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Improving Policy Implementation (Short Mix)


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Social Marketing: Improving Policy Implementation

Shorter version of the social marketing presentation to launch the Social Marketing Monograph

Reference: Dann and Dann (2005) Social Marketing and Behavioural Change Strategies. Queensland Department of Premier and Cabinet,


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Improving Policy Implementation (Short Mix)

  1. 1. Social Marketing: Improving Policy Implementation Dr Stephen Dann Dr Susan Dann
  2. 2. Introduction and Overview <ul><li>Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Social marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural change model </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Policy Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency and Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Defending the Spend </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions <ul><li>Marketing : the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organisational needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Social marketing : the adaptation of commercial marketing technologies to create programs designed to influence the voluntary behaviour of target audiences to improve their personal welfare and that of the society of which they are a part. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Framework of marketing <ul><li>Client focussed </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence driven </li></ul><ul><li>Operates at three levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophical </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Framework of social marketing <ul><li>Client focussed in the design of campaigns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research and evidence driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aims to achieve mutually beneficial exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social marketing’s “bottom line” is voluntary behavioural change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented through the “marketing mix” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially beneficial outcomes are subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adapts to external environments </li></ul>
  6. 6. Some characteristics of social marketing <ul><li>Public scrutiny </li></ul><ul><li>Extravagant expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted at non existent or negative demand </li></ul><ul><li>Target unresponsive audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on sensitive issues </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviours often have invisible, delayed or non guaranteed benefits </li></ul>
  7. 7. Marketing in the public sector <ul><li>Fundamental mismatch between the ideal of the public sector of serving the “public interest” and marketing’s basic tool of segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation strategies are essential for good marketing but vulnerable to public criticism for favouritism, cronyism, political favours etc </li></ul><ul><li>Public sector marketers have less control of the whole of the marketing program than their private sector colleagues </li></ul>
  8. 8. Social Marketing Changing attitudes and behaviours by using marketing tools and techniques
  9. 9. Behaviour change model Targets adopt the alternative behaviour long term as their “normal” behaviour Maintenance Targets trial the alternate behaviour Action Targets determine what they need to know or do to change their behaviour Preparation Targets become aware of the issue and start to consider it in light of their lives Contemplation Potential targets are unaware of issue Pre contemplation Characteristics Stage
  10. 10. Stages of behavioural change Reinforce changes, reminder communications Maintenance Facilitate action Action Educate Preparation Persuade and motivate Contemplation Create awareness; change values and beliefs Pre contemplation Marketing & Communication Tasks Stage
  11. 11. Marketing mix <ul><li>The marketing mix is sometimes called the 4 Ps and consists of the following elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>product, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>price, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>place, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extended marketing mix also includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical evidence </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Marketing mix: Product <ul><li>The bundle of benefits that the organisation is offering to the public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what are you “selling” to the market? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what aspect of the product needs to be communicated? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Social product Social Product Idea Practice Tangible object Belief Attitude Value One off Ongoing What you need to achieve the behaviour
  14. 14. Sunsafe “product” Safe sun exposure Idea Practice Tangible object Tanning is not “healthy” Tans are not attractive Tans are not an inevitable outcome of a wholesome lifestyle Wear a hat at an event Slip, slop, slap at all events Shirt Sunscreen Hat
  15. 15. Competition <ul><li>Behaviours and associated benefits of the competing behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviours that are habits </li></ul><ul><li>Organisations and individuals that promote a counter behaviour </li></ul>
  16. 16. Competition <ul><li>Think broadly about competition </li></ul><ul><li>The major competition is often not the obvious direct competition but more insidious indirect competition </li></ul><ul><li>Be open to strategic alliances with direct competitors to overcome indirect competition </li></ul><ul><li>Not all competition is “bad” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Competition: Example <ul><li>Behaviour objective: encourage after school sport </li></ul><ul><li>Competing behaviour: homework </li></ul><ul><li>Competing messages/messengers: school </li></ul><ul><li>Social marketing message: make time for exercise; healthy body = healthy mind </li></ul>
  18. 18. Competition: Water consumption <ul><li>Behaviour objective: drink 8 glasses a day </li></ul><ul><li>Competing behaviour: drinking coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Competing messages/messengers: Coffee Club </li></ul><ul><li>Social marketing message: drink water with / or instead of coffee in social situations </li></ul>
  19. 19. The biggest competitor in social marketing is the target client
  20. 20. Improving Policy Implementation through Social Marketing
  21. 21. Components of Successful Social Marketing <ul><li>The marketing mix consists of price, product, promotion, place, people, process and physical evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Each element of the marketing mix consists of sub components for example, price consists of both financial and non financial costs. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Social Marketing for Effectiveness and Efficiency <ul><li>Targeting </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Market research or understanding the consumer </li></ul>
  23. 23. Problems for social marketing <ul><li>Unrealistic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Funding, Expenditure and Sponsorship </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertain outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Limited timeframes & political influence </li></ul>
  24. 24. Unrealistic Expectations <ul><li>Coca Cola </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total market share – 45% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>55% of the market not supporting Coke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top outcome for Coke dominating the market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In social marketing terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>55% of drivers drink driving (unacceptable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>55% of teenagers smoking (unacceptable) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Funding issues <ul><li>Funding for social marketing tends to be limited by both amount and timeframe </li></ul><ul><li>Social marketing has not fully embraced the concept of spending to stop a reversal of behavioural change in the same way that commercial enterprises spend massively on retaining customers and on reminder advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in measuring outcomes and the high risks involved in social marketing also contribute to the uncertainty </li></ul>
  26. 26. Funding and Sponsorship <ul><li>Broncos $1million dollar sponsorship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>'better living - better lifestyle' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>statewide campaign was to target Queensland residents and encourage people, especially the youth of today, to live better lifestyles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rip Curl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17-year-old female surfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five-year contract for $1 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Steph's really the leading edge of a new generation. Women's surfing is on the move and we need our superstars coming through.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Countering funding <ul><li>Defending the spending </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining the purpose of the expenditure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointing out the costs of inaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publicise the cost of alternative less effective delivery mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask the critic to suggest alternative solutions that meet the same proactive goals. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Uncertain outcomes <ul><li>Uncertain campaign outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not smoking today means… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly not contracting a smoking related illness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unless there’s been any exposure to secondary smoke </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unless you have a genetic predisposition towards cancer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unless you have exposure to other carcinogenic materials </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting your child through the trauma of immunisation means… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing the likelihood of contracting a disease they may or may not come into contact with </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risking side effects from the immunisation process </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Limited timeframes <ul><li>Reality for social marketing in the public sector is that governments have limited terms and ministers have limited tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore plans are usually in 3 year (max) cycles </li></ul><ul><li>3 years is rarely enough to achieve a fundamental shift in attitude and behaviour </li></ul>
  30. 30. Political issues <ul><li>Government/ minister represents the public </li></ul><ul><li>The public is not always rational in its demands </li></ul><ul><li>A fully researched rational social marketing campaign can (appropriately) be derailed by apparently irrational public/media pressure </li></ul>
  31. 31. Risk Takers <ul><li>For every campaign there will be a hard core group of resisters (aka the chronic know nothings) </li></ul><ul><li>In commercial marketing this group is called laggards and ignored </li></ul><ul><li>In social marketing they are usually the primary target market hence the difficulty in proving social marketing effectiveness </li></ul>
  32. 32. Commercial marketers target the people most likely to respond to the campaign Social marketers target the people in most need who also tend to be those who are least likely to respond
  33. 33. Summary <ul><li>Social marketing is derived from managerial marketing and therefore uses commercial marketing tools and frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate aim of social marketing is to change behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Social marketing communications use traditional marketing communication methods and include the full range of marketing mix and promotional mix elements </li></ul>