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Race to space
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Race to space






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    Race to space Race to space Presentation Transcript

    • Race to Space! U.S. vs. Soviet Union NSF North Mississippi GK-8
    • Wernher von Braun: Father of Space Exploration
      • Along with other German scientists, developed the first rockets during and after World War II
      • Came to the U.S. after WWII, lived and worked in Huntsville, AL from 1950 – 1970
      • Work provided the basis for all early NASA missions
      • First director of NASA
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    • Start of the “Space Race”
      • October 4 th , 1957, Russia launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik , into orbit
      • Caused a wide-spread panic in the U.S.
      • People feared the Soviet Union would dominate the world in space exploration
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    • Formation of NASA
      • Founded 1958 after Congress passed the National Aeronautics and Space Act
      • Formed in direct response to the launch of Sputnik
      • Purpose to provide organization and direction of U.S. space program
      • First missions focused on getting humans into space, studying effects of space on humans, and returning astronauts safely to Earth
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    • Competitors in the Space Race
      • After the launch of Sputnik, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. were in direct competition to have most advanced space program
      • Viewed as contest between communism and capitalism
      • National pride and fears for national defense played large roles in motivating space race
      NSF North Mississippi GK-8 United States Soviet Union
    • First Human in Space NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Yuri and his spacecraft, Vostok 1 On April 12, 1961, the Soviets succeeded in launching the first human into space, Yuri Gagarin, and returning him safely to Earth
    • First American in Space
      • Alan Shepard becomes the first American astronaut to enter space, aboard the Freedom 7 spacecraft, on May 5, 1961
      NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Alan and his spacecraft, Freedom 7
    • The Mercury Project
      • NASA’s first mission
      • Mission goals:
        • getting an astronaut into space
        • completing an orbit
        • returning astronaut to Earth safely
      • Several preliminary Mercury launches were unmanned
      NSF North Mississippi GK-8 The Mercury - Atlas I spacecraft Enos the chimpanzee, crew of the Mercury – Atlas V spacecraft
    • The Gemini Project
      • Involved sending two astronauts into orbit for longer periods of time
      • Paved the way and tested equipment for the Apollo missions to the moon
      • Astronaut Ed White, II performs the first spacewalk by an American during the Gemini IV mission
      NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Astronaut Ed White, II The rendezvous of the Gemini VI and Gemini VII spacecraft
    • President Kennedy’s Challenge
      • May 21, 1961: President Kennedy challenged the United States to land astronauts on the moon and to return them safely to Earth
      • Challenge provided a “finish line” for the space race
      NSF North Mississippi GK-8 President John F. Kennedy
    • The Apollo Missions
      • Apollo 11-17 involved landing men on the moon; Apollo 13 was aborted due to a malfunction
      • July 20, 1969, Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong of Apollo 11 were first men on the moon
      • Each mission consisted of three astronauts: one stayed on Command Module in lunar orbit, two descended in Lunar Module to moon’s surface
      • Total of 12 men have walked on the moon
      NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Buzz Aldrin, in Apollo 11 and on the moon (above and right) The Apollo 11 launch Neil Armstrong
    • When did the space race end?
      • Some historians believe the Space Race ended when Apollo 11 returned safely from the Moon
      • Others believe that the Race ended when the United States’ Apollo 18 spacecraft docked with a Russian Soyuz spacecraft in 1975
      NSF North Mississippi GK-8 A drawing of the Apollo – Soyuz rendezvous (Apollo 18 is on the left)
    • Skylab: The First Space Station
      • Launched by the U.S. in 1973
      • Built from a modified Apollo command module
      • Occupied by 3 different teams of astronauts for a total of 171 days
      • Purposely burned up in the Earth’s atmosphere in 1979
      • Over 2,000 hours of scientific and medical experiments performed onboard
      NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Two photographs of Skylab, taken by astronauts on their approach to the space station
    • Space Shuttles
      • Originally spacecraft were used only once
      • In the 1980s, NASA developed reusable spacecraft, the space shuttles
      • Launched like rockets but land like modern-day airplanes
      • Considered the most complex machines ever built
      • Used to take satellites and instruments into space
      • Originally five shuttles, two of which have been destroyed ( Challenger, Columbia ), three remaining in service ( Atlantis, Endeavor, Discovery )
      • Fleet of shuttles scheduled to be retired in 2010
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    • The International Space Station (ISS)
      • 15 nations participating
      • Assembly began in 1998; should be completed by 2010
      • Teams of astronauts have lived aboard the ISS since 2001
      • Provides a permanent laboratory for conducting experiments in space
      NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Images of the ISS
    • Unmanned Missions: Space Probes and Landers
      • Besides manned missions like Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo, NASA launched a series of unmanned missions
      • Probes sent to study the outer planets and to land on planets of the inner solar system like Mercury, Venus, and Mars
      • Probes also sent to gather information about the moon before astronauts ventured there
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    • Why send robotic probes instead of human?
      • Benefits:
        • Cheaper: there’s no need to send along food, air, and living space for astronauts or fuel for a round-trip
        • Safer: there’s no danger to human life
      • Drawbacks:
        • Robotic probes can only do what they’re programmed to do; they cannot grow or adapt to face unforeseen changes
        • Robotic probes often must be controlled remotely from Earth
        • Some feel that robotic missions lack the romance of discovery and experience of manned missions
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    • Voyager
      • Launched in 1977, first spacecraft to visit the outer planets of our solar system and send back pictures of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
      • Continue to function to this day
      • Now the farthest man-made objects in the solar system
      NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Images of Saturn (left) and Jupiter (below) from the Voyager spacecraft
    • The Hubble Telescope
      • In 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope was placed in orbit by the shuttle Discovery
      • Example of scientific instrument in space
      • Used to measure the age and size of the universe
      • Able to take extremely clear images that are undistorted by Earth’s atmosphere
      NSF North Mississippi GK-8 From left: Images from the Hubble telescope of the Sombrero Galaxy, Orion Nebula, Messier 101 Galaxy
    • The Cassini-Huygens Mission
      • First spacecraft to explore Saturn and its rings and moons from orbit
      • Has been in orbit around Saturn since January 30, 2004
      • The Huygens probe was released from the Cassini spacecraft in January 2005 to study Titan, Saturn’s largest moon
      NSF North Mississippi GK-8 An image of Saturn relayed to Earth by the Cassini – Huygens spacecraft
    • Mars Rovers
      • Probes launched to Mars with robotic rovers to explore surface
      • Spirit landed on Mars January 4, 2004; Opportunity landed December 12, 2004
      • Primary mission scheduled to last ~ 3 months, but mission has been active over two Earth years
      • Rovers remotely controlled by scientists on Earth
      NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Top and bottom: images of Mars from the rovers. Left: an artist’s vision of Spirit on Mars
    • President Bush’s Vision for Space Exploration
      • Presented plan to NASA January 2004
      • ISS to be completed by 2010
      • Space shuttles to be retired from service by 2010
      • Develop new manned spacecraft by 2008 and complete manned mission by 2014
      • Return to the moon by 2020
      • Eventually send humans to Mars
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    • Image Sources
      • http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/history/VonBraun/VonBraun.html
      • http://www.cohsoft.com.au/cohsoft/gene/images/1950map.png
      • http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/space/exploration/missiontimeline/vostok1.shtml
      • http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/shepard-alan.html
      • http://www.nasm.si.edu/galleries/ATTM/atmimages/S61-01928.f.jpg
      • http://www.nasa.gov/home/index.html
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury-Atlas_5
      • http://www.aerospaceguide.net/spaceexploration/gemini.html
      • http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/white-eh.html
      • http://www.nasa.gov/home/index.html
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury-Atlas_5
      • http://www.aerospaceguide.net/spaceexploration/gemini.html
      • http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/white-eh.html
      • http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/GPN-2000-001488.html
      • http://www.hbci.com/~tgort/moon.htm
      • http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Giants/vonBraun/vonbraun_4.html
      • http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/GPN-2000-001488.html
      • http://www.hbci.com/~tgort/moon.htm
      • http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/apollo11/
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    • Sources Continued: NSF North Mississippi GK-8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Soyuz_Test_Project http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Images/skylab/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylab http://www.ed.arizona.edu/ward/Sonic/shuttle.jpg http://www.clipartgallery.com/travel_trans/space/space_shuttle_blastoff2.html http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/science/ http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2006/01/ http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/galaxy_collection/pr2003028b/ http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2006/10/image/a http://www.pbs.org/spacestation/station/issfactsheet.htm http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2006/01/ http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/galaxy_collection/pr2003028b/ http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2006/10/image/a http://www.pbs.org/spacestation/station/issfactsheet.htm http://www.space.gc.ca/asc/eng/iss/facts.asp http://www.issbabylon.com/html/cool_iss_pictures.html http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition13/exp13_dock.html http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/overview/index.cfm http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/54572main_rover1_br.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Mars_from_Spirit.jpg http://marsrovers.nasa.gov/spotlight/20060302.html http://www.astro.cz/clanek/tisk/1667 http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2004/01/images/20040114-3_nasa1-515h.html