Becka Vandenboss For my Final Fiesta project, I thought it would be great to do a project on trying to getrid of my parent’s addictive habit, smoking. I also thought, this would project would help mymom prep for her tonsil surgery coming up and help her quit or slow down before then(doctor’s order: no smoking for a couple of weeks). I knew trying to do this project would beextremely hard and time consuming considering they have been smokers for a few years now.Rule-Governed Behavior: I started by making a fact sheet of the awful effects of smoking to one’s body and calendar where they could track how muchA description of a they were smoking each day. I also placed in a rule that everybehavioral contingency. time they smoked, they would have to read at least one or two facts from the sheet while they smoked. I hoped by reading these awful facts, they would stand for an aversive condition. By having to read these aversive facts, their behavior of smoking would be punished, hopefully decreasing the frequency of smoking.Aversive Condition:Any stimulus, event, or condition whose termination immediately following a responseincreases the frequency of that response.Avoidance Contingency:Response-contingent prevention of an aversive condition resulting in an increasedfrequency of that response.Avoidance Contingency: Before: Behavior: After: Will not have to Mom/Dad smokes Will have to read read aversive fact one cigarette aversive fact Besides having to read an aversive fact, I thought I would also place the rule of having topay me each time they both smoked. For every cigarette my parents would have to put in aquarter into my piggy bank and for each pack of cigarettes, they would have to put in the sameamount they spent on the pack.
Becka Vandenboss Due to my parent’s addictive habit, the motivating operation would be the need for nicotine or withdrawal of that nicotine from the body. The need for nicotine reduces the urge or calms them down. Motivating Operation: A procedure or condition that affects the learning or performance with respect to a particular reinforcer of aversive condition. Before: After:Mom/Dad does not have to Behavior: Mom/Dad does have to read aversive fact or put Mom/Dad smokes one read aversive fact and money into piggy bank cigarette put money into piggy bank Motivating Operation: With the calendar in place, I was able to see how many cigarettes Withdrawal from my parents were each smoking on a daily basis and tried to come up nicotine with another plan or procedure where they cut one cigarette off per two days. Day 1 would be considered the baseline of the intervention. Fortunately my parents both smoke exactly the same amount each day. If the conditions were not aversive enough to cause a slight change in their behavior, I would add another aversive condition in. I began to gather ideas from my Baseline: The phase of the experiment or intervention where the behavior is measured in the absence of an intervention. parents of what they would like reinforcement or aversive wise in order to
Becka Vandenboss help their habit. My mom suggested that I text her or penalize her behavior verbally with a rude comment. The sight of aversive pictures would also help slow down the amount of cigarettes they each smoked. I decide to do one reinforcer in hopes that it might help decrease the frequency of their smoking habits and it could potentially help them gain back some of their losses. I thought that for each cigarette they didn’t smoke that day (below 9) or whichever day they were on (ex: Day 7, 7-6 cigarettes) I would return a quarter to them. But there is a deadline in order to receive that quarter back; they must have smoked one less for that day but the end of that day. Analog Avoidance Contingency: SD: After: Before end of Parents will lose day opportunity to gain a quarter back. Before: Behavior: Parents will not Smokes one lose the cigaretteopportunity to gain a quarter back. Sdelta: After: After the end of Parents will lose the day or the opportunity to gain I was trying to next morning. quarter back. manage the performance of my parents smoking. According to Dr. Malott, Performance Management Contingencies can be designed to decrease performance. In this case I am trying to decrease the performance of my parents smoking. By doing decreasing their smoking, I needed to add in several aversive consequences. The first contingency, Ineffective Natural Contingency is often too small or too improbable. Therefore, my parents will not notice a huge change in their health by smoking one cigarette. It would take a long time and a lot less cigarettes to notice a huge amount of change in their health. Since the change in health is so small and too improbable, it is ineffective.
Becka VandenbossThe Three- Contingency Model of Performance Management:The three crucial contingencies are the ineffective natural contingency, the effective,indirect-acting performance management contingency, and the effective, direct-actingcontingency.Ineffective Natural Contingency: Before: Behavior: After: Parents will have Parents smoke one Parents will not haveinfinitesimally more cigarette. infinitesimally more health issues. health issues. With performance management, there is the Effective Indirect- Acting PerformanceManagement Contingency. With my parents being able to have the opportunity to earn theirmoney back, the opportunity to not hear negative comments or having to read aversive facts, Ithought this would be more than enough to help end their smoking habits. From the fact sheetthat I presented them with, on average smokers spend about $3,000 a year for cigarettes. If myparents spent that much a year funding their cigarette habit and having to pay me each timethey smoked, they would end up losing a substantial amount of money. Since they would notbe losing that substantial amount of money within sixty seconds, this contingency is indirect-acting. Indirect-Acting Contingency: A contingency that controls the response, though the outcome of the response does not reinforce or punish that response.Effective Indirect-Acting Performance Management Contingency: Before: Behavior: After: Parents will not lose Parents smoke one Parents will loseopportunity for having cigarette. opportunity for loss a substantial amount of substantial of money. amount of money.
Becka Vandenboss The last contingency in Performance Management Contingencies is the Effective Direct-Acting Theoretical Contingency. In theory I hope that just having that thought of losing asubstantial amount of money overtime will be aversive enough. My parents should beconsciously thinking about each time they pull out another cigarette to smoke that they willlosing money. From thinking about smoking one less cigarette and actually smoking one lesscigarette, they will hopefully think about the money they will save (this thought should happenwithin 60 seconds). Since this thought should happen within 60 seconds, it is a direct-actingcontingency.Direct- Acting Contingency:A contingency in which the outcome of the response reinforces or punishes that response.Effective Direct Acting Theoretical Contingency: Before: After: Behavior: Parents do not have Parents have aversive Parents smoke one aversive thoughts thoughts about losing cigarette. about losing substantial amount ofsubstantial amount of money. money. Trying to help a smoker quit smoking is tough work. Smokers have to be willing to actually wantto stop smoking. I was hoping to help my parents quit smoking because it not only affects their healthbut also mine. Since my mother will already be in extreme pain from her tonsillectomy, I was hoping toavoid her having to go through nicotine withdrawals as well. I think it has and will continue to help thatmy parents have each other as a support team and their kids to motivate them to quit smoking. When Iasked my mother why she wanted to quit smoking, she said “I want to be alive to see my children grow,my grandchildren, and live past 80 years old.” As of today, both of my parents smoke less than they were but have no completely stopped.Besides all of the aversive conditions I put in, I think the tonsillectomy will help be an aversive effect aswell. I also believe the combination of the surgery and not being able to smoke (the withdrawal ofnicotine) will help put an end to smoking for my mother. For my dad, he tends to really only smokewhen my mom does. With her not smoking, he will probably quit as well! Lucky for him, he can quit coldturkey without any issues (he agreed to do this intervention to really help out my mother).