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Contents
Articles
1- WHAT IS FOOD ADDITIVE ? 1
Food additive 1
2 - FOOD ADDITIVES LIST (E-number) 6
E number 6
3 - ANTI-CA...
Polydimethylsiloxane 115
Magnesium stearate 119
Stearic acid 121
Calcium stearate 124
Dimethyl polysiloxane 126
4 - COATIN...
References
Article Sources and Contributors 231
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 237
Article Licenses
License 240
...
1
1- WHAT IS FOOD ADDITIVE ?
Food additive
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its t...
Food additive 2
Bulking agents
Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affect...
Food additive 3
Safety
With the increasing use of processed foods since the 19th century, there has been a great increase ...
Food additive 4
sausages, gelatin, and candy can lead to the attribution of gland and kidney tumors and contains carcinoge...
Food additive 5
Additional sources
• U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (1993). Everything Added to Food in the United Sta...
6
2 - FOOD ADDITIVES LIST (E-number)
E number
E numbers are number codes for food additives that have been assessed for us...
E number 7
300–399
Antioxidants & acidity regulators
300–305 ascorbates (vitamin C)
306–309 Tocopherol (vitamin E)
310–319...
E number 8
Full list
E100–E199 (colours)
Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E100 Curcumin, turmeric food colouring
(yellow-orange...
E number 9
E130 Indanthrene blue RS food colouring (blue) N/A
E131 Patent Blue V food colouring (dark
blue)
Approved in th...
E number 10
E161i Citranaxanthin food colouring N/A
E161j Astaxanthin food colouring N/A
E162 Beetroot Red, Betanin food c...
E number 11
E215 Sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative
Approved in the
EU.
[5]
E216 Propylparaben (propyl para-hy...
E number 12
E240 Formaldehyde preservative Forbidden
E242 Dimethyl dicarbonate preservative
Approved in the
EU.
[5]
E249 P...
E number 13
E297 Fumaric acid acidity regulator
Approved in the
EU.
[7]
E300–E399 (antioxidants, acidity regulators)
Code ...
E number 14
E329 Magnesium lactate acidity regulator N/A
E330 Citric acid acid, acidity regulator
Approved in the EU.
[7]
...
E number 15
E363 Succinic acid acidity regulator
Approved in the EU.
[7]
E365 Sodium fumarate acidity regulator N/A
E366 P...
E number 16
E410 Locust bean gum (Carob gum) (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier
Approved in the EU.
[9]
E...
E number 17
E450 Diphosphates (i) Disodium diphosphate (ii) Trisodium diphosphate (iii)
Tetrasodium diphosphate (iv) Dipot...
E number 18
E476 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate emulsifier
Approved in the EU.
[9]
E477 Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty aci...
E number 19
E507 Hydrochloric acid acid
Approved in the
EU.
[7]
E508 Potassium chloride (gelling agent) seasoning
Approved...
E number 20
E529 Calcium oxide (acidity regulator) improving agent
Approved in the
EU.
[7]
E530 Magnesium oxide (acidity r...
E number 21
E562 Sepiolite N/A
E563 Sepiolitic clay N/A
E565 4-Hexylresorcinol
Approved in the
EU.
[8]
E566 Natrolite-phon...
E number 22
E629 Calcium guanylate flavour enhancer
Approved in the EU.
[7]
E630 Inosinic acid flavour enhancer
Approved i...
E number 23
E900–E999 (miscellaneous)
Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E900 Dimethyl polysiloxane (anti-foaming agent) anti-cak...
E number 24
E929 Acetone peroxide
E930 Calcium peroxide (improving agent) bleach N/A
E938 Argon packaging gas
Approved in ...
E number 25
E966 Lactitol sweetener
Approved in the
EU.
[11]
E967 Xylitol sweetener
Approved in the
EU.
[11]
E968 Erythrit...
E number 26
E1412 Distarch phosphate esterified with sodium trimetasphosphate; esterified with
phosphorus oxychloride (sta...
E number 27
E1525 Hydroxyethyl cellulose thickening agent N/A
Notes
[1] UK Food Standards Agency (http://www.eatwell.gov.u...
28
3 - ANTI-CAKING AGENTS
Anticaking agent
An anticaking agent is an additive placed in powdered or granulated materials, ...
Anticaking agent 29
References
[1] "Anticaking Admixtures to Road Salt" (http://www.transportation.org/?siteid=55&pageid=9...
Monocalcium phosphate 30
Monocalcium phosphate
Monocalcium phosphate
Identifiers
CAS number 7758-23-8
[1]
 
PubChem 24454
...
Monocalcium phosphate 31
Uses
Fertilizer
Phosphorus is an essential nutrient and therefore is a common component of agricu...
Monocalcium phosphate 32
Leavening agent
Calcium dihydrogen phosphate is also used in the food industry as a leavening age...
Dicalcium phosphate 33
Dicalcium phosphate
Dicalcium phosphate
Identifiers
CAS number 7757-93-9
[1]
  , 
7789-77-7 (dihydr...
Dicalcium phosphate 34
Preparation
Dicalcium phosphate may be formed by the reaction of stoichiometric quantities of calci...
Tricalcium Phosphate 35
Tricalcium Phosphate
Tricalcium Phosphate
Identifiers
CAS number 7758-87-4
[1]
 
PubChem 516943
[2...
Tricalcium Phosphate 36
It has an alpha and a beta crystal form, the alpha state being formed at high temperatures. As roc...
Tricalcium Phosphate 37
References
[1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=7758-87-4
[2] http://pubchem...
Monomagnesium phosphate 38
Monomagnesium phosphate
Monomagnesium phosphate[1]
Identifiers
CAS number 13092-66-5
[2]
, (Anh...
Dimagnesium phosphate 39
Dimagnesium phosphate
Dimagnesium phosphate
Identifiers
CAS number 7757-86-0
[1]
, 
7782-75-4 (tr...
Sodium ferrocyanide 40
Sodium ferrocyanide
Sodium ferrocyanide[1]
Identifiers
CAS number 13601-19-9
[2]
PubChem 26129
[3]
...
Sodium ferrocyanide 41
Uses
Sodium ferrocyanide is a chemical additive known as E 535. It is added to road and food grade ...
Potassium ferrocyanide 42
Potassium ferrocyanide
Potassium ferrocyanide
Identifiers
CAS number 13943-58-3
[1]
  , (anhydro...
Potassium ferrocyanide 43
Potassium ferrocyanide, also known as yellow prussiate of potash or potassium hexacyanidoferrate...
Potassium ferrocyanide 44
doses in some food preparation. It works as an anti-caking agent and it removes copper from red ...
Sodium silicate 45
Sodium silicate
E550 redirects here. For the Italian locomotive, see FS Class E550
Sodium silicate
Iden...
Sodium silicate 46
EU classification Corrosive (C)
R-phrases R34
, R37
S-phrases (S1/2), S13, S24/25, S36/37/39, S45
NFPA ...
Sodium silicate 47
CAS registry number and EINECS number
Each and every substance has its own unique CAS registry number a...
Sodium silicate 48
When used as a paper cement, the tendency is for the sodium silicate joint eventually to crack within a...
Sodium silicate 49
Passive fire protection (PFP)
Expantrol proprietary sodium silicate suspended
in 1/4" thick layer of re...
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib
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Listed food & fertilizer additives by khaled gharib

  1. 1. PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information. PDF generated at: Tue, 18 Jan 2011 15:01:52 UTC LISTED FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES AND ITS SPECIFICATIONS (reduced copy) Collected and arranged from Wikipedia by agronomist Khalid Gharib , EGYPT, 2011 FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  2. 2. Contents Articles 1- WHAT IS FOOD ADDITIVE ? 1 Food additive 1 2 - FOOD ADDITIVES LIST (E-number) 6 E number 6 3 - ANTI-CAKING AGENTS 28 Anticaking agent 28 Monocalcium phosphate 30 Dicalcium phosphate 33 Tricalcium Phosphate 35 Monomagnesium phosphate 38 Dimagnesium phosphate 39 Sodium ferrocyanide 40 Potassium ferrocyanide 42 Sodium silicate 45 Potassium silicate 52 Calcium silicate 54 Magnesium trisilicate 57 Talc 58 Talcum powder 62 Aluminium silicate 66 Calcium aluminosilicate 66 Potassium aluminium silicate 67 Sodium aluminosilicate 69 Sodium metasilicate 70 Silicon dioxide 76 Bentonite 85 Mannitol 90 Sodium bicarbonate 96 Magnesium carbonate 104 Magnesium oxide 108 Zinc silicate 112 FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  3. 3. Polydimethylsiloxane 115 Magnesium stearate 119 Stearic acid 121 Calcium stearate 124 Dimethyl polysiloxane 126 4 - COATING AGENTS 130 Food coating 130 Glazing agent 137 Beeswax 137 Candelilla wax 141 Carnauba wax 142 Shellac 144 Microcrystalline wax 149 Crystalline wax 151 Lanolin 154 Colophonium 157 Paraffin 160 Petroleum wax 163 Paraffin wax 166 Rice bran wax 169 Spermaceti 170 Wax ester 171 Fatty acid 172 5 - OTHER ADDITIVES 179 Acidity regulator 179 Food coloring 180 Emulsifier 184 Thickener 189 Color retention agent 191 Antifoaming agent 192 Antioxidant 196 Humectant 217 Preservative 218 Stabilizer (chemistry) 219 Sweeteners 219 Flavor 226 FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  4. 4. References Article Sources and Contributors 231 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 237 Article Licenses License 240 FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  5. 5. 1 1- WHAT IS FOOD ADDITIVE ? Food additive Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste and appearance. Some additives have been used for centuries; for example, preserving food by pickling (with vinegar), salting, as with bacon, preserving sweets or using sulfur dioxide as in some wines. With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the 20th century, many more additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin. Numbering To regulate these additives, and inform consumers, each additive is assigned a unique number, termed as "E numbers", which is used in Europe for all approved additives. This numbering scheme has now been adopted and extended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to internationally identify all additives [1] , regardless of whether they are approved for use. E numbers are all prefixed by "E", but countries outside Europe use only the number, whether the additive is approved in Europe or not. For example, acetic acid is written as E260 on products sold in Europe, but is simply known as additive 260 in some countries. Additive 103, alkanet, is not approved for use in Europe so does not have an E number, although it is approved for use in Australia and New Zealand. Since 1987, Australia has had an approved system of labelling for additives in packaged foods. Each food additive has to be named or numbered. The numbers are the same as in Europe, but without the prefix 'E'. The United States Food and Drug Administration listed these items as "Generally recognized as safe" or GRAS; they are listed under both their Chemical Abstract Services number and Fukda regulation under the US Code of Federal Regulations. • See list of food additives for a complete list of all the names. • See E number for the numbers. Categories Food additives can be divided into several groups, although there is some overlap between them. Acids Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper", and also act as preservatives and antioxidants. Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic acid. Acidity regulators Acidity regulators are used to change or otherwise control the acidity and alkalinity of foods. Anticaking agents Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from caking or sticking. Antifoaming agents Antifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in foods. Antioxidants Antioxidants such as vitamin C act as preservatives by inhibiting the effects of oxygen on food, and can be beneficial to health. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  6. 6. Food additive 2 Bulking agents Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affecting its nutritional value. Food coloring Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation, or to make food look more attractive. Color retention agents In contrast to colorings, color retention agents are used to preserve a food's existing color. Emulsifiers Emulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion, as in mayonnaise, ice cream, and homogenized milk. Flavors Flavors are additives that give food a particular taste or smell, and may be derived from natural ingredients or created artificially. Flavor enhancers Flavor enhancers enhance a food's existing flavors. They may be extracted from natural sources (through distillation, solvent extraction, maceration, among other methods) or created artificially. Flour treatment agents Flour treatment agents are added to flour to improve its color or its use in baking. Glazing agents Glazing agents provide a shiny appearance or protective coating to foods. Humectants Humectants prevent foods from drying out. Tracer gas Tracer gas allow for package integrity testing to prevent foods from being exposed to atmosphere, thus guaranteeing shelf life. Preservatives Preservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food due to fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms. Stabilizers Stabilizers, thickeners and gelling agents, like agar or pectin (used in jam for example) give foods a firmer texture. While they are not true emulsifiers, they help to stabilize emulsions. Sweeteners Sweeteners are added to foods for flavoring. Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy (calories) low, or because they have beneficial effects for diabetes mellitus and tooth decay and diarrhea. Thickeners Thickeners are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without substantially modifying its other properties. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  7. 7. Food additive 3 Safety With the increasing use of processed foods since the 19th century, there has been a great increase in the use of food additives of varying levels of safety. This has led to legislation in many countries regulating their use. For example, boric acid was widely used as a food preservative from the 1870s to the 1920s, [2] [3] but was banned after World War I due to its toxicity, as demonstrated in animal and human studies. During World War II the urgent need for cheap, available food preservatives led to it being used again, but it was finally banned in the 1950s. [2] Such cases led to a general mistrust of food additives, and an application of the precautionary principle led to the conclusion that only additives that are known to be safe should be used in foods. In the USA, this led to the adoption of the Delaney clause, an amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938, stating that no carcinogenic substances may be used as food additives. However, after the banning of cyclamates in the USA and Britain in 1969, saccharin, the only remaining legal artificial sweetener at the time, was found to cause cancer in rats. Widespread public outcry in the USA, partly communicated to Congress by postage-paid postcards supplied in the packaging of sweetened soft drinks, led to the retention of saccharin despite its violation of the Delaney clause. [4] In September 2007, research financed by Britain’s Food Standards Agency and published online by the British medical journal The Lancet, presented evidence that a mix of additives commonly found in children’s foods increases the mean level of hyperactivity. [5] The team of researchers concluded that “the finding lends strong support for the case that food additives exacerbate hyperactive behaviors (inattention, impulsivity and overactivity) at least into middle childhood.” That study examined the effect of artificial colors and a sodium benzoate preservative, and found both to be problematic for some children. Further studies are needed to find out whether there are other additives that could have a similar effect, and it is unclear whether some disturbances can also occur in mood and concentration in some adults. In the February 2008 issue of its publication, AAP Grand Rounds, the American Academy of Pediatrics concluded that a low-additive diet is a valid intervention for children with ADHD: “Although quite complicated, this was a carefully conducted study in which the investigators went to great lengths to eliminate bias and to rigorously measure outcomes. The results are hard to follow and somewhat inconsistent. For many of the assessments there were small but statistically significant differences of measured behaviors in children who consumed the food additives compared with those who did not. In each case increased hyperactive behaviors were associated with consuming the additives. For those comparisons in which no statistically significant differences were found, there was a trend for more hyperactive behaviors associated with the food additive drink in virtually every assessment. Thus, the overall findings of the study are clear and require that even we skeptics, who have long doubted parental claims of the effects of various foods on the behavior of their children, admit we might have been wrong.” In 2007, Food Standards Australia New Zealand published an official shoppers' guidance with which the concerns of food additives and their labeling are mediated. [6] There has been significant controversy associated with the risks and benefits of food additives. Some artificial food additives have been linked with cancer, digestive problems, neurological conditions,ADHD, heart disease or obesity. [7] Natural additives may be similarly harmful or be the cause of allergic reactions in certain individuals. For example, safrole was used to flavor root beer until it was shown to be carcinogenic. Due to the application of the Delaney clause, it may not be added to foods, even though it occurs naturally in sassafras and sweet basil. [8] Extreme caution should be taken with sodium nitrite which is mainly used a food coloring agent. Sodium nitrite is added to meats to produce an appealing and fresh red color to the consumer. Sodium nitrite can produce cancer causing chemicals such as nitrosamines, and numerous studies have shown a link between nitrite and cancer in humans that consume processed and cured meats. [9] Blue 1, Blue 2, Red 3, and Yellow 6 are among the food colorings that have been linked to various health risks. Blue 1 is used to color candy, soft drinks, and pastries and there has been some evidence that it may cause cancer. Blue 2 can be found in pet food, soft drinks, and pastries, and has shown to cause brain tumors in mice. Red 3, mainly used in cherries for cocktails has been correlated with thyroid tumors in rats and humans as well. Yellow 6, used in FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  8. 8. Food additive 4 sausages, gelatin, and candy can lead to the attribution of gland and kidney tumors and contains carcinogens, but in minimal amounts. [10] Standardization of its derived products ISO has published a series of standards regarding the topic and these standards are covered by ICS 67.220. [11] See also • Color retention agent • Delaney clause • Dietary supplement • Food fortification • Food labeling regulations • Food processing • Food supplements • Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives • List of food additives • List of food additives, Codex Alimentarius • Organic fertilizer • Sugar substitute References [1] Codex Alimentarius. "Class Names and the International Numbering System for Food Additives." (http://www.codexalimentarius.net/ download/standards/7/CXG_036e.pdf). . [2] Bucci, Luke (1995). Nutrition applied to injury rehabilitation and sports medicine. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 151. ISBN 0-8493-7913-X. [3] Rev. Lyman Abbott (Ed.) (1900). The Outlook (Vol. 64). Outlook Co.. pp. 403. [4] Assessment of technologies for determining cancer risks from the environment. Darby, PA, USA: DIANE publishing. 1981. pp. 177. ISBN 142892437X. [5] McCann, D; Barrett, A; Cooper, A; Crumpler, D; Dalen, L; Grimshaw, K; Kitchin, E; Lok, K et al. (2007). "Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial." (http://www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17825405?ordinalpos=7&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel. Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum). Lancet 370 (9598): pp. 1560–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61306-3. PMID 17825405. . [6] Food Standards Australia New Zealand (2007). "Choosing the Right Stuff - the official shoppers’ guide to food additives and labels, kilojoules and fat content" (http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/newsroom/publications/choosingtherightstuff/). . Retrieved 3 May 2009. [7] http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/the-truth-about-seven-common-food-additives [8] Fennema, Owen R. (1996). Food chemistry. New York, N.Y: Marcel Dekker. pp. 827. ISBN 0-8247-9691-8. [9] http://www.sixwise.com/newsletters/06/04/05/ 12-dangerous-food-additives-the-dirty-dozen-food-additives-you-really-need-to-be-aware-of.htm [10] http://www.sixwise.com/newsletters/06/04/05/ 12-dangerous-food-additives-the-dirty-dozen-food-additives-you-really-need-to-be-aware-of.htm [11] International Organization for Standardization. "67.220: Spices and condiments. Food additives" (http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/ catalogue_ics/catalogue_ics_browse.htm?ICS1=67&ICS2=220). . Retrieved 23 April 2009. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  9. 9. Food additive 5 Additional sources • U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (1993). Everything Added to Food in the United States. Boca Raton, FL: C.K. Smoley (c/o CRC Press, Inc.). • The Food Labelling Regulations (1984) • Advanced Modular Science, Nelson, Food and Health, by John Adds, Erica Larkcom and Ruth Miller External links • Food Trade's Juicy Secrets (http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/13788/Food-trade-s-juicy-secrets) by John Triggs in the Daily Express July 17, 2007 • Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS) i.e. Castor oil, etc. (http://www.foodsafety.gov/ ~dms/eafus.html) • EU legislation on food additives (http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sfp/flav_index_en.html) • CSPI's guide to food additives (http://www.cspinet.org/reports/chemcuisine.htm), ( PDF (http://www. cspinet.org/new/pdf/additives.pdf)) • Food Standards Australia and New Zealand page on food additives (http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/ foodmatters/foodadditives.cfm) • Evaluation of certain Food Additives and Contaminants; Sixty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_922.pdf) FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  10. 10. 6 2 - FOOD ADDITIVES LIST (E-number) E number E numbers are number codes for food additives that have been assessed for use within the European Union (the "E" prefix stands for "Europe"). [1] They are commonly found on food labels throughout the European Union. [2] Safety assessment and approval are the responsibility of the European Food Safety Authority. [3] The numbering scheme follows that of the International Numbering System (INS) as determined by the Codex Alimentarius committee [4] though only a subset of the INS additives are approved for use in the European Union. E numbers are also encountered on food labelling in other jurisdictions, including the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, Australia, New Zealand and Israel. The "E" prefix is omitted in Australia and New Zealand. They are increasingly, though rarely, found on North American packaging, especially in Canada on imported European products. In casual language in the UK and Ireland, "E number" is used as a pejorative term for artificial food additives, and products may promote themselves as "free of E numbers" even though most of the natural ingredients contain components that also have an E number such as vitamin C (E300) or lycopene (E160d). Because vitamin C has an E number (actually several E numbers, 300-305, for different chemical forms of the vitamin), it is impossible to live on a diet without any substances that have E numbers. "Free of E numbers" then simply means that pure forms of the substances are not intentionally added, even though identical substances certainly exist naturally in many foods. Classification by numeric range 100–199 Colours 100–109 yellows (see the full list) 110–119 orange 120–129 reds 130–139 blues & violets 140–149 greens 150–159 browns & blacks 160–199 gold and others 200–299 Preservatives 200–209 sorbates 210–219 benzoates 220–229 sulphites 230–239 phenols & formates (methanoates) 240–259 nitrates 260–269 acetates (ethanoates) 270–279 lactates 280–289 propionates (propanoates) 290–299 others FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  11. 11. E number 7 300–399 Antioxidants & acidity regulators 300–305 ascorbates (vitamin C) 306–309 Tocopherol (vitamin E) 310–319 gallates & erythorbates 320–329 lactates 330–339 citrates & tartrates 340–349 phosphates 350–359 malates & adipates 360–369 succinates & fumarates 370–399 others 400–499 Thickeners, stabilisers & emulsifiers 400–409 alginates 410–419 natural gums 420–429 other natural agents 430–439 polyoxyethene compounds 440–449 natural emulsifiers 450–459 phosphates 460–469 cellulose compounds 470–489 fatty acids & compounds 490–499 others 500–599 pH regulators & anti-caking agents 500–509 mineral acids & bases 510–519 chlorides & sulphates 520–529 sulphates & hydroxides 530–549 alkali metal compounds 550–559 silicates 570–579 stearates & gluconates 580–599 others 600–699 Flavour enhancers 620–629 glutamates 630–639 inosinates 640–649 others 700–799 Antibiotics 700–713 900–999 Miscellaneous 900–909 waxes 910–919 synthetic glazes 920–929 improving agents 930–949 packaging gases 950–969 sweeteners 990–999 foaming agents 1100–1599 Additional chemicals New chemicals that do not fall into standard classification schemes NB: Not all examples of a class fall into the given numeric range. Moreover, many chemicals, particularly in the E400–499 range, have a variety of purposes. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  12. 12. E number 8 Full list E100–E199 (colours) Code Name(s) Purpose Status E100 Curcumin, turmeric food colouring (yellow-orange) Approved in the EU [5] E101 Riboflavin (Vitamin B 2 ), formerly called lactoflavin (Vitamin G) food colouring (yellow-orange) Approved in the EU [5] E101a Riboflavin-5'-Phosphate food colouring (yellow-orange) Approved in the EU [5] E102 Tartrazine (FD&C Yellow 5) food colouring (lemon yellow) Approved in the EU [5] E103 Alkannin [6] food colouring E104 Quinoline Yellow WS food colouring (dull or greenish yellow) Approved in the EU [5] Undergoing a voluntary phase-out in the UK. E105 Fast Yellow AB food colouring (yellow) N/A E106 Riboflavin-5-Sodium Phosphate food colouring (yellow) N/A E107 Yellow 2G food colouring (yellow) N/A E110 Sunset Yellow FCF (Orange Yellow S, FD&C Yellow 6) food colouring (yellow-orange) Approved in the EU. [5] Banned in Finland and Norway. Products in the EU require warnings and its use is being phased-out. E111 Orange GGN food colouring (orange) N/A E120 Cochineal, Carminic acid, Carmine (Natural Red 4) food colouring (crimson) Approved in the EU. [5] E121 Citrus Red 2 food colouring (dark red) Forbidden E122 Carmoisine, Azorubine food colouring (red to maroon) Approved in the EU. [5] Undergoing a voluntary phase-out in the UK. Currently banned in Canada, Japan, Norway, USA and Sweden. EU currently evaluating health risks. E123 Amaranth (FD&C Red 2) food colouring (dark red) Approved in the EU. [5] E124 Ponceau 4R (Cochineal Red A, Brilliant Scarlet 4R) food colouring (red) Approved in the EU. [5] E125 Ponceau SX, Scarlet GN food colouring (red) N/A E126 Ponceau 6R food colouring (red) N/A E127 Erythrosine (FD&C Red 3) food colouring (red) Approved in the EU. [5] E128 Red 2G food colouring (red) Forbidden E129 Allura Red AC (FD&C Red 40) food colouring (red) Approved in the EU. [5] Banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Switzerland and Sweden. Undergoing a voluntary phase out in the UK. Permitted in the USA. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  13. 13. E number 9 E130 Indanthrene blue RS food colouring (blue) N/A E131 Patent Blue V food colouring (dark blue) Approved in the EU. [5] E132 Indigo carmine (indigotine, FD&C Blue 2) food colouring (indigo) Approved in the EU. [5] E133 Brilliant Blue FCF (FD&C Blue 1) food colouring (reddish blue) Approved in the EU. [5] E140 Chlorophylls and Chlorophyllins: (i) Chlorophylls (ii) Chlorophyllins food colouring (green) Approved in the EU. [5] E141 Copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllins (i) Copper complexes of chlorophylls (ii) Copper complexes of chlorophyllins food colouring (green) Approved in the EU. [5] E142 Green S food colouring (green) Approved in the EU. [5] E143 Fast Green FCF (FD&C Green 3) food colouring (sea green) N/A E150a Plain caramel food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E150b Caustic sulphite caramel food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E150c Ammonia caramel food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E150d Sulphite ammonia caramel food colouring N/A E151 Black PN, Brilliant Black BN food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E152 Black 7984 food colouring N/A E153 Carbon black, Vegetable carbon food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E154 Brown FK (kipper brown) food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E155 Brown HT (chocolate brown HT) food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E160a Alpha-carotene, Beta-carotene, Gamma-carotene food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E160b Annatto, bixin, norbixin food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E160c Paprika oleoresin, Capsanthin, capsorubin food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E160d Lycopene food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E160e Beta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30) food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E160f Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid (C 30) food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E161a Flavoxanthin food colouring N/A E161b Lutein food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E161c Cryptoxanthin food colouring N/A E161d Rubixanthin food colouring N/A E161e Violaxanthin food colouring N/A E161f Rhodoxanthin food colouring N/A E161g Canthaxanthin food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E161h Zeaxanthin food colouring N/A FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  14. 14. E number 10 E161i Citranaxanthin food colouring N/A E161j Astaxanthin food colouring N/A E162 Beetroot Red, Betanin food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E163 Anthocyanins food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E164 Saffron food colouring N/A E166 Sandalwood red food colouring N/A E170 Calcium carbonate, Chalk food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E171 Titanium dioxide food colouring (pure white) Approved in the EU. [5] E172 Iron oxides and iron hydroxides food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E173 Aluminium food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E174 Silver food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E175 Gold food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E180 Pigment Rubine, Lithol Rubine BK food colouring Approved in the EU. [5] E181 Tannin food colouring N/A E182 Orcein, Orchil food colouring N/A E200–E299 (preservatives) Code Name(s) Purpose Status E200 Sorbic acid preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E201 Sodium sorbate preservative N/A E202 Potassium sorbate preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E203 Calcium sorbate preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E209 Heptyl p-hydroxybenzoate preservative N/A E210 Benzoic acid preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E211 Sodium benzoate preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E212 Potassium benzoate preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E213 Calcium benzoate preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E214 Ethylparaben (ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservative Approved in the EU. [5] FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  15. 15. E number 11 E215 Sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E216 Propylparaben (propyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservative E217 Sodium propyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative E218 Methylparaben (methyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E219 Sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E220 Sulphur dioxide preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E221 Sodium sulphite preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E222 Sodium bisulphite (sodium hydrogen sulphite) preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E223 Sodium metabisulphite preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E224 Potassium metabisulphite preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E225 Potassium sulphite preservative N/A E226 Calcium sulphite preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite (preservative) firming agent Approved in the EU. [5] E228 Potassium hydrogen sulphite preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E230 Biphenyl, diphenyl preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E231 Orthophenyl phenol preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E232 Sodium orthophenyl phenol preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E233 Thiabendazole preservative N/A E234 Nisin preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E235 Natamycin, Pimaracin preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E236 Formic acid preservative N/A E237 Sodium formate preservative N/A E238 Calcium formate preservative N/A E239 Hexamine (hexamethylene tetramine) preservative Approved in the EU. [5] FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  16. 16. E number 12 E240 Formaldehyde preservative Forbidden E242 Dimethyl dicarbonate preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E249 Potassium nitrite preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E250 Sodium nitrite preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E251 Sodium nitrate (Chile saltpeter) preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E252 Potassium nitrate (Saltpetre) preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E260 Acetic acid (preservative) acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E261 Potassium acetate (preservative) acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E262 Sodium acetates (i) Sodium acetate (ii) Sodium hydrogen acetate (sodium diacetate) preservative, acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E263 Calcium acetate (preservative) acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E264 Ammonium acetate preservative N/A E265 Dehydroacetic acid preservative N/A E266 Sodium dehydroacetate preservative N/A E270 Lactic acid (preservative) (acid) antioxidant Approved in the EU. [7] E280 Propionic acid preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E281 Sodium propionate preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E282 Calcium propionate preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E283 Potassium propionate preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E284 Boric acid preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E285 Sodium tetraborate (borax) preservative Approved in the EU. [5] E290 Carbon dioxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E296 Malic acid (acid) acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  17. 17. E number 13 E297 Fumaric acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E300–E399 (antioxidants, acidity regulators) Code Name(s) Purpose Status E300 Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E301 Sodium ascorbate antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E302 Calcium ascorbate antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E303 Potassium ascorbate antioxidant N/A E304 Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid (Ascorbyl palmitate) antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E305 Ascorbyl stearate antioxidant N/A E306 Tocopherols (natural) antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E307 Alpha-tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E308 Gamma-tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E309 Delta-tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E310 Propyl gallate antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E311 Octyl gallate antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E312 Dodecyl gallate antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E313 Ethyl gallate antioxidant E314 Guaiac resin antioxidant N/A E315 Erythorbic acid antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E316 Sodium erythorbate antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E317 Erythorbin acid antioxidant N/A E318 Sodium erythorbin antioxidant N/A E319 tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E320 Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E321 Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) antioxidant Approved in the EU. [8] E322 Lecithin emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E323 Anoxomer antioxidant N/A E324 Ethoxyquin antioxidant N/A E325 Sodium lactate acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E326 Potassium lactate (antioxidant) acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E327 Calcium lactate acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E328 Ammonium lactate acidity regulator N/A FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  18. 18. E number 14 E329 Magnesium lactate acidity regulator N/A E330 Citric acid acid, acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E331 Sodium citrates (i) Monosodium citrate (ii) Disodium citrate (iii) Sodium citrate (trisodium citrate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E332 Potassium citrates (i) Monopotassium citrate (ii) Potassium citrate (tripotassium citrate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E333 Calcium citrates (i) Monocalcium citrate (ii) Dicalcium citrate (iii) Calcium citrate (tricalcium citrate) acidity regulator, firming agent, sequestrant Approved in the EU. [7] E334 Tartaric acid (L(+)-) (acid) Approved in the EU. [7] E335 Sodium tartrates (i) Monosodium tartrate (ii), Disodium tartrate acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E336 Potassium tartrates (i) Monopotassium tartrate (cream of tartar) (ii) Dipotassium tartrate acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E337 Sodium potassium tartrate acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E338 Orthophosphoric acid acid Approved in the EU. [7] E339 Sodium phosphates (i) Monosodium phosphate (ii) Disodium phosphate (iii) Trisodium phosphate antioxidant Approved in the EU. [7] E340 Potassium phosphates (i) Monopotassium phosphate (ii) Dipotassium phosphate (iii) Tripotassium phosphate antioxidant Approved in the EU. [7] E341 Calcium phosphates (i) Monocalcium phosphate (ii) Dicalcium phosphate (iii) Tricalcium phosphate anti-caking agent, firming agent Approved in the EU. [7] E342 Ammonium phosphates: (i) monoammonium phosphate (ii) diammonium phosphate N/A E343 Magnesium phosphates (i) monomagnesium phosphate (ii) Dimagnesium phosphate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] This additive is under discussion and may be included in a future amendment to the Directive on miscellaneous additives. E344 Lecitin citrate acidity regulator N/A E345 Magnesium citrate acidity regulator N/A E349 Ammonium malate acidity regulator N/A E350 Sodium malates (i) Sodium malate (ii) Sodium hydrogen malate acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E351 Potassium malate acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E352 Calcium malates (i) Calcium malate (ii) Calcium hydrogen malate acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E353 Metatartaric acid emulsifier Approved in the EU. [7] E354 Calcium tartrate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [7] E355 Adipic acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E356 Sodium adipate acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E357 Potassium adipate acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E359 Ammonium adipate acidity regulator N/A FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  19. 19. E number 15 E363 Succinic acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E365 Sodium fumarate acidity regulator N/A E366 Potassium fumarate acidity regulator N/A E367 Calcium fumarate acidity regulator N/A E368 Ammonium fumarate acidity regulator N/A E370 1,4-Heptonolactone acidity regulator N/A E375 Niacin (nicotinic acid), Nicotinamide colour retention agent N/A E380 Triammonium citrate acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E381 Ammonium ferric citrate acidity regulator N/A E383 Calcium glycerylphosphate acidity regulator N/A E384 Isopropyl citrate acidity regulator N/A E385 Calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate, (Calcium disodium EDTA) sequestrant Approved in the EU. [7] E386 Disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate (Disodium EDTA) sequestrant N/A E387 Oxystearin stabiliser N/A E388 Thiodipropionic acid E389 Dilauryl thiodipropionate E390 Distearyl thiodipropionate N/A E391 Phytic acid N/A E392 Extracts of rosemary Approved in 2010 [10] E399 Calcium lactobionate N/A E400–E499 (thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers) Code Name(s) Purpose Status E400 Alginic acid (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E401 Sodium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E402 Potassium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E403 Ammonium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E404 Calcium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E405 Propane-1,2-diol alginate (Propylene glycol alginate) (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E406 Agar (thickener) (gelling agent) stabiliser Approved in the EU. [9] E407 Carrageenan (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E407a Processed eucheuma seaweed (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E408 Bakers yeast glycan N/A E409 Arabinogalactan N/A FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  20. 20. E number 16 E410 Locust bean gum (Carob gum) (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E411 Oat gum (thickener) stabiliser N/A E412 Guar gum (thickener) stabiliser Approved in the EU. [9] E413 Tragacanth (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E414 Acacia gum (gum arabic) (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E415 Xanthan gum (thickener) stabiliser Approved in the EU. [9] E416 Karaya gum (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E417 Tara gum (thickener) stabiliser Approved in the EU. [9] E418 Gellan gum (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E419 Gum ghatti (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier N/A E420 Sorbitol (i) Sorbitol (ii) Sorbitol syrup (emulsifier) (sweetener) humectant Approved in the EU. [11] E421 Mannitol (anti-caking agent) sweetener Approved in the EU. [11] E422 Glycerol (emulsifier) sweetener Approved in the EU. [7] E424 Curdlan E425 Konjac (i) Konjac gum (ii) Konjac glucomannane emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] May not be used in confectionery owing to choking risk. E426 Soybean hemicellulose Approved in the EU. [9] E427 Cassia gum Approved in 2010 [10] E429 Peptones N/A E430 Polyoxyethene (8) stearate (emulsifier) stabiliser N/A E431 Polyoxyethene (40) stearate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [7] E432 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (polysorbate 20) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E433 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monooleate (polysorbate 80) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E434 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate (polysorbate 40) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E435 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monostearate (polysorbate 60) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E436 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan tristearate (polysorbate 65) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E440 Pectins (i) pectin (ii) amidated pectin emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E441 Gelatine (emulsifier) gelling agent N/A E442 Ammonium phosphatides emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E443 Brominated vegetable oil N/A E444 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E445 Glycerol esters of wood rosins emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E446 Succistearin N/A FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  21. 21. E number 17 E450 Diphosphates (i) Disodium diphosphate (ii) Trisodium diphosphate (iii) Tetrasodium diphosphate (iv) Dipotassium diphosphate (v) Tetrapotassium diphosphate (vi) Dicalcium diphosphate (vii) Calcium dihydrogen diphosphate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [7] E451 Triphosphates (i) Sodium triphosphate (pentasodium triphosphate) (ii) Pentapotassium triphosphate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [7] E452 Polyphosphates (i) Sodium polyphosphates (ii) Potassium polyphosphates (iii) Sodium calcium polyphosphate (iv) Calcium polyphosphates (v) Ammonium Polyphosphate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [7] E459 Beta-cyclodextrin emulsifier Approved in the EU. [7] E460 Cellulose (i) Microcrystalline cellulose (ii) Powdered cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E461 Methyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E462 Ethyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E464 Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, = hypromellose emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E465 Ethyl methyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E466 Carboxymethyl cellulose, Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E467 Ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose N/A E468 Crosslinked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Croscarmellose) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] This additive is under discussion and may be included in a future amendment to the Directive on miscellaneous additives E469 Enzymically hydrolysed carboxymethylcellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E470a Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids (emulsifier) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [9] E470b Magnesium salts of fatty acids (emulsifier) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [9] E471 Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate) emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E472a Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E472b Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E472c Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E472d Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E472e Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E472f Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E472g Succinylated monoglycerides emulsifier N/A E473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E474 Sucroglycerides emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  22. 22. E number 18 E476 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E477 Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids, propylene glycol esters of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E478 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1 emulsifier N/A E479b Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E480 Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate emulsifier N/A E481 Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E482 Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E483 Stearyl tartrate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E484 Stearyl citrate emulsifier N/A E485 Sodium Stearoyl Fumarate emulsifier N/A E486 Calcium Stearoyl Fumarate emulsifier N/A E487 Sodium laurylsulphate emulsifier N/A E488 Ethoxylated Mono- and Di-Glycerides emulsifier N/A E489 Methyl Glucoside - Coconut Oil Ester emulsifier N/A E490 Propane-1,2-diol N/A E491 Sorbitan monostearate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E492 Sorbitan tristearate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E493 Sorbitan monolaurate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E494 Sorbitan monooleate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E495 Sorbitan monopalmitate emulsifier Approved in the EU. [9] E496 Sorbitan trioleat emulsifier N/A E497 Polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene polymers N/A E498 Partial polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oil N/A E500–E599 (acidity regulators, anti-caking agents) Code Name(s) Purpose Status E500 Sodium carbonates (i) Sodium carbonate (ii) Sodium bicarbonate (Sodium hydrogen carbonate) (iii) Sodium sesquicarbonate (acidity regulator) raising agent Approved in the EU. [7] E501 Potassium carbonates (i) Potassium carbonate (ii) Potassium bicarbonate (Potassium hydrogen carbonate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E503 Ammonium carbonates (i) Ammonium carbonate (ii) Ammonium bicarbonate (Ammonium hydrogen carbonate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E504 Magnesium carbonates (i) Magnesium carbonate (ii) Magnesium bicarbonate Magnesium hydrogen carbonate acidity regulator, anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E505 Ferrous carbonate acidity regulator N/A FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  23. 23. E number 19 E507 Hydrochloric acid acid Approved in the EU. [7] E508 Potassium chloride (gelling agent) seasoning Approved in the EU. [7] E509 Calcium chloride (sequestrant) firming agent Approved in the EU. [7] E510 Ammonium chloride, ammonia solution (acidity regulator) improving agent N/A E511 Magnesium chloride firming agent Approved in the EU. [7] E512 Stannous chloride antioxidant Approved in the EU. [7] E513 Sulphuric acid acid Approved in the EU. [7] E514 Sodium sulphates (i) Sodium sulphate (ii) acid Approved in the EU. [7] E515 Potassium Sulphates (i) Potassium Sulphate (ii) Approved in the EU. [7] E516 Calcium sulphate Approved in the EU. [7] E517 Ammonium sulphate improving agent Approved in the EU. [7] E518 Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts), (acidity regulator) firming agent N/A E519 Copper(II) sulphate preservative N/A E520 Aluminium sulphate firming agent Approved in the EU. [7] E521 Aluminium sodium sulphate firming agent Approved in the EU. [7] E522 Aluminium potassium sulphate acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E523 Aluminium ammonium sulphate acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E524 Sodium hydroxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E525 Potassium hydroxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E526 Calcium hydroxide (acidity regulator) firming agent Approved in the EU. [7] E527 Ammonium hydroxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E528 Magnesium hydroxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  24. 24. E number 20 E529 Calcium oxide (acidity regulator) improving agent Approved in the EU. [7] E530 Magnesium oxide (acidity regulator) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E535 Sodium ferrocyanide (acidity regulator) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E536 Potassium ferrocyanide anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E537 Ferrous hexacyanomanganate anti-caking agent E538 Calcium ferrocyanide anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E539 Sodium thiosulphate antioxidant N/A E540 Dicalcium diphosphate (acidity regulator) emulsifier N/A E541 Sodium aluminium phosphate (i) Acidic (ii) Basic emulsifier Approved in the EU. [7] E542 Bone phosphate (Essentiale Calcium Phosphate, Tribasic) anti-caking agent N/A E543 Calcium sodium polyphosphate emulsifier N/A E544 Calcium polyphosphate emulsifier N/A E545 Ammonium polyphosphate emulsifier N/A E550 Sodium Silicates (i) Sodium silicate (ii) Sodium metasilicate anti-caking agent N/A E551 Silicon dioxide (Silica) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E552 Calcium silicate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E553a (i) Magnesium silicate (ii) Magnesium trisilicate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E553b Talc anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E554 Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium aluminium silicate) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E555 Potassium aluminium silicate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E556 Calcium aluminosilicate (calcium aluminium silicate) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E557 Zinc silicate anti-caking agent E558 Bentonite anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E559 Aluminium silicate (Kaolin) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E560 Potassium silicate anti-caking agent N/A E561 Vermiculite N/A FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  25. 25. E number 21 E562 Sepiolite N/A E563 Sepiolitic clay N/A E565 4-Hexylresorcinol Approved in the EU. [8] E566 Natrolite-phonolite N/A E570 Stearic acid (Fatty acid) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E572 Magnesium stearate, calcium stearate (emulsifier) anti-caking agent N/A E574 Gluconic acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU. [7] E575 Glucono delta-lactone (acidity regulator) sequestrant Approved in the EU. [7] E576 Sodium gluconate sequestrant Approved in the EU. [7] E577 Potassium gluconate sequestrant Approved in the EU. [7] E578 Calcium gluconate firming agent Approved in the EU. [7] E579 Ferrous gluconate food colouring Approved in the EU. [7] E580 Magnesium gluconate N/A E585 Ferrous lactate food colouring Approved in the EU. [7] E586 4-Hexylresorcinol antioxidant N/A E598 Synthetic calcium aluminates N/A E599 Perlite N/A E600–E699 (flavour enhancers) Code Name(s) Purpose Status E620 Glutamic acid flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E621 Monosodium glutamate(MSG) flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E622 Monopotassium glutamate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E623 Calcium diglutamate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E624 Monoammonium glutamate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E625 Magnesium diglutamate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E626 Guanylic acid flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E627 Disodium guanylate, sodium guanylate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E628 Dipotassium guanylate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  26. 26. E number 22 E629 Calcium guanylate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E630 Inosinic acid flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E631 Disodium inosinate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E632 Dipotassium inosinate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E633 Calcium inosinate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E634 Calcium 5'-ribonucleotides flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E635 Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E636 Maltol flavour enhancer N/A E637 Ethyl maltol flavour enhancer N/A E640 Glycine and its sodium salt flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E641 L-leucine flavour enhancer N/A E642 Lysine hydrochloride flavour enhancer N/A E650 Zinc acetate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [7] E700–E799 (antibiotics) Code Name(s) Purpose Status E700 Bacitracin E701 Tetracyclines N/A E702 Chlortetracycline N/A E703 Oxytetracycline N/A E704 Oleandomycin E705 Penicillin-G-potassium E706 Penicillin-G-sodium E707 Penicillin-G-procaine E708 Penicillin-G-benzathyne E710 Spiramycins N/A E711 Virginiamicins N/A E712 Flavophospholipol E713 Tylosin N/A E714 Monensin E715 Avoparcin E716 Salinomycin E717 Avilamycin FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  27. 27. E number 23 E900–E999 (miscellaneous) Code Name(s) Purpose Status E900 Dimethyl polysiloxane (anti-foaming agent) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU. [7] E901 Beeswax , white and yellow glazing agent Approved in the EU. [7] E902 Candelilla wax glazing agent Approved in the EU. [7] E903 Carnauba wax glazing agent Approved in the EU. [7] E904 Shellac glazing agent Approved in the EU. [7] E905 Paraffins Approved in the EU. [7] E905a Mineral oil anti-foaming agent N/A E905b Petrolatum N/A E905c Petroleum wax (i)Microcrystalline wax (ii) Paraffin wax glazing agent N/A E906 Gum benzoic flavour enhancer N/A E907 Crystalline wax glazing agent N/A E908 Rice bran wax glazing agent N/A E909 Spermaceti wax glazing agent N/A E910 Wax esters glazing agent N/A E911 Methyl esters of fatty acids glazing agent N/A E912 Montan acid esters glazing agent Approved in the EU. [7] E913 Lanolin, sheep wool grease glazing agent N/A E914 Oxidized polyethylene wax glazing agent Approved in the EU. [7] E915 Esters of colophony glazing agent N/A E916 Calcium iodate E917 Potassium iodate E918 Nitrogen oxides E919 Nitrosyl chloride E920 L-cysteine improving agent Approved in the EU. [7] E921 L-cystine improving agent N/A E922 Potassium persulphate improving agent E923 Ammonium persulphate improving agent E924 Potassium bromate improving agent N/A E924b Calcium bromate improving agent E925 Chlorine preservative, bleach, improving agent E926 Chlorine dioxide (preservative) bleach E927a Azodicarbonamide improving agent N/A E927b Carbamide (urea) improving agent Approved in the EU. [7] E928 Benzoyl peroxide (improving agent) bleach N/A FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  28. 28. E number 24 E929 Acetone peroxide E930 Calcium peroxide (improving agent) bleach N/A E938 Argon packaging gas Approved in the EU. [7] E939 Helium packaging gas Approved in the EU. [7] E940 Dichlorodifluoromethane packaging gas Rarely used E941 Nitrogen (packaging gas) propellant Approved in the EU. [7] E942 Nitrous oxide propellant Approved in the EU. [7] E943a Butane propellant Approved in the EU. [7] E943b Isobutane propellant Approved in the EU. [7] E944 Propane propellant Approved in the EU. [7] E945 Chloropentafluoroethane propellant N/A E946 Octafluorocyclobutane propellant N/A E948 Oxygen packaging gas Approved in the EU. [7] E949 Hydrogen packaging gas Approved in the EU. [7] E950 Acesulfame potassium sweetener Approved in the EU. [11] E951 Aspartame sweetener Approved in the EU. [11] E952 Cyclamic acid and its sodium and calcium salts, also known as Cyclamate sweetener Approved in the EU. [11] E953 Isomalt, Isomaltitol sweetener Approved in the EU. [11] E954 Saccharin and its sodium, potassium and calcium salts sweetener Approved in the EU. [11] E955 Sucralose (Trichlorogalactosucrose) sweetener Approved in the EU. [11] E956 Alitame sweetener N/A E957 Thaumatin (sweetener) flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [11] E958 Glycyrrhizin (sweetener) flavour enhancer N/A E959 Neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (sweetener) flavour enhancer Approved in the EU. [11] E960 Stevioside sweetener N/A E961 Neotame sweetener Approved in 2010 [10] E962 Aspartame-acesulfame salt (sweetener) stabiliser Approved in the EU. [11] E965 Maltitol (i) Maltitol (ii) Maltitol syrup (sweetener) (stabiliser) humectant Approved in the EU. [11] FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  29. 29. E number 25 E966 Lactitol sweetener Approved in the EU. [11] E967 Xylitol sweetener Approved in the EU. [11] E968 Erythritol humectant Approved in the EU. [11] E999 Quillaia extract foaming agent Approved in the EU. [7] E1000–E1599 (additional chemicals) Code Name(s) Purpose Status E1000 Cholic acid emulsifier N/A E1001 Choline salts emulsifier N/A E1100 Amylase stabiliser, flavour enhancer N/A E1101 Proteases ((i)Protease, (ii)Papain, (iii)Bromelain, (iv)Ficin) stabiliser, flavour enhancer N/A E1102 Glucose oxidase antioxidant N/A E1103 Invertase stabiliser Approved in the EU. [9] E1104 Lipases N/A E1105 Lysozyme preservative N/A E1200 Polydextrose stabiliser, thickening agent, humectant, carrier Approved in the EU. [7] E1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone stabiliser Approved in the EU. [7] E1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (carrier) stabiliser Approved in the EU. [7] E1203 Polyvinyl alcohol Approved in 2010 [10] E1204 Pullulan Approved in the EU. [7] E1400 Dextrin (Dextrins, roasted starch white and yellow) (stabiliser) thickening agent N/A E1401 Modified starch ((Acid-treated starch) stabiliser) thickening agent N/A E1402 Alkaline modified starch (stabiliser) thickening agent N/A E1403 Bleached starch (stabiliser) thickening agent N/A E1404 Oxidized starch (emulsifier) thickening agent Approved in the EU. [7] E1405 Enzyme treated starch N/A E1410 Monostarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU. [7] E1411 Distarch glycerol (thickening agent) emulsifier N/A FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  30. 30. E number 26 E1412 Distarch phosphate esterified with sodium trimetasphosphate; esterified with phosphorus oxychloride (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU. [7] E1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU. [7] E1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate (emulsifier) thickening agent Approved in the EU. [7] E1420 Starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU. [7] E1421 Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetate (stabiliser) thickening agent N/A E1422 Acetylated Distarch Adipate (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU. [7] E1423 Acetylated distarch glycerol thickening agent N/A E1430 Distarch glycerine (stabiliser) thickening agent N/A E1440 Hydroxy propyl starch (emulsifier) thickening agent Approved in the EU. [7] E1441 Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerine (stabiliser) thickening agent N/A E1442 Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU. [7] E1443 Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerol N/A E1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate (emulsifier) (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU. [7] E1451 Acetylated oxidised starch (emulsifier) thickening agent Approved in the EU. [7] E1452 Starch aluminium octenyl succinate Approved in the EU. [7] E1501 Benzylated hydrocarbons N/A E1502 Butane-1, 3-diol N/A E1503 Castor oil resolving agent N/A E1504 Ethyl acetate flavour solvent N/A E1505 Triethyl citrate foam stabiliser Approved in the EU. [7] E1510 Ethanol N/A E1516 Glyceryl monoacetate flavour solvent N/A E1517 Glyceryl diacetate or diacetin flavour solvent N/A E1518 Glyceryl triacetate or triacetin humectant Approved in the EU. [7] E1519 Benzyl alcohol N/A E1520 Propylene glycol humectant Approved in the EU. [7] E1521 Polyethylene glycol 8000 [12] Approved in 2010 [10] FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  31. 31. E number 27 E1525 Hydroxyethyl cellulose thickening agent N/A Notes [1] UK Food Standards Agency (http://www.eatwell.gov.uk/foodlabels/understandingenumbers/) [2] European Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ. do?uri=CONSLEG:1995L0002:20060815:EN:PDF) [3] Food Additives and Ingredients Association (http://www.faia.org.uk/faq2_4.php), no date, Frequently Asked Questions, accessed 6 March 2010 [4] Codex Alimentarius. "Noms de Categorie et Systeme International de Numerotation des Additifs Alimentaires" (http://www. codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/7/cxg_036f.pdf). . Retrieved 2 April 2009. [5] Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers (http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/enumberlist), Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010 [6] Additives (http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/_srcfiles/Additives alpha.pdf), Food Standards Australia New Zealand [7] Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers (http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/enumberlist#h_7), Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010 [8] Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers (http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/enumberlist#h_4), Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010 [9] Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers (http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/enumberlist#h_6), Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010 [10] New additives approved for use (http://www.food.gov.uk/news/newsarchive/2010/nov/additives), Food Standards Agency, Friday 26 November 2010 [11] Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers (http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/enumberlist#h_5), Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010 [12] New Zealand Food Safety Authority. "Identifying Food Additives" (http://www.nzfsa.govt.nz/consumers/ chemicals-nutrients-additives-and-toxins/food-additives.pdf). . Retrieved 16 January 2010. See also • Hydrolyzed protein • List of food additives • List of food additives, Codex Alimentarius External links • Codex Alimentarius (http://www.codexalimentarius.net/gsfaonline/CXS_192e.pdf) • E-codes and ingredients search engine with details/suggestions for Muslims (http://www.guidedways.com/ halalfoodguide.php) • Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers (http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/ additivesbranch/enumberlist) • Food Additives in the European Union (http://www.foodlaw.rdg.ac.uk/additive.htm) • Halal Status for E-Numbers (http://www.knowledge.hdcglobal.com/hdc/ingredient_ranges.php?id_topic=1) FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  32. 32. 28 3 - ANTI-CAKING AGENTS Anticaking agent An anticaking agent is an additive placed in powdered or granulated materials, such as table salt, to prevent the formation of lumps, easing packaging, transport, and consumption. An anticaking agent in salt is denoted in the ingredients, for example, as "anti-caking agent (554)", which is sodium aluminosilicate, a man-made product. This product is present in many commercial table salts as well as dried milks, egg mixes, sugar products, and flours. In Europe, sodium ferrocyanide (535) and potassium ferrocyanide (536) are more common anticaking agents in table salt. Natural anticaking agents used in more expensive table salt include calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate. Some anticaking agents are soluble in water; others are soluble in alcohols or other organic solvents. They function either by adsorbing excess moisture, or by coating particles and making them water repellent. Calcium silicate (CaSiO 3 ), a commonly used anti-caking agent, added to e.g. table salt, adsorbs both water and oil. Anticaking agents are also used in non-food items such as road salt [1] , fertilisers [2] , cosmetics [3] , synthetic detergents [4] , and in manufacturing applications. List of anticaking agents The following anticaking agents are listed in order by their E number. • E341 Tricalcium Phosphate • E500 Sodium bicarbonate • E535 Sodium ferrocyanide • E536 Potassium ferrocyanide • E538 Calcium ferrocyanide • E542 Bone phosphate • E550 Sodium silicate • E551 Silicon dioxide • E552 Calcium silicate • E553a Magnesium trisilicate • E553b Talcum powder • E554 Sodium aluminosilicate • E555 Potassium aluminium silicate • E556 Calcium aluminosilicate • E558 Bentonite • E559 Aluminium silicate • E570 Stearic acid • E900 Polydimethylsiloxane FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  33. 33. Anticaking agent 29 References [1] "Anticaking Admixtures to Road Salt" (http://www.transportation.org/?siteid=55&pageid=948). Transportation.org. . Retrieved 2010-06-17. [2] "Fertilizer compositions containing alkylene oxide adduct anticaking agents" (http://www.google.com/patents?vid=USPAT4356020). Google.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-17. [3] "Talc Information" (http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/HBI/26). Cosmeticsinfo.org. . Retrieved 2010-06-17. [4] "Synthetic Detergents: Introduction to Detergent Chemistry" (http://www.chemistry.co.nz/introduction.htm). Chemistry.co.nz. 2006-12-15. . Retrieved 2010-06-17. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  34. 34. Monocalcium phosphate 30 Monocalcium phosphate Monocalcium phosphate Identifiers CAS number 7758-23-8 [1]   PubChem 24454 [2] Properties Molecular formula CaH4 P2 O8 Molar mass 234.05 g/mol Density 2.22 g/cm 3 Melting point 109 °C Boiling point 203 °C (decomposes) Solubility in water 2 g/100 mL Hazards EU Index Not listed NFPA 704 Flash point Non-flammable Related compounds Other anions Calcium pyrophosphate Other cations Magnesium phosphate Dicalcium phosphate Tricalcium phosphate Strontium phosphate (what is this?)   (verify) [3] Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references Monocalcium phosphate is a chemical compound with the formula Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 . It is commonly found as the monohydrate, Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  35. 35. Monocalcium phosphate 31 Uses Fertilizer Phosphorus is an essential nutrient and therefore is a common component of agricultural fertilizers. Tricalcium phosphate Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , a major component of phosphate rock such as phosphorite, [4] apatite, and other phosphate minerals, is too insoluble to be an efficient fertilizer. Therefore it can be converted into the more soluble monocalcium phosphate, generally by the use of sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 . The result is hydrated to turn the calcium sulfate into the dihydrate gypsum and sold as superphosphate of lime. Alternately phosphate rock may be treated with phosphoric acid to produce a purer form of monocalcium phosphate and is sold as triple phosphate. Superphosphate Superphosphate is a fertilizer produced by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid on powdered phosphate rock. [5] 3 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) + 6 H 2 SO 4 (aq) → 6 CaSO 4 (aq) + 3 Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 (aq) "In 1840, Justus Von Liebig wrote, 'The crops on the field diminish or increase in exact proportion to the diminution or increase of the mineral substances conveyed to it in manure.' Von Liebig was the first to discover that phosphate of lime in bone meal could be rendered more readily available to plants by treatment with sulfuric acid. Sir John Bennett Lawes about the same time discovered that phosphate rock underwent the same reaction and could be used as a source ingredient. In the 1840s, scientists found that coprolites could be dissolved in sulfuric acid to produce what became known as superphosphate. Bennett Lawes was the first to manufacture superphosphate at his factory in Deptford, England in 1842." [6] Limestone pinnacles left on Nauru after phosphate mining. A large market for superphosphate was created in the second half of the 20th century by the development of aerial topdressing in New Zealand which allowed superphosphate to be spread economically over large areas. Superphosphate can be created naturally in large quantities by the action of guano, or bird feces, resulting in deposits around sea bird colonies which can be mined. The most famous mining site is the island of Nauru in the South Pacific from which much of the "soil" was mined, creating temporary wealth for the inhabitants. Triple superphosphate Triple superphosphate is a fertilizer produced by the action of concentrated phosphoric acid on ground phosphate rock. [5] Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) + 4 H 3 PO 4 (aq) → 3 Ca 2+ (aq) + 6 H 2 PO 4 1- (aq) → 3 Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 (aq) The active ingredient of the product, monocalcium phosphate, is identical to that of superphosphate, but without the presence of calcium sulfate that is formed if sulfuric acid is used instead of phosphoric acid. The phosphorus content of triple superphosphate (17 - 23% P; 44 to 52% P 2 O 5 ) is therefore greater than that of superphosphate (7 - 9.5% P; 16 to 22% P 2 O 5 ). Triple superphosphate was the most common phosphate (P) fertilizer in the USA until the 1960s, when ammonium phosphates became more popular. It is produced in granular and nongranular form and is used both in fertilizer blends (with potassium and nitrogen fertilizers) and by itself. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  36. 36. Monocalcium phosphate 32 Leavening agent Calcium dihydrogen phosphate is also used in the food industry as a leavening agent to cause baked goods to rise. Because it is acidic, when combined with an alkali ingredient – commonly sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) or potassium bicarbonate – it reacts to produce carbon dioxide and a salt. The carbon dioxide gas is what leavens the baked good. When combined in a ready-made baking powder, the acid and alkali ingredients are included in the right proportions such that they will exactly neutralize each other and not significantly affect the overall pH of the product. References [1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=7758-23-8 [2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=24454 [3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Amonocalcium_phosphate?diff=cur&oldid=386478054 [4] "Phosphate Rock" (http://www.mii.org/Minerals/photophos.html#sources). Mineral Information Institute. . Retrieved 2009-07-08. [5] McMurry, John; Fay, Robert C. (2004). Chemistry (4 ed.). Prentice Hall. pp. 841–2. [6] "About Yara: History" (http://fert.yara.co.uk/en/about_us/history/index.html). Yara International ASA. . Retrieved 2009-07-08. • Yara corporate History (http://fert.yara.co.uk/en/about_us/history/index.html) Accessed May 2007 • Havlin, J.L., J.D. Beaton, S.L. Tisdale, and W.L. Nelson. 2005. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. 7th edn. Pearson Prentice Hall, N.J. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  37. 37. Dicalcium phosphate 33 Dicalcium phosphate Dicalcium phosphate Identifiers CAS number 7757-93-9 [1]   ,  7789-77-7 (dihydrate) PubChem 104805 [2] ChemSpider 10605753 [3]   UNII L11K75P92J [4]   Properties Molecular formula CaHPO4 Molar mass 136.06 g/mol Density 2.929 g/cm 3 Solubility in water 0.02 g/100 mL Hazards EU Index Not listed NFPA 704 Flash point Non-flammable Related compounds Other anions Calcium pyrophosphate Other cations Magnesium phosphate Monocalcium phosphate Tricalcium phosphate Strontium phosphate (what is this?)   (verify) [5] Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references Dicalcium phosphate, also known as calcium monohydrogen phosphate, is a dibasic calcium phosphate. It is usually found as the dihydrate, with the chemical formula of CaHPO 4 • 2H 2 O, but it can be thermally converted to the anhydrous form. It is practically insoluble in water, with a solubility of 0.02 g per 100 mL at 25 °C. It contains about 29.5 percent calcium in its anyhydrous form. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  38. 38. Dicalcium phosphate 34 Preparation Dicalcium phosphate may be formed by the reaction of stoichiometric quantities of calcium oxide and phosphoric acid: CaO + H 3 PO 4 → CaHPO 4 + H 2 O. Uses Dicalcium phosphate is mainly used as a dietary supplement in prepared breakfast cereals, dog treats, enriched flour, and noodle products. It is also used as a tableting agent in some pharmaceutical preparations, including some products meant to eliminate body odor. It is used in poultry feed. References [1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=7757-93-9 [2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=104805 [3] http://www.chemspider.com/10605753 [4] http://fdasis.nlm.nih.gov/srs/srsdirect.jsp?regno=L11K75P92J [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Adicalcium_phosphate?diff=cur&oldid=401987152 FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  39. 39. Tricalcium Phosphate 35 Tricalcium Phosphate Tricalcium Phosphate Identifiers CAS number 7758-87-4 [1]   PubChem 516943 [2] ChemSpider 22864 [3]   UNII K4C08XP666 [4]   Properties Molecular formula Ca3 O8 P2 Molar mass 310.18 g mol −1 Appearance White amorphous powder Density 3.14 g/cm 3 Melting point Liquifies under high pressure at 1670 K (1391 °C) Thermochemistry Std enthalpy of formation Δf H o 298 −982.3 kcal/mol (α-form) −984.9 kcal/mol (β-form) Hazards EU Index Not listed NFPA 704 Flash point Non-flammable Related compounds Other anions Calcium pyrophosphate Other cations Magnesium phosphate Dicalcium phosphate Monocalcium phosphate Strontium phosphate (what is this?)   (verify) [5] Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references Tricalcium phosphate is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid with the chemical formula Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 . It is also known as tribasic calcium phosphate or "bone ash" (calcium phosphate being one of the main combustion products of bone). FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  40. 40. Tricalcium Phosphate 36 It has an alpha and a beta crystal form, the alpha state being formed at high temperatures. As rock, it is found in Whitlockite. General case The name calcium phosphate refers to minerals containing calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) together with orthophosphates (PO 4 3- ), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P 2 O 7 4- ) and occasionally hydrogen or hydroxide ions. Especially, the common mineral apatite has formula Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 X, where X is F, Cl, OH, or a mixture; it is hydroxyapatite if the extra ion is mainly hydroxide. Much of the "tricalcium phosphate" on the market is actually powdered hydroxyapatite. Natural occurrence It is found in nature as a rock in Morocco, Israel, Philippines, Egypt, and Kola (Russia) and in smaller quantities in some other countries. The natural form is not completely pure, and there are some other components like sand and lime which can change the composition. In terms of P 2 O 5 , most calcium phosphate rocks have a content of 30% to 40% P 2 O 5 in weight. The skeletons and teeth of vertebrate animals are composed of calcium phosphate, mainly hydroxyapatite. Uses Tricalcium phosphate is used in powdered spices as an anti-caking agent. Calcium phosphate is an important raw material for the production of phosphoric acid and fertilizers, for example in the Odda process. Calcium phosphate is also a raising agent (food additives) E341. Is a mineral salt found in rocks and bones, it is used in cheese products. It is also used as a nutritional supplement [6] and occurs naturally in cow milk, although the most common and economical forms for supplementation are calcium carbonate (which should be taken with food) and calcium citrate (which can be taken without food). [7] There is some debate about the different bioavailabilities of the different calcium salts. It is commonly used in porcelain and dental powders, and medically as an antacid or calcium supplement, although calcium carbonate is more common in this regard. It can be used as a tissue replacement for repairing bony defects when autogenous bone graft is not feasible or possible. [8] [9] [10] It may be used alone or in combination with a biodegradable, resorbable polymer such as polyglycolic acid. [11] It may also be combined with autologous materials for a bone graft. [12] [13] Porous beta-Tricalcium phosphate scaffolds are employed as drug carrier systems for local drug delivery in bone. [14] Another practical application of the compound is its use in gene transfection. The calcium ions can make a cell competent to allow exogenous genes to enter the cell by diffusion. A heat shock afterwards then invokes the cell to repair itself. This is a quick and easy method for transfection, albeit a rather inefficient one. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  41. 41. Tricalcium Phosphate 37 References [1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=7758-87-4 [2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=516943 [3] http://www.chemspider.com/22864 [4] http://fdasis.nlm.nih.gov/srs/srsdirect.jsp?regno=K4C08XP666 [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Atricalcium_phosphate?diff=cur&oldid=401641515 [6] Bonjour JP, Carrie AL, Ferrari S, Clavien H, Slosman D, Theintz G, Rizzoli R (March 1997). "Calcium-enriched foods and bone mass growth in prepubertal girls: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial" (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender. fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=507944). J. Clin. Invest. 99 (6): 1287–94. doi:10.1172/JCI119287. PMID 9077538. PMC 507944. [7] Straub DA (June 2007). "Calcium supplementation in clinical practice: a review of forms, doses, and indications" (http://ncp.sagepub.com/ cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17507729). Nutr Clin Pract 22 (3): 286–96. doi:10.1177/0115426507022003286. PMID 17507729. . [8] Paderni S, Terzi S, Amendola L (September 2009). "Major bone defect treatment with an osteoconductive bone substitute". Musculoskelet Surg 93 (2): 89–96. doi:10.1007/s12306-009-0028-0. PMID 19711008. [9] Moore DC, Chapman MW, Manske D (1987). "The evaluation of a biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic for use in grafting long-bone diaphyseal defects". Journal of Orthopaedic Research : Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society 5 (3): 356–65. doi:10.1002/jor.1100050307. PMID 3040949. [10] Lange TA, Zerwekh JE, Peek RD, Mooney V, Harrison BH (1986). "Granular tricalcium phosphate in large cancellous defects". Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science 16 (6): 467–72. PMID 3541772. [11] Cao H, Kuboyama N (September 2009). "A biodegradable porous composite scaffold of PGA/beta-TCP for bone tissue engineering". Bone 46 (2): 386–95. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2009.09.031. PMID 19800045. [12] Erbe EM, Marx JG, Clineff TD, Bellincampi LD (October 2001). "Potential of an ultraporous beta-tricalcium phosphate synthetic cancellous bone void filler and bone marrow aspirate composite graft". European Spine Journal : Official Publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society 10 Suppl 2: S141–6. doi:10.1007/s005860100287. PMID 11716011. [13] Bansal S, Chauhan V, Sharma S, Maheshwari R, Juyal A, Raghuvanshi S (July 2009). "Evaluation of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate mixed with bone marrow aspirate as a bone graft substitute for posterolateral spinal fusion" (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/ articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2762171). Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 43 (3): 234–9. doi:10.4103/0019-5413.49387. PMID 19838344. PMC 2762171. [14] Kundu, B; Lemos A; Soundrapandian C; Sen PS; Datta S; Ferreira JMF; Basu D (2010). "Development of porous HAp and β-TCP scaffolds by starch consolidation with foaming method and drug-chitosan bilayered scaffold based drug delivery system" (http://www.springerlink. com/content/92659025267n6482/). J Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 21 (11): 2955–69. doi:10.1007/s10856-010-4127-0. PMID 20644982. . FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  42. 42. Monomagnesium phosphate 38 Monomagnesium phosphate Monomagnesium phosphate[1] Identifiers CAS number 13092-66-5 [2] , (Anhydrous) 15609-87-7 (Dihydrate) Properties Molecular formula H4 MgO8 P2 Molar mass 218.28 g mol −1 Appearance White, odorless, crystalline powder Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references Monomagnesium phosphate is one of the forms of magnesium phosphate. It is a magnesium acid salt of phosphoric acid with the chemical formula Mg(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 . As a food additive, it is used as an acidity regulator and has the E number E343. References [1] Monomagnesium phosphate (http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/jecfa-additives/specs/monograph5/additive-507-m5.pdf), FAO JECFA Monographs 5 (2008) [2] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=13092-66-5 FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  43. 43. Dimagnesium phosphate 39 Dimagnesium phosphate Dimagnesium phosphate Identifiers CAS number 7757-86-0 [1] ,  7782-75-4 (trihydrate) Properties Molecular formula HMgO4 P Molar mass 120.28 g mol −1 Density 2.13 g/cm3 trihydrate Hazards R-phrases R36, R37, R38 NFPA 704 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references Dimagnesium phosphate is a compound with formula MgHPO 4 . It is a magnesium acid salt of phosphoric acid. It can be formed by reaction of stoichiometric quantities of magnesium oxide with phosphoric acid. MgO + H 3 PO 4 → MgHPO 4 + H 2 O. It is one of the compounds that have E number E343 . See also • Magnesium phosphate References [1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=7757-86-0 FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  44. 44. Sodium ferrocyanide 40 Sodium ferrocyanide Sodium ferrocyanide[1] Identifiers CAS number 13601-19-9 [2] PubChem 26129 [3] EC number 237-081-9 [4] Properties Molecular formula Na4 Fe(CN)6 Molar mass 303.91 g/mol Appearance Yellow crystals Density 1.458 g/cm 3 Melting point 435 °C (decomposes) Solubility in water 18 g/100 mL Structure Crystal structure monoclinic Hazards S-phrases S22 S24 S25 Related compounds Other anions Sodium ferricyanide (Red prussiate of soda) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references Sodium ferrocyanide, also known as tetrasodium hexacyanoferrate or sodium hexacyanoferrate(II), is a coordination compound of formula Na 4 Fe(CN) 6 that forms semitransparent yellow crystals at room temperature and decomposes at its boiling point. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. Despite the presence of the cyanide ligands, sodium ferrocyanide is not especially toxic (acceptable daily intake 0–0.025 mg/(kg body weight) [5] ) because the cyanides are tightly bound to the metal, although it can react with acid or photodecompose to release hydrogen cyanide gas. In its hydrous form, Na 4 Fe(CN) 6 ·10H 2 O (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate), it is sometimes known as yellow prussiate of soda. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  45. 45. Sodium ferrocyanide 41 Uses Sodium ferrocyanide is a chemical additive known as E 535. It is added to road and food grade salt as an anticaking agent. [5] When combined with iron, it converts to a deep blue pigment, which is the main component of prussian blue. [6] In photography, it is used for bleaching, toning, and fixing. It is used as a stabilizer for the coating on welding rods. In the petroleum industry, it is used for removal of mercaptans. References [1] Sodium ferrocyanide MSDS (http://siri.org/msds/f2/bdn/bdnqc.html) [2] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=13601-19-9 [3] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=26129 [4] http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/index.php?GENRE=ECNO&ENTREE=237-081-9 [5] "Toxicological evaluation of some food additives including anticaking agents, antimicrobials, antioxidants, emulsifiers and thickening agents" (http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v05je02.htm). World Health Organization, Geneva. 1974. . Retrieved 18 May 2009. [6] "Prussian blue" (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/480982/Prussian-blue). Encyclopædia Britannica. . Retrieved 18 May. 2009. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  46. 46. Potassium ferrocyanide 42 Potassium ferrocyanide Potassium ferrocyanide Identifiers CAS number 13943-58-3 [1]   , (anhydrous) 14459-95-1 (trihydrate) PubChem 161067 [2] Properties Molecular formula C6 N6 FeK4 Molar mass 368.35 g/mol (anhydrous) 422.388 g/mol (trihydrate) Appearance Yellow, crystalline granules. Density 1.85 g/cm 3 (trihydrate) Melting point 69-71°C Boiling point 400°C (decomp) Solubility in water trihydrate 28.9 g/100 mL (20 °C) Solubility insoluble in ethanol, ether Hazards EU Index Not listed R-phrases R32, R52, R53 S-phrases S50(B), S61 NFPA 704 Flash point Non-flammable Related compounds Other anions Potassium ferricyanide Other cations Sodium ferrocyanide Prussian blue (what is this?)   (verify) [3] Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  47. 47. Potassium ferrocyanide 43 Potassium ferrocyanide, also known as yellow prussiate of potash or potassium hexacyanidoferrate(II), is a coordination compound of formula K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ]•3H 2 O, which forms lemon-yellow monoclinic crystals at room temperature, and which decomposes at its boiling point. Synthesis Potassium ferrocyanide is the product of the reaction between hydrogen ferrocyanide and potassium hydroxide: H 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] + KOH → K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ]•3H 2 O [4] The reaction forms a stable compound that is neither combustible nor pyrophoric. [5] This compound is a strong reducing agent and is thus incompatible with oxidizing agents. [6] Addition of metal chlorates, perchlorates, nitrates, or nitrites to a solution of carefully prepared and otherwise stable potassium ferrocyanide may result in a large explosion. [5] Properties Physical characteristics Although it is insoluble in alcohol, a liter of water can dissolve just under three hundred grams of the crystals, and the solution can react with acid to release toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas. The resulting HCN gas boils at 26 °C and, being lighter than air (with a gaseous density of 0.94), quickly evaporates clear of the release point. Chemical reactions When chlorine gas is bubbled through a solution of this compound, potassium ferricyanide is formed in the reaction: 2 K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] + Cl 2 → 2 K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] + 2 KCl [7] This reaction can be used to remove potassium ferrocyanide from a solution. [8] When the two are combined, the product is Prussian blue. Potassium ferrocyanide, potassium ferricyanide, and Prussian blue account for over 97% of cyanides in the environment. [9] Potassium ferrocyanide is also used to test for protein. Acetic acid and K 3 Fe(CN) 6 are added to an aqueous solution of the substance being tested. The formation of a white precipitate confirms the presence of protein. [10] Toxicity Potassium ferrocyanide itself is only slightly toxic, [5] although adding acid to its aqueous solution releases toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. While it is not mutagenic, it may cause irritation if it is ingested, inhaled, or if it comes into contact with skin. [11] The best solution in these situations is to remove the victim to fresh air or wash the affected area thoroughly with water. It causes harm in aqueous environments and is especially toxic to aquatic organisms. The lethal dose (LD50) in rats is 6400 mg/kg. [5] Uses • Naturally, potassium ferrocyanide can be used as an alternate nitrogen source for plants. It is often used as a gardening technique. [12] In an experiment to test this aim, plants were either deprived of nitrogen or given a nitrogen-rich environment while all were exposed to either potassium ferrocyanide or its product, potassium ferricyanide. The plants were unable to sustain themselves solely on the cyanides, but the uptake of the cyanides did increase in the absence of nitrogen. Furthermore, the plants appeared to have different methods for the uptake of the two cyanides. [9] • Industrially, this complex is used in metal extraction and to make adhesives, computer electronics, fire retardants, cosmetics, dyes, nylon, paints, inks, plexiglass, pharmaceuticals, and rocket propellant. [9] It is also used in low FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  48. 48. Potassium ferrocyanide 44 doses in some food preparation. It works as an anti-caking agent and it removes copper from red wine, as copper is used as a fungicide on grapes. [4] • In the laboratory, potassium ferrocyanide is used to determine the concentration of potassium permanganate, a compound often used in titrations based on redoxreactions. History This specific cyanide was part of an alleged terrorist attempt in Italy. On February 21, 2002 four Moroccan Nationalists were arrested with nine pounds of potassium ferrocyanide and a map pinpointing the exact water pipes leading to the United States Embassy in Rome. The presumed plan was that the cyanide would be dumped into the water to poison the Embassy. Whether or not the men were planning an attack, the potassium ferrocyanide mixed with the water would not have been enough to make it toxic. As aforementioned, it is only extremely toxic when mixed with strong acids due to the resulting HCN gas. [12] See also • Ferrocyanide • Potassium ferricyanide • Ferricyanide References [1] http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=13943-58-3 [2] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=161067 [3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%3Apotassium_ferrocyanide?diff=cur&oldid=394358825 [4] Wageningen University (2009-02-24). "Food-Info" (http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e536.htm). . Retrieved 2009-04-30. [5] JT Baker, Inc. (2006-02-13). "Potassium ferrocyanide MSDS" (http://www.jtbaker.com/msds/englishhtml/p5763.htm). . Retrieved 2009-04-30. [6] Edwin J. deBeer, Axel M. Hjort (1935-03). "Employment of Potassium Ferrocyanide in Standardization of Dilute Potassium Permanganate" (http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ac50094a018). . Retrieved 2009-04-30. [7] NIH. "Summary of Data for Chemical Selection" (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/Chem_Background/ExSumPdf/ PotassiumFerriCyanide.pdf). . Retrieved 2009-04-30. [8] Barbara M. Ferrier, Derek Jarvis, and Vincent Du Vigneaud (1965-11). "Deamino-oxytocin. Its Isolation by Partition Chromatography on Sephadex and Crystallization from Water, and its Biological Activities." (http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/citation/240/11/4264). . Retrieved 2009-04-30. [9] Yu XZ, Gu JD, Li TP (August 2008). "Availability of ferrocyanide and ferricyanide complexes as a nitrogen source to cyanogenic plants". Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 55 (2): 229–37. doi:10.1007/s00244-007-9101-6. PMID 18180862. [10] Sherman, Henry Clapp (2007). Methods of Organic Analysis. READ BOOKS. p. 313. ISBN 1408628023. [11] Nishioka H (June 1975). "Mutagenic activities of metal compounds in bacteria". Mutation Research 31 (3): 185–9. PMID 805366. [12] Melinda Henneberger (2002-02-21). "A NATION CHALLENGED: SUSPECTS; 4 Arrested in Plot Against U.S. Embassy in Rome" (http:/ /www.nytimes.com/2002/02/21/world/a-nation-challenged-suspects-4-arrested-in-plot-against-us-embassy-in-rome.html?n=Top/ Reference/Times Topics/People/H/Henneberger, Melinda). . Retrieved 2009-04-30. External links • National Pollutant Inventory - Cyanide (inorganic) compounds fact sheet (http://www.npi.gov.au/substances/ cyanide/index.html) FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  49. 49. Sodium silicate 45 Sodium silicate E550 redirects here. For the Italian locomotive, see FS Class E550 Sodium silicate Identifiers Abbreviations E550 CAS number 6834-92-0 [1]   , 10213-79-3 [2]  pentahydrate  , 13517-24-3 [3]  nonahydrate  PubChem 23266 [4] , 61495 [5]  pentahydrate, 22671001 [6]  octahydrate, 61639 [7]  nonahydrate, 18931786 [8]  decahydrate ChemSpider 21758 [9]   , 55415 [10]  pentahydrate  , 55547 [11]  nonahydrate  EC number 229-912-9 [12] UN number 3253 MeSH Sodium+metasilicate [13] RTECS number VV9275000 Properties Molecular formula Na2 O3 Si Molar mass 122.06 g mol −1 Exact mass 121.941209749 g mol -1 Appearance White crystals Density 2.4 g cm-3 Melting point 1088 °C (anhydrous) 72.2 °C (pentahydrate) Solubility in water Soluble Refractive index (n D ) 1.52 (anhydrous) 1.456 (pentahydrate) Thermochemistry Std enthalpy of formation Δ f Ho 298 −1519 kJ/mol Standard molar entropy So 298 113.8 J K−1 mol−1 Hazards MSDS Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc. [14] EU Index 014-010-00-8 FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  50. 50. Sodium silicate 46 EU classification Corrosive (C) R-phrases R34 , R37 S-phrases (S1/2), S13, S24/25, S36/37/39, S45 NFPA 704 Related compounds Other anions Sodium carbonate Sodium germanate Sodium stannate Sodium plumbate Other cations Potassium silicate (what is this?)   (verify) [15] Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references Sodium silicate is the common name for a compound sodium metasilicate, Na 2 SiO 3 , also known as water glass or liquid glass. It is available in aqueous solution and in solid form and is used in cements, passive fire protection, refractories, textile and lumber processing, and automobiles. Sodium carbonate and silicon dioxide react when molten to form sodium silicate and carbon dioxide: [16] Na 2 CO 3 + SiO 2 → Na 2 SiO 3 + CO 2 Anhydrous sodium silicate contains a chain polymeric anion composed of corner shared {SiO 4 } tetrahedral, and not a discrete SiO 3 2− ion. [16] In addition to the anhydrous form, there are hydrates with the formula Na 2 SiO 3 ·nH 2 O (where n = 5, 6, 8, 9) which contain the discrete, approximately tetrahedral anion SiO 2 (OH) 2 2− with water of hydration. For example, the commercially available sodium silicate pentahydrate Na 2 SiO 3 ·5H 2 O is formulated as Na 2 SiO 2 (OH) 2 ·4H 2 O and the nonahydrate Na 2 SiO 3 ·9H 2 O is formulated as Na 2 SiO 2 (OH) 2 ·8H 2 O. [17] History Water Glass was defined in Von Wagner's Manual of Chemical Technology (1892 translation) as any of the soluble alkaline silicates, first observed by Van Helmont in 1640 as a fluid substance made by melting sand with excess alkali. Glauber made what he termed "fluid silica" in 1648 from potash and silica. Von Fuchs, in 1825, obtained what is now known as water glass by treating silicic acid with an alkali, the result being soluble in water, "but not affected by atmospheric changes". [18] Von Wagner distinguished soda, potash, double(soda and potash), and fixin as types of water glass. The fixing type was "a mixture of silica well saturated with potash water glass and a sodium silicate" used to stabilize inorganic water color pigments on cement work for outdoor signs and murals. Properties Sodium silicate is a white powder that is readily soluble in water, producing an alkaline solution. It is one of a number of related compounds which include sodium orthosilicate, Na 4 SiO 4 , sodium pyrosilicate, Na 6 Si 2 O 7 , and others. All are glassy, colourless and dissolve in water. Sodium silicate is stable in neutral and alkaline solutions. In acidic solutions, the silicate ion reacts with hydrogen ions to form silicic acid, which when heated and roasted forms silica gel, a hard, glassy substance. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  51. 51. Sodium silicate 47 CAS registry number and EINECS number Each and every substance has its own unique CAS registry number and EINECS number. The CAS No. and EINECS No. of sodium silicate and other related substances are: [19] Substance Name CAS# EC#(EINECS No.) Silicic acid, sodium salt 1344-09-8 239-981-7 disodium metasilicate 6834-92-0 229-912-9 Sodium silicate 15859-24-2 215-687-4 Uses Metal repair Sodium silicate is used, along with magnesium silicate, in muffler repair and fitting paste. When dissolved in water, both sodium silicate, and magnesium silicate form a thick paste that is easy to apply. When the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine heats up to its operating temperature, the heat drives out all of the excess water from the paste. The silicate compounds that are left over have glass-like properties, making a temporary, brittle repair. Automotive repair Sodium silicate can be used to seal leaks at the head gasket. A common use is when an alloy cylinder head engine is left sitting for extended periods or the coolant is not changed at proper intervals, electrolysis can "eat out" sections of the head causing the gasket to fail. Rather than remove the cylinder head, "liquid glass" is poured into the radiator and allowed to circulate. The waterglass is injected via the radiator water into the hotspot at the engine. This technique works because at 210–220 °F the sodium silicate loses water molecules to form a very powerful sealant that will not re-melt below 1500 °F. A sodium silicate repair of a leaking head gasket can hold for up to two years and even longer in some cases. The effect will be almost instant, and steam from the radiator water will stop coming out the exhaust within minutes of application. This repair only works with water-to-cylinder or water-to-air applications and where the sodium silicate reaches the "conversion" temperature of 210–220 °F. Car engine disablement Sodium silicate solution is used to inexpensively, quickly, and permanently disable automobile engines. Running an engine with two quarts of a sodium silicate solution instead of motor oil causes the solution to precipitate, catastrophically damaging the engine's bearings and pistons within a few minutes. [20] In the United States, this procedure is required by the Car Allowance Rebate System (CARS) program. [20] [21] Adhesive One common example of its use as a paper cement was for producing paper cartridges for black powder revolvers produced by Colt's Manufacturing Company during the period from 1851 until 1873, especially during the American Civil War. Sodium silicate was used to seal combustible nitrated paper together to form a conical paper cartridge to hold the black powder, as well as to cement the lead ball or conical bullet into the open end of the paper cartridge. Such sodium silicate cemented paper cartridges were inserted into the cylinders of revolvers, thereby speeding the reloading of cap and ball black powder revolvers. This use largely ended with the introduction of Colt revolvers employing brass-cased cartridges starting in 1873. [22] [23] FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  52. 52. Sodium silicate 48 When used as a paper cement, the tendency is for the sodium silicate joint eventually to crack within a few years, at which point it no longer holds the paper surfaces cemented together. Aquaculture Sodium silicate gel is also used as a substrate algal growth in aquaculture hatcheries. Food preservation Sodium silicate was also used as an egg preservation agent in the early 20th century with large success. When fresh eggs are immersed in it, bacteria which cause the eggs to spoil are kept out and water is kept in. Eggs can be kept fresh using this method for up to nine months. When boiling eggs preserved this way, it is well advised to pin-prick the egg to allow steam to escape because the shell is no longer porous. [24] Drilling fluids Sodium silicate, also known as waterglass, is frequently used in drilling fluids to stabilize borehole wells and to avoid the collapse of bore walls. It is particularly useful when drill holes pass through argillaceous formations containing swelling clay minerals such as smectite or montmorillonite. Concrete and general masonry treatment Concrete treated with a sodium silicate solution helps to significantly reduce porosity in most masonry products such as concrete, stucco, plasters. A chemical reaction occurs with the excess Ca(OH) 2 (portlandite) present in the concrete that permanently binds the silicates with the surface making them far more wearable and water repellent. It is generally advised to apply this treatment only after the initial cure has taken place (7 days or so depending on conditions). These coatings are known as silicate mineral paint. FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)
  53. 53. Sodium silicate 49 Passive fire protection (PFP) Expantrol proprietary sodium silicate suspended in 1/4" thick layer of red rubber, type 3M FS195, inserted into a metal pipe, then heated, to demonstrate hard char intumescence, strong enough to shut a melting plastic pipe. Palusol based intumescent plastic pipe device used for commercial firestopping. Sodium silicates are inherently intumescent. They come in prill (solid beads) form, as well as the liquid, water glass. The solid sheet form (Palusol) must be waterproofed to ensure longterm passive fire protection. Standard, solid, bead form sodium silicates have been used as aggregate within silicone rubber to manufacture plastic pipe firestop devices. The silicone rubber was insufficient waterproofing to preserve the intumescing function and the products had to be recalled, which is problematic for firestops that are concealed behind drywall in buildings. Pastes for caulking purposes are similarly unstable. This too has resulted in recalls and even litigation. Only 3M's "Expantrol" version, which has an external heat treatment that helps to seal the outer surface, as part of its process standard, has achieved sufficient longevity to qualify for DIBt approvals in the US for use in firestopping Not unlike other intumescents, sodium silicate, both in bead form and in liquid form are inherently endothermic, due to liquid water in the water glass and hydrates in the prill form. The absence in the US of mandatory aging tests, whereby PFP systems are made to undergo system performance tests after the aging and humidity exposures, are at the root of the continued availability, in North America, of PFP products that can become inoperable within weeks of installation. Indiscriminate use of sodium silicates without proper waterproofing measures are contributors to the problems and risk. When sodium silicates are adequately protected, they function extremely well and reliably for long. Evidence of this can be seen in the many DIBt approvals for plastic pipe firestop devices using Palusol, which use waterproofed sodium silicate sheets. Refractory use Water glass is a useful binder of solids, such as vermiculite and perlite. When blended with the aforementioned lightweight aggregates, water glass can be used to make hard, high-temperature insulation boards used for refractories, passive fire protection and high temperature insulations, such as moulded pipe insulation applications. When mixed with finely divided mineral powders, such as vermiculite dust (which is common scrap from the exfoliation process), one can produce high temperature adhesives. The intumescence disappears in the presence of finely divided mineral dust, whereby the waterglass becomes a mere matrix. Waterglass is inexpensive and abundantly available, which makes its use popular in many refractory applications. Water treatment FOOD & FERTILIZER ADDITIVES (khaled.gharib@yahoo.com)

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