Fayenatic london, Fetchcomms, Fieldday-sunday, Flopsyrowlands, Gene Nygaard, Geni, Gilliam, Gjd001, GlassCobra, Gnomadd, Gogo Dodo, Greswik, Gruzd, Gzkn,Hankwang, Hede2000, Hordaland, Hyacinth, Iridescent, Isnow, IvanLanin, J.delanoy, JForget, Jaboyce, Jack campion, Jakedakac, Joebrewin, Johnkarp, Johntriggs, Josh Parris, Kappa, Karanke,Keith D, Khaosworks, Kirrages, KnowledgeOfSelf, Kotiwalo, Krash, Kukini, Kuunavang, Kylu, L9ketchup, Lightmouse, Lj.ph che, Luna Santin, MER-C, Mac Davis, Maderibeyza, MagisterMathematicae, Maseracing, Mattisse, Mdwyer, Meateater, Mendaliv, Mentifisto, MicroChip123, Mike6271, Miller17CU94, MonsterJammer, Mr-Natural-Health, Nakon, Nicolae Coman, OdaMari, Odie5533, OldakQuill, Olivier, Onorem, Otets, Oxymoron83, Paxse, Perojok45, Philip Trueman, Phillip.northfield, Phoenix2275, Pikiwyn, Pinethicket, Pleasantville, PoindexterPropellerhead, Postlewaight, Psamathos, Pstrous, Quercus basaseachicensis, Rajasekhar1961, Rdsmith4, Refitzgerald, Remember, Rjstott, Rjwilmsi, RobertL, Sander123, Sango123,Sardanaphalus, Scott Teresi, Shaddack, Shantavira, Sietse Snel, SkyWalker, Slashme, Snek01, Snowmanradio, Speace, Sympleko, Tabletop, Teles, That Guy, From That Show!, The Anome, TheTranshumanist, Think outside the box, Tikki hit, TimVickers, Trueblood, Tsemii, Txuspe, Uagarlic, Vactivity, Vanka5, Vcelloho, Vitaminman, Vuong Ngan Ha, Watsona.2, Wavelength,WikHead, Wimt, Winston365, Xgkkp, Yurei-eggtart, Zigger, Zro, Александър, 它是我, 423 anonymous editsE number  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=407813448  Contributors: 21655, A bit iffy, Acolyte of Discord, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Alansohn, Albrozdude, Alex Law,Alvin-cs, Andre Engels, AndrooUK, Angles theatre, Anon423, Anthony, Aude, AxelBoldt, Ayeomans, BD2412, Bfmv09, Biopresto, Blanu, Blupping, Boardy04, Bobo192, Bombyx2,Boomshadow, Busukxuan, CUTKD, Cacattila, CambridgeBayWeather, Cant sleep, clown will eat me, Capecodeph, Cassowary, CeNobiteElf, Ceyockey, CharlieMensin, Chasingsol,CheMechanical, ChemGardener, ChemNerd, Christian75, Ciotog, Ck lostsword, Cometstyles, Connormah, Crd721, Ctmt, Céréales Killer, Daniel adjaye, DariusMazeika, Darrien, Debresser,Dekimasu, Dekisugi, Deli nk, Deror avi, Deviator13, Dilbao, DmitTrix, Donarreiskoffer, Doseiai2, EamonnPKeane, Eclecticology, Edgar181, Eequor, Eggegg29, Elvire, Emilonlinester,Enchanter, Epbr123, Everyking, F, FMasic, Fabbodian, Finlay McWalter, FlorinCB, Fonzy, Foobaz, Fred Bradstadt, Fyyer, Gabbe, GenestealerUK, Genpukzukov, Giftlite, Gil mo, Gogo Dodo,Graham87, Greswik, Groogle, Gscshoyru, Haeleth, Healy24, Heron, Hofoen, Hydrargyrum, Iamanorange, Image of me, Iris lorain, J Di, J.P.Lon, JBellis, JTN, Javadsha, Joelholdsworth, Joepeter,JohnOwens, Jrockley, Kaihsu, Keenan Pepper, Knorrepoes, Krefts, Kumorifox, LMB, Landak, Lemon-s, LilHelpa, Lindes, Lumos3, MGSpiller, Macrakis, Maderibeyza, Madhero88, MagnusManske, Malcolm Farmer, Manscher, Markthemac, Materialscientist, Michaeljosephcleary, Michel Awkal, MrBell, Mroach, Muleattack, Mykhal, Nadiatalent, Nilmerg, Nono64, Nording(usurped), Old Moonraker, Ouishoebean, P.B., Panfily, PatrikR, Paxse, Pearle, Pengo, PeterC, Physchim62, PieterRN, Pinethicket, Pion, Pne, Polimerek, PopUpPirate, Postrediori, Pstrous,Puckly, Punter337, QuadrivialMind, Quercusrobur, Qutezuce, RnB, Rallette, ReciprocityProject, RenesisX, Rfl, Rich Farmbrough, Rjstott, Rjwilmsi, Rk6036, Rprpr, Rsrikanth05, Rune.welsh,Scout ed, SemperBlotto, SexyBern, Sgroupace, Shaddack, Shoy, SimonTrew, Singhalawap, Sjschen, Skizzik, SkyWalker, Sl, Sladen, Slakr, Smb1001, Smooth O, Sockatume, Sorsoup, Ste1n,Stephan Leeds, Stephenb, Stone, SuperTyphoon, SweBrainz, T0ny, TMA, Tarquin, The Anome, TheAgamer, Thinking of England, Thumperward, Tide rolls, Totalinarian, Toytoy, Tregoweth,TurboForce, Una Smith, UncleDouggie, Us441, V8rik, VanBurenen, Vildricianus, Vuong Ngan Ha, WacoJacko, WadeSimMiser, Walkerma, Wayland, Welsh, Wickey-nl, Wiki alf, Wikisquared,Willaston, Windchaser, Wytukaze, Yar2, Zzuuzz, 499 anonymous editsAnticaking agent  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=405140608  Contributors: Bloodshedder, Bluemoose, Ciotog, Deror avi, Dr.frog, Espoo, Gabbe, GregorB, J04n, Kerowyn,LittleOldMe, Mjc1024, Morpheusdreams, Rjwilmsi, Thumperward, Verdatum, 26 anonymous editsMonocalcium phosphate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=405094427  Contributors: A. B., Akujipatel, Badagnani, Baggerman, Balachandar78, Bchampion, Beetstra,Bobo192, Chem-awb, Chemicalinterest, Cheminterest, Choij, Edgar181, Gene Nygaard, GregorB, Highvale, J04n, Magister Mathematicae, Materialscientist, MiPe, MrBell, MrCleanOut,Pbdragonwang, Physchim62, Pitam, RJFJR, Randall Nortman, RandomP, Rkemp, Run-D.M.Z., Stone, Yagibear, Лев Дубовой, 43 anonymous editsDicalcium phosphate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=401988975  Contributors: A2Kafir, Anghara, Arcadian, Axiosaurus, Beetstra, Chem-awb, Chemicalinterest,Cheminterest, Cholerashot, Dailone, Edgar181, Ike9898, Kilva, Northumbrian, Pajast, Pbdragonwang, Physchim62, Reinyday, Salmar, 29 anonymous editsTricalcium Phosphate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=259139746  Contributors: Albmont, Beetstra, CambridgeBayWeather, Chem-awb, Cheminterest, Choij, Cholerashot,Discospinster, Edgar181, Emerson7, Hede2000, InsufficientData, JoeSmack, Materialscientist, MiPe, Mikeo, MrBell, Nick81, Opspin, PaddyM, Peruvianllama, Physchim62, Pro bug catcher,Rjwilmsi, Snowolf, Susannaking, TexasAndroid, The High Fin Sperm Whale, Tyciol, Vaarththai, WriterHound, YOSF0113, 38 anonymous editsMonomagnesium phosphate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=390817376  Contributors: Edgar181, 1 anonymous editsDimagnesium phosphate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=388733403  Contributors: ChemNerd, Chemicalinterest, Cheminterest, Edgar181, YOSF0113, 7 anonymous editsSodium ferrocyanide  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=396450798  Contributors: Aqn, Chem-awb, Choij, Ciotog, DrippingGoofball, Edgar181, Materialscientist, Mikespedia,Physchim62, Rifleman 82, Ronaldomundo, Terraflorin, Thricecube, Timotheus Canens, YOSF0113, 9 anonymous editsPotassium ferrocyanide  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=396450736  Contributors: Albmont, Aussie Alchemist, Beetstra, Benjah-bmm27, Brichcja, Centrx, ChVA,Chem-awb, Chiu frederick, Chris Capoccia, Dwmyers, EvilStorm, Grendelkhan, Hoffmeier, Ivan Bilenjkij, Jushi, Leszek Jańczuk, Mikespedia, Natural Cut, Ngunn, Patientone, Physchim62,Puppy8800, Rich Farmbrough, RuM, Securiger, Stan Shebs, Stantta, Stone, Su-no-G, T.vanschaik, Terraflorin, Tetracube, The Epopt, Thricecube, Walkerma, Xasodfuih, Xhmikos, YOSF0113,‫فشاک‬ ‫,لیقع‬ 24 anonymous editsSodium silicate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=407370519  Contributors: 16@r, A8UDI, Afluegel, Ahering@cogeco.ca, Alansohn, Alcarreau, Appeltree1, Attilios, Aushulz,Axiosaurus, Beetstra, Beland, Benjah-bmm27, Billwhittaker, Bkell, Bobo192, Boringbob4wk, Brianhe, Bridgman, Calvero JP, Chem-awb, CrazyChemGuy, Datsyuk, Docu, Dysprosia, EHRice,Errarel, Fluzwup, Galoubet, HJ Mitchell, Hetar, Hooperbloob, JetLover, Jim Samphorn, Joeinwap, John of Reading, Karimi cae, Keenan Pepper, Kiranglobal, Kirikou, Kx1186, LorenzoB,Lumber Jack second account, Lưu Ly, M1ss1ontomars2k4, Materialscientist, Mboverload, Michał Sobkowski, Miguel Escopeta, Mikesebok, Mindmatrix, Mortezamohammadi, MrBell, N00ser,Naipicnirp, Nakon, Numberharmonics, Oasisbob, Ondrej.lipar, PV=nRT, PaladinZ06, Peterjmoran7, Phthalocyanine, Physchim62, Piano non troppo, Plasmic Physics, Polonium, Postlewaight,REACHist, RayPhoenix, Reywas92, Rifleman 82, Rogerd, Rsduhamel, SchuminWeb, Seansheep, Shinkolobwe, Shoy, Snaxalotl, SoWhy, Stone, The High Fin Sperm Whale, The MoUsYspell-checker, Thricecube, Tide rolls, Trlblzr, Ultimate sickness, Woodshed, Yaf, Ylee, Zghajos, Zzuuzz, 圣羽玄, 158 anonymous editsPotassium silicate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=406778071  Contributors: Afluegel, Angilbas, Beetstra, Big Bob the Finder, Chem-awb, Choij, Eras-mus, Gene Nygaard,Kmorrow, MrBell, Neffk, PaladinZ06, Physchim62, Plasmic Physics, RDBrown, Shinkolobwe, Stone, Thricecube, Xxxx00, YOSF0113, 11 anonymous editsCalcium silicate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=407161246  Contributors: Addshore, Ahering@cogeco.ca, Alfirin, Allen3, AmeerM, Axiosaurus, Barticus88, Beetstra,Chem-awb, Dmmcintyre, Donald Albury, DrippingGoofball, Firewall62, Flockmeal, Gene Nygaard, Jeepday, Kilmer-san, Lamro, LinguisticDemographer, NeilTarrant, Nonverbalcoma, Optim,Plasmic Physics, Polyparadigm, QuadrivialMind, Renobuild, Rifleman 82, Scottalter, Signalhead, Stevenrenney, Stone, Thricecube, Timotheus Canens, Vmenkov, Vsmith, Walrus heart,Wizard191, Yopure, 25 anonymous editsMagnesium trisilicate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=404690825  Contributors: Arcadian, Axiosaurus, Chem-awb, Choij, Edgar181, Edgriebel, Howrealisreal, O keyes,Plasmic Physics, Shinkolobwe, Shoy, Smokefoot, Thricecube, YOSF0113, 2 anonymous editsTalc  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=407453949  Contributors: 2over0, AWC talc, Agüeybaná, Alansohn, AlexanderKaras, AlexiusHoratius, Alvis, Anclation, Andrea105,Anomalocaris, Anwar saadat, AtomicDragon, Atominfiltrators, Bantman, Bejnar, Benbest, Blanchardb, Blueschist, Bobo192, Buddyloveskendall, Bushytails, C6541, CTZMSC3, CalicoCatLover,Calm123, Caltas, Cazort, Cflm001, Chem-awb, Chris 73, Chris.urs-o, Ciphergoth, Conversion script, Cool3, CorbinSimpson, Correogsk, Cuaxdon, DSRH, Daarznieks, DanielCD, Dave3457,Dew Kane, Dfrg.msc, DragonflySixtyseven, Drakew007, DuncanHill, Dysepsion, Edgar181, Editor at Large, Environnement2100, Epbr123, Ephebi, Eric-Wester, Ewlloyd, Fabullus, Femto,Filceolaire, FocalPoint, FullMetal Falcon, Gamer007, GearedBull, Gilgamesh, Gogo Dodo, Graeme Bartlett, Greybeard851, Groyolo, Grrexports, Gtrmp, HJ Mitchell, HiDrNick, I love black 53,Imc, Improv, Irishguy, J.delanoy, JForget, JaGa, Jaraalbe, Jay, Jellonuts, Jeltz, Johnjohnjohn1234, Joshyyoo, Jpgordon, JuJube, Just plain Bill, Kaisershatner, Kaji13, Kazvorpal, Kcordina,Kevmin, Kevmitch, Kimthehotty, Knop92, Ktsquare, LadyofShalott, Lambanog, LeContexte, Luk, Macronyx, Magtalc, MapsMan, MarkSutton, Materialscientist, Matthew Yeager, 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    • Article Sources and Contributors 232Talcum powder  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=398048201  Contributors: 2over0, AWC talc, Agüeybaná, Alansohn, AlexanderKaras, AlexiusHoratius, Alvis, Anclation,Andrea105, Anomalocaris, Anwar saadat, AtomicDragon, Atominfiltrators, Bantman, Bejnar, Benbest, Blanchardb, Blueschist, Bobo192, Buddyloveskendall, Bushytails, C6541, CTZMSC3,CalicoCatLover, Calm123, Caltas, Cazort, Cflm001, Chem-awb, Chris 73, Chris.urs-o, Ciphergoth, Conversion script, Cool3, CorbinSimpson, Correogsk, Cuaxdon, DSRH, Daarznieks,DanielCD, Dave3457, Dew Kane, Dfrg.msc, DragonflySixtyseven, Drakew007, DuncanHill, Dysepsion, Edgar181, Editor at Large, Environnement2100, Epbr123, Ephebi, Eric-Wester, Ewlloyd,Fabullus, Femto, Filceolaire, FocalPoint, FullMetal Falcon, Gamer007, GearedBull, Gilgamesh, Gogo Dodo, Graeme Bartlett, Greybeard851, Groyolo, Grrexports, Gtrmp, HJ Mitchell, HiDrNick,I love black 53, Imc, Improv, Irishguy, J.delanoy, JForget, JaGa, Jaraalbe, Jay, Jellonuts, Jeltz, Johnjohnjohn1234, Joshyyoo, Jpgordon, JuJube, Just plain Bill, Kaisershatner, Kaji13, Kazvorpal,Kcordina, Kevmin, Kevmitch, Kimthehotty, Knop92, Ktsquare, LadyofShalott, Lambanog, LeContexte, Luk, Macronyx, Magtalc, MapsMan, MarkSutton, Materialscientist, Matthew Yeager,Mattisse, Mattman723, Maxis ftw, Mike Rosoft, Mike6271, Mikenorton, Minghong, Mr. Berty, NHRHS2010, Nagytibi, Nakon, NawlinWiki, Nephron, Oda Mari, Pablomartinez, Parthian Scribe,Pax:Vobiscum, Pgk, Pinethicket, Pizza1512, Qaqaq, Quadell, Qwfp, RnB, RA0808, Rcingham, Reach Out to the Truth, Reinyday, RexNL, Riittaajo, Rjwilmsi, Robinh, Rolinator, SReynhout,Salvor, Sam Hocevar, SirJective, Slashme, Smalljim, Stephanie A, Stepp-Wulf, StuartCarter, Tabletop, Thanatosa, The Thing That Should Not Be, Thefriendlygiant, Thingg, Timanderso,Tonywhansen, TrevMrgn, Trusilver, Txbangert, Unreal128, Unyoyega, Uthbrian, Verdatum, VictorianMutant, Vsmith, Wayne Slam, WaysToEscape, WikiWikiPhil, Will Beback Auto,Wknight94, X1987x, XJamRastafire, Yakudza, Yms, Zemalia, Zephalis, Zscout370, Zzyzx11, ‫,55דוד‬ ‫نسح‬ ‫يلع‬ ‫,طبلا‬ 338 anonymous editsAluminium silicate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=399078389  Contributors: Bryan Derksen, Edgar181, Hairy Dude, Kleopatra, Leeyc0, Ligulem, Nirmos, Plasmic Physics,Shaddack, Shinkolobwe, Thricecube, Zaphraud, 9 anonymous editsCalcium aluminosilicate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=334875942  Contributors: Beetstra, Magnus Manske, Thricecube, 2 anonymous editsPotassium aluminium silicate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=159613714  Contributors: Alai, Avihu, Awickert, Bryan Derksen, D, Dcooper, DuncanHill, Fiveless,GeoWriter, Hairy Dude, Jaraalbe, Juliancolton, Ligulem, Materialscientist, Omphacite, PCock, Polyparadigm, Puppy8800, Raven in Orbit, Raz1el, Riffraffselbow, Schmloof, Shadowjams, Shirik,Triwbe, Valich, Vsmith, Wilson44691, WriterHound, Zimbres, 18 anonymous editsSodium aluminosilicate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=347043847  Contributors: Anthony Appleyard, Axiosaurus, Beetstra, Biscuit-flower, Chem-awb, Chovain,Element16, Huhnra, Karrii, Mikeo, Namangwari, Nvanbuer, Pengo, Rpresser, Thricecube, Versus22, Vsmith, Xlation, Zywxn, 12 anonymous editsSodium metasilicate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=45287513  Contributors: 16@r, A8UDI, Afluegel, Ahering@cogeco.ca, Alansohn, Alcarreau, Appeltree1, Attilios,Aushulz, Axiosaurus, Beetstra, Beland, Benjah-bmm27, Billwhittaker, Bkell, Bobo192, Boringbob4wk, Brianhe, Bridgman, Calvero JP, Chem-awb, CrazyChemGuy, Datsyuk, Docu, Dysprosia,EHRice, Errarel, Fluzwup, Galoubet, HJ Mitchell, Hetar, Hooperbloob, JetLover, Jim Samphorn, Joeinwap, John of Reading, Karimi cae, Keenan Pepper, Kiranglobal, Kirikou, Kx1186,LorenzoB, Lumber Jack second account, Lưu Ly, M1ss1ontomars2k4, Materialscientist, Mboverload, Michał Sobkowski, Miguel Escopeta, Mikesebok, Mindmatrix, Mortezamohammadi,MrBell, N00ser, Naipicnirp, Nakon, Numberharmonics, Oasisbob, Ondrej.lipar, PV=nRT, PaladinZ06, Peterjmoran7, Phthalocyanine, Physchim62, Piano non troppo, Plasmic Physics, Polonium,Postlewaight, REACHist, RayPhoenix, Reywas92, Rifleman 82, Rogerd, Rsduhamel, SchuminWeb, Seansheep, Shinkolobwe, Shoy, Snaxalotl, SoWhy, Stone, The High Fin Sperm Whale, TheMoUsY spell-checker, Thricecube, Tide rolls, Trlblzr, Ultimate sickness, Woodshed, Yaf, Ylee, Zghajos, Zzuuzz, 圣羽玄, 158 anonymous editsSilicon dioxide  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=408251950  Contributors: (jarbarf), .:Ajvol:., 213.106.152.xxx, AB, ABF, AJim, Aboalbiss, Acroterion, Afluegel, Agateller,Agne27, Ahering@cogeco.ca, Andre Engels, AndyAndyAndy, Andyjsmith, AnnaFrance, Antandrus, Antisora, Arthree, Avihu, AxelBoldt, Axiosaurus, Badagnani, Beetstra, Belovedfreak,Benbest, Bgpaulus, BillFlis, Bluedustmite, Bluerasberry, Bob Burkhardt, Brighterorange, CarlFink, Casforty, Catgut, Ceaser, Chem-awb, Cubbi, CyrilB, DMacks, Dangherous, Darrell ima, DarthCulator, Das Nerd, Dcarrut, DeadEyeArrow, DerHexer, DerekFB, Discospinster, Double Vigie, Dragon76, Droll, Duncan.france, Ebe123, Edgar181, Eequor, ElBenevolente, Emperorbma,Erianna, Evil saltine, Fabartus, Feneeth of Borg, FlamingSilmaril, Fplay, Gaius Cornelius, Gcorti, Gene Nygaard, Gentgeen, Giftlite, GoingBatty, Graham87, Grillo7, Haydn, Headbomb,Heathen, Hello32020, Heron, Homeopathic, Hu, Hyperdeath, IceDragon64, Ijr900, J.delanoy, Jagged 85, Janke, Jaraalbe, Jared Hunt, Jared81, Jcarroll, Jeff Dahl, Jeffw57, JetLover, Joeylawn,Jon186, Jonathan.s.kt, JorisvS, Jose77, Jrockley, Karada, Karuna8, Keith Edkins, Kilo-Lima, Kirutian, Langbein Rise, Laslovarga, LiDaobing, Lidgard, Lightmouse, Lil brooksy, Linus M.,Logger9, Lysdexia, Magioladitis, Magnus Manske, Malafaya, Marie Poise, Materialscientist, Maximillion Pegasus, Maximus Rex, Mebden, Michaelcannell, Mikenorton, Mikespedia,Mr.Johnson, Mroxygen, Nandiyanto, Neutrino270, Ofey, Olegivvit, Omegatron, Onceler, OrigamiPhoenix, Peak, Philip Trueman, Physchim62, Pinethicket, Pitxulin1, Plasmic Physics, Polonium,Polyamorph, Polyparadigm, Provider uk, Qdr, Radon210, Raryel, Razorflame, Renecassin, Repku, Samiam1611, Scchoin, Sceptre, Shaddack, Sherlock rocks, Shinkolobwe, Siim, Sillybilly,Sinamohajer, SiobhanHansa, Skinwalker, Skyrail, Slim17, Smack, Smith609, Solardude, Sophos II, Spikey, Stephenb, Stevenwagner, Stripwax, SyntaxError55, Takowl, Tarquin, Telempe,Tetracube, The Anome, The Thing That Should Not Be, Thefriendlygiant, Theriac, Threexk, Thricecube, Thumperward, Tiddly Tom, Tim Starling, Timbudtwo, Timmid1, Timpo, Timwi, Titoxd,Tntnnbltn, Tsemii, Tyler, Uruiamme, Varuna, Venu62, Verdatum, Vsmith, WBardwin, Wallytim, Wapcaplet, WaysToEscape, Wernher, Whiteflame2, Wikineer, Willemhenskens, William Avery,Williamborg, Wimt, Wimvandorst, Wleizero, Woohookitty, Yansa, Yyy, 370 anonymous editsBentonite  Source: 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Syrthiss, TDogg310, The Anome, The-prospector,TheGerm, Theriac, Vaughan Pratt, Vsmith, WBardwin, Waterfox, Woohookitty, Zuejay, 105 anonymous editsMannitol  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=405754742  Contributors: Acdx, Adrian J. Hunter, Ajlevi, Alexsautographs, Antelan, Anypodetos, Arcadian, BD2412, Beetstra,Bigtexpharmd, Bone freak, Branka France, Casforty, Cbr 600, Chris the speller, Cybercobra, DG, Darrien, Deli nk, Delldot, Dolfder, Drphilharmonic, Dycedarg, Edgar181, Edgespath24, EoGuy,Foobar, GeeJo, George Dorn, Germancapi, Gor n bein, Greatsouthbay, Grrahnbahr, Herve10ecco, Hv, Ilikeeatingwaffles, Isnow, Keenan Pepper, Kjinho213, Kupirijo, Lemon-s,LeonardoGregianin, Liorchait, Lisapollison, Louisajb, Lvsaxman, Maquoketa, Mauvila, Michael Hardy, MiniClaire, MrOllie, Navydaspud, Nmg20, Nono64, Notinasnaid, Onco p53, PTSE,Patrus, Pauli133, Physchim62, Pseudomonas, Quinyu, Rfc1394, Rjwilmsi, Rlholden, Rob 301, RobinHood70, Robodoc.at, RussBianchi, SNEVES, Seb35, Selket, Serendipitynow, Shaddack,SimonP, Smokefoot, Sournick3, Stillnotelf, Tabletop, Vedran12, Vlad, Walkerma, WaysToEscape, Wikiti, Wnt, WriterHound, Xezbeth, Yngvarr, Zeimusu, 119 anonymous editsSodium bicarbonate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=408527351  Contributors: --colibri--, 345th, 4johnny, 5-HT8, Aaronp808, Abc518, Abutorsam007, Aeluwas, Ajraddatz,Alansohn, Aleksdeg, Algont, All Is One, AltheaJ, Alurus, Andrewrhchen, Ane09, Anna Lincoln, Antandrus, Ante Aikio, Arcadian, Arcyqwerty, Arx Fortis, Aswathraja, Atlant, Aussiesaint,Avono, AxelBoldt, BMRR, Baronvon, Bathbombbiz, Bcostley, Beetstra, Belg4mit, Bento00, Bigblue1222, BillyTFried, Blainster, BlueLotusLK, Bnawroz, Bobo192, BorgQueen, Borgx,Brandon, Brian Fenton, Brianski, Burns flipper, CBDunkerson, Cacycle, Cant sleep, clown will eat me, Canageek, Candelario Hanson, Capricorn42, Carnildo, Casforty, Catgut, Cburnett,Chem-awb, ChemNerd, Chemicalted, Cheminterest, Chill doubt, Chimpman, Chowbok, Chris Capoccia, ChrisCork, Chrislk02, Civil Engineer III, ClarenceAtomkraft, Colden46, Computerjoe,Conscious, Cooljeanius, Coredesat, Corina Dross, Courcelles, Crstar20, Crucis, Ctjf83, Cubbi, Daharja, David H Braun (1964), Dbc334, Dddstone, DeadEyeArrow, Debresser, Decltype,Defrobber, Deglr6328, Deltabeignet, Denelson83, Deor, DerHexer, Destynova, Dina, Dlauri, Doczilla, Dogsgomoo, Dolive21, Dolovis, Doorboot, Doseiai2, Drmies, Dtpeck, Eagle-eyedsteve24,Ebe123, Edcolins, Edgar181, Eequor, Element16, Elias Tawil, Elsweyn, Emmmmmms, Enviroboy, Eodsolutions, Epbr123, Ephemeronium, Erianna, Eric Kvaalen, Ericdn, Evil saltine,Eyelessfade, Faerra, Faith healer, Falcon8765, Faradayplank, Femto, Filippowiki, Firetech117, Fissionfox, Flexiblefine, Forteblast, Fox, Frecklefoot, Funandtrvl, Furrykef, Gaff, Gail, Galwhaa,Garrisonroo, Gary Cziko, Gaviidae, Gax000, Gbinal, Gentgeen, Gfowkes, Giftlite, Gilliam, Gogo Dodo, Gonococcus, Gordonofcartoon, Greenscene88, Gruzd, Gudeldar, H2sammo, HJ Mitchell,HaeB, Hanako, Happah, Hede2000, Heightwatcher, Hephaestos, Hermant patel, HistoryStudent113, Hobartimus, Hunnatti, I keep my own company, Ialsoagree, Icairns, Idarnold, Immunize,Inkling, Insanity Incarnate, Isofox, Itai, 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Techman224, TehGrauniad, Tempodivalse, Tetracube, TexasAndroid, Thangfries, The Earwig, The REAL Teol, TheThing That Should Not Be, The little angel, TheHerbalGerbil, TheSensei, Thewebb, Thricecube, Tide rolls, Tim Starling, Timneu22, Todoperoso, Tohru Honda13, Tom harrison, Tommusgrove,Tomruen, Travis.Thurston, Trbdavies, Trusilver, Tubular, Ubercognizant, UnitedStatesian, Vacuum, VigilantCyberCitizen, Vrenator, WadeSimMiser, Walkerma, Watcharakorn, Wavelength,Wayward, Westin, Why My Fleece?, Wikidsoup, Wikinick, WikipedianMarlith, William Avery, Williams94086, Willking1979, Wimt, Wmahan, Woconnor, Wolfkeeper, Xblkx, Xulorg,YOSF0113, Yachtsman1, Yamamoto Ichiro, Yashgaroth, Ydinlaskeuma, Yed79, Zebraperson, Zmetwalli, Zsinj, 1017 anonymous editsFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
    • Article Sources and Contributors 233Magnesium carbonate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=400294747  Contributors: Akerans, Beano, Beetstra, Benbest, Chem-awb, Chemicalinterest, Chevymontecarlo,Colenso, Collinssean, DMacks, Diodavid7, Discospinster, Docu, DrippingGoofball, ESkog, Ebroderi, Edgar181, Electron9, Eprigge, Evand, Fl, Gentgeen, Hadal, Healthycare, Hemanshu,Hugo-cs, I love chemistry, J04n, JBOURNE, Ke Vo Danh, LadyofShalott, Littlealien182, Madhero88, Magnus Manske, Merosonox, Michall, Michbau, Mikespedia, Monedula, Mutinus, Nicejellyfish, Nv8200p, Opie, Physchim62, Portillo, Purcell cell, RJFJR, Retired username, Rifleman 82, Rjwilmsi, Ryulong, Scottalter, SirPoor, Smokefoot, Sonrisasgrandes, Statue2, Tarquin,Thricecube, Timotheus Canens, TwoWings, Ugen64, Vsmith, WereSpielChequers, Williadb, Ynhockey, Јованвб, 113 anonymous editsMagnesium oxide  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=407737400  Contributors: 2help, A8UDI, Acroterion, Adoniscik, Afluegel, Andrew Swallow, Andrewa, Angela, AnnaLincoln, Atlant, Aussie Alchemist, Awnd329, Axiosaurus, Ayucat, Bazzargh, Bbi5291, Beetstra, Bloomcicle, Bryan Derksen, CTZMSC3, Cant sleep, clown will eat me, CeramicCementCorp,Cffrost, Chem-awb, ChrisHodgesUK, DMacks, Darth Panda, Dddstone, Deathwiz, Facial, Findoutwhy, Fireswordfight, Fluri, Friess, Fulcanelli, Gaius Cornelius, Gene Nygaard, GraemeL,GreatWhiteNortherner, Grendelkhan, Gwernol, Gökhan, Hellbus, Hersfold, Hyperwiz, Igoldste, JHunterJ, Jaraalbe, Jason Recliner, Esq., JoJaysius, Joanjoc, Jorfer, Jurohi, Karlhahn, KeenanPepper, Keithpoole, Kilesa-chan, Kilo-Lima, Ksbrown, Kubigula, L1ttleTr33, Luna Santin, Magister Mathematicae, Magnus Manske, Marco Polo, Materialscientist, Mav, Mccallua, Mejor LosIndios, Mentifisto, Mfields1, MithrandirAgain, Mxn, NawlinWiki, Neda9, Nice jellyfish, Nikai, Oxymoron83, Peaceman, Pelex, PhJ, Physchim62, Pinethicket, Pypex, Quinsareth, Qviri, RnB,Raven in Orbit, RexNL, Rich Farmbrough, Ryan Postlethwaite, Sbrools, Scottalter, Seanwal111111, Shaddack, Shanes, Skarebo, Slon02, SnitchyCat, Someguy44, Speekingleesh, Srleffler,THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Tgill08, TheNewPhobia, Thomashallett, Threehead, Thricecube, Tiddly Tom, Tlroche, Una Smith, Unknownkitty, Utcursch, Venjr, Vsmith, WODUP, WTucker,Walkerma, Whitepaw, Willking1979, YOSF0113, Yamamoto Ichiro, Yerpo, Yurik, Zacki94, Јованвб, 202 anonymous editsZinc silicate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=16551390  Contributors: Alchaemist, Archaeodontosaurus, Atlantia, Avihu, BRG, Cacycle, Camembert, Chemicalinterest,Chris.urs-o, Dlloyd, Eleassar, Fiveless, Flowerparty, Gil Gamesh, Hectorthebat, Infrogmation, Jaraalbe, Kevmin, Ligulem, Materialscientist, MushiHoshiIshi, Raike, Rhanyeia, Rmhermen,Sannse, Shaddack, Strickja, The-prospector, Vsmith, Warofdreams, Zundark, 5 anonymous editsPolydimethylsiloxane  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=395106729  Contributors: AB, Adventhesis, Albmont, Andux, Anheyla, Arielco, Bbads, Beetstra, Benbest,Benjah-bmm27, Bios, Chem-awb, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DENker, Dannown, Debresser, Dougher, Drphilharmonic, Edgar181, Erianna, Giovanni33, Glaurung, Ground, Guérin Nicolas,Hoffmeier, Jai osé, J.macdougall, Jbw2, Jrockley, Karameleios, Khartma1, Kupirijo, Langbein Rise, Likeitsmyjob, Lungdart, Martarius, Materialscientist, Mr Stephen, Obrian7, Onceler,Peterlewis, Pikiwedian, Plasmic Physics, Playclever, Polyparadigm, RnB, Rangek, Rees11, Rich257, Rjwilmsi, RoyBoy, Royalguard11, Scchoin, Schneelocke, Shaddack, Shadowjams,ShesGotSauce, Shrampes, Sillybilly, St3vo, Steven.Noyce, SunnyInHouston, Ucanlookitup, Vrenator, WhirlwindChemist, Zebov, 88 anonymous editsMagnesium stearate  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=404285524  Contributors: Albmont, Annabel, Aquarian123, B07, Beetstra, Cacycle, Chem-awb, ChemNerd, Chicagogod, Choij, Chris the speller, Christopher Mann McKay, Edgar181, EncycloPetey, Epbr123, Famaddict, 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    • Article Sources and Contributors 234Snicker, Srleffler, Stassats, Synchronism, System.out.print("!"), T-borg, The Anome, The dark lord trombonator, TheMadBaron, Threehead, Transity, Unconcerned, Unfree, Usien6, Utcursch,Vanka5, Vuong Ngan Ha, Wighson, Wizard191, Woohookitty, Wysprgr2005, Zappa711, 271 anonymous editsLanolin  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=407948317  Contributors: Adzz, Ahc, Allister MacLeod, Amberroom, Arienh4, Asd28, Backin72, Barklund, Brainulator9, BuckMulligan, Cacycle, Capricorn42, Chodges, Craig Pemberton, Demus Wiesbaden, Dnivera, Doomdog128, Erianna, Fish and karate, Fredrik, Friedfish, Gabbe, Gggh, Ghakko, Giftiger wunsch,GilCahana, Ginkgo100, Giraffedata, Glehmann, Gobonobo, HCSarahD86, Hooperbloob, Iridos, JDspeeder1, Jadenar, Jclemens, Johantheghost, Jverkoey, Jvs.cz, Jwmelvin, KDS4444, Kirvis,Klubbit, Knudvaneeden, Kukini, Lanolene, Loggie, Londonsista, Manicsleeper, MartinSpacek, MatthewBChambers, Matthewjbarnard, Nalasoc, Neilc, 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anonymous editsParaffin wax  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=198728259  Contributors: 08riodgj 1, A Doon, Aitias, Alai, Alphax, Alvestrand, Andres, Andrewpmk, Android Mouse,Angusmclellan, Ark25, Barticus88, Beetstra, Bensaccount, Bige1977, Biscuittin, Bjso, BlueCanoe, Bobo192, Bongwarrior, BoomerAB, Brossow, Bryan Derksen, Bunthorne, Cacycle,CanadianLinuxUser, Cfailde, Clarince63, Cocoma, Conversion script, Da monster under your bed, David Underdown, David0811, Diotti, Diverman, Doronpapo, Drphilharmonic, Durin,Edgar181, Edward, EmmanuelM, Enaidmawr, ErrantX, Error, Explicit, Farras Octara, Fastilysock, Fg2, Finn-Zoltan, Fish and karate, Foobar, Furrykef, GW Simulations, Gaius Cornelius,Graeme Bartlett, Graham87, Greg L, Hadlock, Haham hanuka, Heron, HuyZ, IGeMiNix, Ithunn, J.delanoy, Jack B108, JackLumber, Jared105, Jcabraham, Jcw69, Jennica, Jlittlet, Jmlk17, John,John254, Kevin R Johnson, KevinHarbin, Kristen Eriksen, Kvng, Kylelynch, Lambiam, Liftarn, Linmhall, 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    • Article Sources and Contributors 236JHMM13, JMyrleFuller, JSpung, JackLumber, Jacob Lundberg, Jacopo Werther, JamesAM, Jamesontai, Jojhutton, Juliancolton, Jusjih, Karada, Keegscee, Ktud, LegitimateAndEvenCompelling,Levineps, Lily50, LittleHow, Londonsista, MJBurrage, MONGO, MPerel, Macrakis, Mani1, Mastercoolio, Mdwyer, MegaSloth, Mike2vil, Miller17CU94, Mkill, Momo san, Mongol, Mr.Z-man,MrOllie, Msh210, Natl1, Ninel, Olivier, Ompty, PJ Pete, Paste, Percy Snoodle, PerfectStorm, Pjhirst, PrestonH, Pstrous, Pöllö, RAN1, RMHED, Rada, Raj6, Rdash, RekishiEJ, Rencas, RichFarmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rmhermen, Rompe, Ronhjones, Ruby.red.roses, SCEhardt, SamMichaels, Sardanaphalus, Sensonet, Shivamnosran, Sijo Ripa, SimoesBR, Sizzil, Sjschen, Snalahs,Stephenw32768, StonedChipmunk, Strwaberryshortcake, Swarm, Tevildo, Thatoneguy, The Anome, The Thing That Should Not Be, TimVickers, Tom harrison, Transhumanist, Trusilver,TutterMouse, VMS Mosaic, Vahlahn, Valley2city, Voretus, Wavelength, WearyTraveller, Welsh, Wjousts, Xiahou, Yoilish, Yowzaboodle, Zippanova, Zundark, Ávila, 180 anonymous editsFOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
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