Earth resistivity logger (john becker)

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  • Hi
    i build this detector but my software is magna radar and when i transfer data the program is error .please do you have the earth resistivity program?
    my email : venousnight@gmail.com
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Earth resistivity logger (john becker)

  1. 1. Constructional ProjectEARTHRESISTIVITYLOGGERJOHN BECKER Part OneHelp your local archaeological society to PROBESlocate and reveal the hidden mysteries of GROUND LEVELour ancestors. SECTION ANUARY and February 1997 saw the connected across them, current will flowJ THROUGH publication in EPE of Robert Beck’s between them, just as it does through an SOIL Earth Resistivity Meter, an electronic ordinary resistor.tool to assist amateur archaeological soci- The amount of current that flowseties “see beneath the soil” in their search depends on how much resistance the soilfor ruins and other hidden features. interposes between the two electrodes. The The design presented here is based upon value depends on several factors, the soil’sthe same concept as used in Robert’s cir- water content and chemical make-up (i.e.cuit, but it has been considerably simpli- the impurities the water contains), and thefied in terms of the components count and presence (or absence) of non-conductivetheir ready-availability. Significantly, it objects. The relationship is complex, and PLAN VIEWhas also been put under the command of a will not be discussed in detail here,PIC microcontroller and provided with although some experiments which shoulddata logging facilities. The principal fea- give an insight into it are suggested in the Fig.1. Current paths set up by probetures of this design are outlined in Table 1. text file supplied with the software. It is array. discussed more fully by Anthony Clark inDOWN TO EARTH his book. main field, as you will see presently from Before going any further, though, the The current flow through soil is also Fig.2.author wishes to “put his cards on the sur- complicated by the fact that it is not flow- The overall current flow between thevey grid”. He is not an archaeologist and ing in a straight line, as it does (in effect) probes is thus not just governed by thehas approached this design purely as an through an ordinary resistor. The current resistance of one direct horizontal path, butelectronic problem to be solved – transmit can simultaneously flow through a multi- by the total resistance of innumerablea signal, retrieve it at a distance and store tude of paths, not only horizontally, but paths effectively in parallel within a givenit for later analysis. three-dimensionally, as illustrated in volume of soil, and each experiencing dif- Along the path to this end, he has Fig.1. It also radiates outwards beyond the ferent values of resistance. Despite theresearched a fair bit, chatted with a local complexity, though, as far as the readingarchaeological society and with EPE read- on a current meter is concerned, theers who have knowledge in this field. Most answer is a single value, and from it animportantly, Nick Tile, EPE reader and assessment of the soil’s relativefriend of the author, has spent several density can be made.months successfully using the prototype foractive archaeological survey work. More onthis in Part 2. Further reference to Nick’ssurveying will be made during this article. A list of useful references is quoted atthe end of Part 2, to which readers arereferred for more information on survey-ing techniques. The main reference sourceused by the author has been AnthonyClark’s Seeing Beneath the Soil.BASIC PRINCIPLES For the sake of readers who have not yetbeen enticed into joining their localarchaeological society in search of knowl-edge about our ancestors and how theylived, it is appropriate to outline how elec-tronics can help us see subterranean fea-tures without ever touching a spade or Prototype Earth Resistivitytrowel. Logger, housed in a plastic When two conductors are placed in case with transparent lid.moist soil with a d.c. voltage source288 Everyday Practical Electronics, April 2003
  2. 2. What is being looked for in an electron-ic survey is reliably monitored variations in TABLE 1. WHAT IT DOESreadings across a site, the pattern of which The PIC microcontroller performs the following functions:indicates where different sub-soil features *Generates 137Hz square wave ground-penetrating transmission signalexist. *Converts the received and amplified analogue signal to a 10-bit digital value *Stores each converted value to user-specified non-volatile (EEPROM) memoryUNIFORMITY PROBLEM address representing specific site plotting coordinates A problem arises, however, in that not *Continually displays immediate real-time data and coordinates on alphanumericonly does the soil have resistance, but it liquid crystal display (l.c.d.)also has capacitance and additionally *On request, outputs stored data via serial link to Windows 95/98/ME PC for storageexhibits various electrolysis effects as the to disk and subsequent analysisd.c. current continues to flow, and mostsignificantly, a polarization process takes Other features of the logger include:place, resulting in progressively changing *Switchable output resistance to vary transmission currentvalues on the meter. *Switchable amplifier gain, x1, x10, x100 To be able to take meaningful readings it *Pushswitch selection of survey site row and column coordinates allocation in memoryis necessary to counteract the polarization *Memory capacity for 16384 10-bit samples, representing a survey site grid ofeffect. This can be done by passing an 128 x 128 squaresalternating current through the soil instead *Data storage action under complete user controlof a direct one. With each of the a.c. cur- *Data locations may be overwritten with fresh data if requiredrent’s phases, the polarizing effects of the *Sampled data stays in memory indefinitely, even after power switch-offpreceding phase are reversed, thus causing *Recall of last used survey coordinate when next switched on, allowing survey to bea more consistent current flow to occur in spread over several days or weeksboth directions. *Individually stepped push-button recall and display of recorded samples and their Whilst the soil’s electrolysis process will coordinatesnot be reversed, its effect is likely to be so *Total clearance of memory to zero value upon request, with security feature to helpminute in relation to the polarization effect, prevent erroneous usethat it can be ignored during the relatively *Operable from any d.c. supply between about 9V and 15V, consuming about 25mA.brief time during which current flow read- It is equally suited for use with a 9V PP9-size battery (rechargeable types areings are taken. available), or a 12V car battery (see later) The capacitance effects are also largelyovercome by using an alternating current at Software features for the downloaded memory samples include:a suitable frequency. *Program written in Visual Basic 6 (VB6) *Disk storage under unique dated and timed file namePROBING FREQUENCY *Graphical display of data on PC screen as waveform graphs and value-related The question then arises: at what fre- coloured or grey-scale grid squaresquency should the current direction be *Four screen slider controls allow data to be processed for best visual contrastrepeatedly reversed? Too high a frequency to aid analysiswill cause the soil’s capacitance effects to *Facility to invert data values for viewing as “valleys” or “peaks”“mop-up” and attenuate the alternating sig- *Main screen display as 20 x 20 samples block, with vertical and horizontal panningnal’s amplitude. Too low a frequency will across full 128 x 128 gridagain cause variation in the monitored *Secondary screen displays of separate grid or graph data for full 128 x 128 samplesreadings, albeit smaller than would occur blockthrough using a d.c. signal. *Zoom facility for closer examination of separate graph and grid data It appears that the optimum rate at which *Reloading of previous survey files via dedicated file selection screenthe signal phases must be changed has *Downloaded files stored in format suited for analysis and graphical display viabeen established at around 137Hz Microsoft Excel (found on most PCs)(Anthony Clark quotes 137·5Hz but also *Data may be downloaded to PC as often as required without disrupting its existingsays that 67Hz is used in some equipment). on-board storage (allowing on-going visual display of site progress across longThese frequencies assist in not only the periods)elimination of the polarizing effects, but *Suited to survey monitoring using any of the standard probing techniques (Wenner,also in reducing the affect of other alternat- Schlumberger, Twin-Probe, etc).ing electrical fields which might be presentin the site being surveyed, such as a 50Hzmains frequency, for instance. EPE contributor Aubrey Scoon has researched into this latter aspect and has reported the presence of many other fre- quencies in some locations he has exam- ined, some emanating from a nearby “supercomputer” in one instance. The frequencies of 67Hz and 137Hz (the latter is used in this Logger), are not a multi- ple of 50Hz, nor of the 60Hz mains cycle used in some countries, such as the USA. Thus, by performing rectification or sampling that is synchronised with the trans- mission signal, the effects of these extrane- ous fields can be reduced. They are also min- imised by the use of a differential amplifier, which will be discussed presently. It is worth pointing out, however, that in the suburban garden where the author’s tri- als with this Logger were performed in conjunction with an oscilloscope, residual 50Hz mains currents were not evident. MULTIPLE PROBES The discussion so far has been in rela-Typical example of one of the three analysis screens used by the Earth Resistivity tion to the current flowing between twoLogger’s PC software. The other two show full-screen displays of grid or graph data probes in series with a meter. Over thefor a 128 x 128 samples survey site, with zoom facilities. many years that geophysicists have beenEveryday Practical Electronics, April 2003 289
  3. 3. electrically probing the soil in theirsearch for minerals and oil deposits IN IC1 OUT +5V 78L05(since 1946 says Robert Beck), it has R6 COMbeen found that there are better probing D1 k 10k * OUTPUT C2 C3techniques than just using two probes. 1N4001 a 100n 100n R1 R5 RESISTANCE 100kSome of these have been adopted by C1 + 1karchaeologists. 22µ R4 S2 Most of the favoured ones all use four ON/OFF 100Ω TO SK2probes – two for transmission (TX), and S1 (C1, WHITE) (FREQUENCY) R3two for reception (RX). The righthand sec- 8 7 10Ω C4tion of Fig.2 shows one way in which the 22µ +VE 2 +second pair of probes can be used. Anthony 2 C+ OSC 7 N.C. IC3 6 6 TL071Clark says that there are also some tech- 4 C IC2 LV N.C. 3 + 1 7660 5niques that use five probes – with push-pull *B1 N.C. N.C. OUT 4TX across two and the fifth becoming a 9V GND TO RA2grounded reference perhaps? 3 C5TWIN PROBES 22µ + SK1 *SEE TEXT R2 (C2, BLACK) There are several ways in which four 100kprobes are used in relation to each other, 0Vand each with its own merits. Their use is 5Voutlined later, but no quality judgement isoffered here on their appropriateness to Fig.3. Power supply and transmission interface circuit for the Earth Resistivity Logger. mA a wire attached will the other TX probe is connected to the 0V CURRENT V MEASURED do. The probes don’t power line. IC3 is configured as a compara- SOURCE POTENTIAL even need to be tor whose inverting input (pin 2) is tied to inserted very far, just the potential divider chain formed by equal- enough to penetrate value resistors R1 and R2. The resistors are the soil to make connected across the +5V and 0V lines and electrical contact the voltage at their junction is thus 2·5V. with its moistness. The non-inverting input (pin 3) of IC3 is It will be obvious, connected to one of the PIC microcon- of course, that dry troller’s output pins (RA2) and is fed with LINES OF EQUAL POTENTIAL soil will be less a 137Hz square wave, generated by the capable of passing a software, and which alternates between CURRENT FLOW LINES current than moist +5V and 0V. As this square wave repeated- soil. Keep in mind ly crosses above and below the 2·5V refer- A) B) that the surface of ence voltage, IC3’s comparator action the soil can dry out takes place and its output (pin 6) alternatesFig.2. How current flowing between two probes is detected by faster than that between the device’s upper and lower volt-a second pair. below it, and so a age limits, i.e. swinging between about reasonable amount +4V and –4V.various survey situations – but it is worth of penetration should be allowed. Robert Note that the op.amp to which the TXnoting that Clark considers the Twin-Probe Beck allows 200mm with his probe struc- probes are connected (IC3) is short-circuittechnique to be the most favoured for tures discussed in Part 2. protected internally and is unlikely to suf-archaeological surveying, although the With some sites it may be necessary to fer if the probes accidentally come intoWenner technique is said to provide more evenly damp the soil with water before contact with each other while the power isdetailed results. Nick in his extensive use adequate probing can begin. switched on. However, do not sustain suchof the prototype adopted the Twin-Probe contact since it could cause regulator IC1technique. POWER SUPPLY to get hot, and it will shorten the battery The Twin-Probe and Wenner techniques The PIC-controlled processing circuit is charge life.were outlined in Robert Beck’s article and almost irrelevant to the main aspects of soilwere used in the author’s garden tests with monitoring! So first let’s look at the power OUTPUT RESISTANCEthis Logger. They will be discussed in Part supply requirements, and the simple trans- Depending on the probing technique2 in a bit more detail. Suffice to say for the mission circuit, both illustrated in Fig.3. used, experienced geophysicists can deter-moment, both involve placing in the soil a As said in Table 1, the power can origi- mine not only the subterranean density, butreference probe that is connected to the cir- nate from any d.c. source (e.g. battery) also its possible composition. This iscuit’s 0V line (common ground). This is ranging between about 9V and 15V. This is apparently achieved by pre-setting the cur-regarded as one half of the TX probes pair. input via diode D1 to the +5V voltage reg- rent which flows between the two TX To the other TX probe is fed the alter- ulator IC1. The diode prevents distress to probes.nating voltage or current, evenly swinging the circuit in the event of the battery being Robert discussed this in the ’97 text,as a square wave above and below the 0V connected with the wrong polarity. referring to the technique as providing areference value. The function of the TX The regulated +5V output from IC1 “constant current”. It would appear,probes is to set up a field of potential gra- powers the main PIC-controlled circuit, though, that his circuit did not provide adient in the soil, which is then sampled by which must not receive a supply signifi- constant current in the literal sense – samethe RX probes. cantly greater than +5V. It also provides current flowing irrespective of resistive The RX probes are positioned at dis- the positive power to the TX and RX cir- conditions – but rather it provided a currenttances away from the TX probes as dictat- cuits. Both of these circuits additionally limit. It is the same limiting approach thated by the probing technique being used. need an equivalent negative supply. This is has been taken in this Logger design.They are connected to the twin inputs of a generated from the +5V line by the voltage The output from IC3 can be switched bydifferential amplifier, whose output signal inverting chip IC2, which outputs a voltage S2 to the active TX probe via one of fiveamplitude is determined by the difference of close to –5V. paths. These comprise a direct unlimitedin the two input levels. It is this signal path, and four limiting paths via resistorswhich is then monitored by the control TRANSMISSION R3 to R6, in order of 109, 1009, 1k9 andcircuit. OUTPUT 10k9. It is not even necessary to use special Op.amp IC3 is the device which feeds the Readers are referred to the publicationsprobes, any metal object that does not cor- 137Hz alternating signal to one TX probe listed in Part 2 for information on resis-rode and can be inserted into the soil with (the “active” TX probe). As previously said, tive path use. The field tests performed by290 Everyday Practical Electronics, April 2003
  4. 4. +5V R21 R7 1M 1k 4 k 5 D4 + GAIN 1N4148 TO SK3 IC4a 7 a R20 (P1, YELLOW) TL074 S3 6 100k R9 R12 R13 R22 100k 100k 100k R19 100k 10k C6 R18 R10 2 22µ 10k 100k R11 R14 C7 + 100k 100k IC4c 1 13 470n 3 TL074 14 + IC4d 12 TL074 + VOUT R16 R17 R15 TO RA3 9 10k 10k 100k R23 100k R8 1k IC4b 8 TO RA0 10 TL074 + TO RA1 k k k D5 TO SK4 11 D2 D3 1N4148 (P2, GREEN) a 1N4148 1N4148 a a 0V 0V 5VFig.4. Differential amplifier that receives, amplifies and conditions the RX probes signal prior to sending to the ADC input of thePIC microcontroller.the author and Nick Tile were carried out C6 to the amplifying stage around IC4d. R17 plus diodes D2 and D3. These are notvia the direct TX path (Nick says he has Here the gain can be switched by S3 part of the required analogue processingnot found the switchable resistance facil- between ×1, ×10 and ×100. In the proto- circuit but were included for use duringity to be useful). In this role, the signal type’s garden tests, the ×1 gain was software development. Their function willamplitude across the TX probes is picked satisfactory across the maximum probe be described presently.up by the RX probes simply as an alter- separation distance that the dense gardennating signal whose amplitude varies flower beds would allow (11 metres)! Nick CONTROLLER CIRCUITaccording to the soil density it has to pass says he prefers the ×10 setting. The PIC-controlled processing circuit isthrough. At this stage the signal is swinging shown in Fig.5. At its heart is a PIC16F876 above and below 0V. It has to be shifted so microcontroller, IC5, manufactured byRECEIVING CIRCUIT that it only swings between 0V and +5V at Microchip. It is run at 3·6864MHz, as set The receiving circuit is shown in Fig.4. the maximum extremes, to suit the PIC by crystal X1. The frequency may seemThe twin RX probes and their received d.c. microcontroller’s limits. This is achieved unusual, but crystals tuned to it are stan-coupled signals are connected via buffering by a.c. coupling the signal via capacitor C7 dard products. Its choice provides greaterresistors R7 and R8 to the respective inputs to the level-shifting potential divider accuracy of the baud rate at which theof the differential amplifier, formed initial- formed by resistors R22 and R23. Diodes logged data is output to the computer.ly around op.amps IC4a and IC4b and hav- D4 and D5 limit the maximum voltage The software-generated 137Hz squareing a gain of three. The outputs from these swing then fed to the PIC, preventing it wave pulse train is output via pin RA2, andop.amps are summed, still as d.c. signals, from swinging above or below the PIC’s fed to the TX op.amp IC3 in Fig.3.by op.amp IC4c, which provides unity gain. limits of acceptance. Pin RA3 is the pin to which the level- The resulting signal represents the It will be seen that two additional signal shifted signal output from IC4d is input.difference between the two input signal paths are provided from the output of The pin is configured by the software as anlevels. It is now a.c. coupled via capacitor IC4a/b and consist of resistors R16 and analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). TEST SAVE UP DOWN MODE DOWNLOAD 2 +5V 7 +VE N.C. D0 S9 S8 8 S4 S5 S6 S7 N.C. D1 20 TB1 9 N.C. D2 +VE +VE 10 N.C. D3 2 21 D4 11 TO R16 3 RA0/AN0 INT/RB0 22 D5 12 D4 X2 T0 R17 RA1/AN1 RB1 D5 L.C.D. 4 23 D6 13 MODULE F OUT RA2/AN2/VREF- RB2 D6 5 24 D7 14 TO D4/D5 RA3/AN3/VREF+ PGM/RB3 D7 6 25 RS 4 RA4/TOCK1 RB4 RS 7 26 E 6 RA5/AN4/SS RB5 E 27 0V 5 3 C8 IC5 PGCLK/RB6 28 0V R/W GND CX 10p PIC16F876 RS232 9 PGDA/RB7 OSC1/CLKIN TO IC7 PIN 11 CX 1 a 11 X1 D6 T1OSO/T1CKI/RC0 R31 3.6864MHz 1N4148 12 T1OSI/CCP2/RC1 10k C9 k 13 10p CCP1/RC2 10 14 OSC2/CLKOUT SCK/SCL/RC3 15 SDI/SDA/RC4 R25 16 8 SDO/RC5 CONTRAST 1k 17 TX/CK/RC6 +V 1 7 R26 1 18 R29 R24 N.C. A0 WP MCLR RX/DT/RC7 N.C. 10k GND GND 10k 10k VR1 N.C. 2 A1 IC6 SCL 6 10k 3 24LC256 5 R27 8 19 R28 R30 N.C. A2 SDA 10k 10k 10k GND 0V 4 TB2 *PROGRAMMER 0V VPP DATA CLK Fig.5. PIC-controlled processing, display and data storage circuit.Everyday Practical Electronics, April 2003 291
  5. 5. The PIC repeatedly converts the input COMPONENTS Approx. Costsignal to a 10-bit binary value which it out-puts for display on the 2-line × 16-charac- Guidance Only £45ter l.c.d. X2, as a decimal number. As usual excl. batts casewith the author’s designs, the l.c.d. is con- IC6 24LC256 256 kilobittrolled in 4-bit mode (and its pinouts on the Resistors See serial EEPROM R1, R2, R9printed circuit board are in his standard to R15, R20, SHOP IC7 MAX232 RS-232order). Its screen contrast is adjustable by R22, R23 100k (12 off) interface driverpreset VR1. R3 10W TALK R4 100W page Miscellaneous Pressing switch S8 causes the PIC to S1, S9 s.p.s.t. min. toggle switch R5, R7, R8,store (Save) the ADC’s 10-bit binary out- R25 1k (4 off) (2 off)put value to the 32 kilobyte (32768 bytes) R6, R16 to S2 2-pole 6-way rotaryserial EEPROM chip, IC6, at the address R19, R24, switchset by the user via switches S4 to S6. This R26 to R31 10k (12 off) S3 4-pole 3-way rotary R21 1M switchchip is another Microchip device, and was S4 to S8 min. push-to-make All 0·25W 5% carbon film or betterfirst demonstrated by the author in his switch (5 off)PIC16F87x Data Logger of Aug/Sep ’99. Potentiometer SK1 to SK4 4mm single-socket,Its device number, 24LC256, indicates that VR1 10k min. preset, round 1 each black, white,it has 256K single-bit memory locations. yellow, green (seeThese are accessed as 8-bit bytes. Capacitors text) C1, C4 to SK5 9-pin D-type serial In other applications, the 24LC256 is C6 22m radial elect. 25V (4 off) connector, female,capable of being multiplexed with seven C2, C3 100n ceramic, 5mm chassis mountingothers of its type, using its A0 to A2 inputs pitch (2 off) TB1, TB2 pin-header strips to suit, orto set each device’s multiplexed address. In C7 470n ceramic, 5mm pitch 1mm terminal pins (2 off)this application they are left unconnected, C8, C9 10p ceramic, 5mm pitch X1 3·2768MHz crystal (2 off) X2 2-line, 16-characterleaving them biased internally. Resistor (per line) alpha- C10, C11 1m radial elect. 16V (2 off)R31 is essential to the correct reading of C12 to C14 10m radial elect 16V (3 off) numeric l.c.d. modulethe device’s retrieved data output value. The 24LC256 data sheet can be down- Semiconductors Printed circuit board, available from theloaded from Microchip’s web site D1 1N4001 rectifier diode EPE PCB Service, code 388; plastic case D2 to D6 1N4148 signal diode with see-through lid, 190mm x 110mm x(www.microchip.com). 90mm (see text); 8-pin d.i.l. socket (3 off); (5 off) Data stored in the 24LC256 can be IC1 78L05 +5V 100mA 14-pin d.i.l. socket; 28-pin d.i.l. socket;retrieved and downloaded serially to a PC voltage regulator knobs (2 off); 4mm plugs, colours to matchvia the RS-232 interface device (IC7) and IC2 ICL7660 voltage inverter 4mm sockets (4 off); heavy-duty crocodilesocket SK5, in Fig.6. Transfer is initiated IC3 TL071 f.e.t. op.amp clips, with coloured covers to match 4mmby pressing switch S7. Once started, all IC4 TL074 quad f.e.t. op.amp sockets (4 off); robust cable for probes IC5 PIC16F876 (see text); 9V PP3 battery and clip (see32K bytes are sent to the PC in consecutive microcontroller, text); p.c.b. supports (4 off); nuts and boltsaddress order. preprogrammed (see to suit l.c.d. mounting style (4 off each); text) internal connecting wire; solder, etc.DATA SAMPLING The software controls the output of atrain of square wave pulses at the 137Hzrate. Data sampling takes place on each TEST VALUE DISPLAY Software, including source code files, for the PIC unit and PC interface is avail- Resistors R16 and R17, mentioned pre-phase of the output pulse (high and low). viously, allow the PIC to monitor the volt- able on 3·5-inch disk from the EditorialOn each complete cycle, the minimum age on the outputs of IC4a/IC4b for test office (a small handling charge applies –value received is subtracted from the max- purposes, via its ADC inputs RA0/RA1. see EPE PCB Service page) or it can beimum (to establish the received signal’s Diodes D2 and D3 prevent the PIC from downloaded free from the EPE FTP site.amplitude) and the result stored to a 32- receiving damaging negative voltages. The latter is accessible via the top of thebyte temporary memory block. So that Originally, these outputs were intended home page of the main EPE web site atmaximum peak-to-peak values of the purely for development use. However, their www.epemag.wimborne.co.uk. Click onreceived square wave have stabilised, the use has also proved beneficial in the out- “FTP Site (downloads)”, then in turn onsynchronous sampling takes place at the door monitoring environment and has been PUB and PICS, in which page the files areend of each peak. retained. The monitored values are dis- in the folder named EarthRes. About once a second, the pulse train played in decimal on the l.c.d. and provide This month’s ShopTalk page providesstops while the 32 sample values are aver- indication of relative probe signal information about obtaining pre-pro-aged, and the l.c.d. display updated. The strengths, and of the loss of connection to grammed PICs.pulse train then recommences for another one or more probes. The PIC program (ASM) was written insecond. This gives the soil time to respond In relation to this test-motivated option, TASM, although the run-time assembly isto the re-application of the a.c. waveform, a second signal strength display option has supplied as an MPASM HEX file, which hasand for the effects of any d.c. currents to be been included via the software. The second configuration values embedded in it (crystalover-ridden. mode displays the XT, WDT off, POR on, all other values off). upper and lower Regarding the PC interface, if you have peak values of the Visual Basic 6 already installed on your +5V 16 signal applied to the machine, you only need to use files +VE C12 SERIAL PIC’s RA3 input. EarthRes.exe and INPOUT.DLL. Copy 10µ OUTPUT 1 2 + The two modes are them into a new folder named C:EARTH + C1+ V+ + SK5 RES, or any other of your choosing on C10 C14 SERIAL selected by toggle 1µ 3 10µ OUTPUT switch S9. Drive C (the usual hard drive letter). C1- 4 5 9 The ability to install to another drive let- + C2+ C11 1µ 5 IC7 MAX232 V- 6 SOFTWARE ter, e.g. Drive E on a partitioned drive, has not been provided with this program. C2- In common with 11 14 many other PIC de- Although the author has previously offered FROM IC5 PIN 17 T1 IN T1 OUT 10 T2 IN T2 OUT 7 N.C. signs, the facility has the option with other VB6 programs, feed- N.C. 12 R1 OUT R1 IN 13 1 6 been provided to pro- back from readers has indicated that the N.C. 9 R2 OUT R2 IN 8 C13 gram the PIC in situ, option is not always reliable with some GND 10µ + via connector TB2. systems. Consequently, it has been 15 Diode D6 and resis- dropped from this program. Readers who 0V tor R25 prevent dis- know how this option can be reliably tress to the +5V line implemented with VB6 are invited to tell Fig.6. RS-232 interface circuit. during programming. the author at EPE!292 Everyday Practical Electronics, April 2003
  6. 6. TO PROGRAMMER (SEE TEXT) TO SK2 S2 5 A DATA CLK 4 MCLR RB7 RB6 0V OUTPUT 1 RESISTANCE 2 3 SERIAL VR4 OUTPUT TB2 R1 + SK5 TB1 R R R R 3 4 5 6 C4 IC2 CX 3 k IC3 R25 +5V 2 + 0V 1 C12 5 D4 C5 k D6 a 0V(R/W) 5 + + + 9 a R2 C10 C14 REAR VIEW OF PINS S3 R22 S9 + E 6 IC7 6 C7 S8 RS 4 C11 OUT k 1 R D7 14 3 a a R21 D5 23 D3 R26 IC5 D6 13 A 2 R20 a D2 R27 IN OUT D5 12 C13 1 R19 k k D4 11 + 0V COM C R18 T.P. T.P. C6 3 +5V R R IC1 GAIN 13 + 15 R28 R R R R R R29 24 31 12 IC4 17 16 + C1 R30 R9 R R R11 C2 IC6 7 8 k C9 D1 X1 R14 a R10 C8 TO SK3 TO SK4 TO SK1 TO RA5 0V TO +9V BATTERY TO RA4 S1 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 ON/OFF UP DOWN MODE DOWNLOAD SAVE TEST 4.3in (109.2mm) 388 2.8in (71.1mm) Fig.7. Printed circuit board component layout and full-size copper foil master track pattern for the Earth Resistivity Logger. If you do not have VB6, you need three are shown in Fig.7. This board is available Double-check the perfection of yourother files, comdlg32.ocx, Mscomctl.ocx from the EPE PCB Service, code 388. soldering and component positioningand Msvbm60.dll, held on our 3.5-inch Assemble in any preferred order, ensur- before applying power. Do not insert anydisk named Interface Disk 1, and in the ing that all the on-board link wires are of the d.i.l. i.c.s until the correctness of theInterface folder on the FTP site (they are included, and that all polarity-conscious +5V output from regulator IC1 has beenalso included with the Toolkit TK3 soft- components are the correct way round. proved.ware). These files must be copied into the The use of sockets for all the dual-in-line To provide a degree of waterproofness,same folder as the other Earth Resistivity (d.i.l.) i.c.s is recommended; it is essential the prototype was mounted in a robustfiles. to use one for the PIC, IC5. Treat all i.c.s plastic box with a see-through lid. The as static sensitive and discharge static elec- l.c.d. was mounted below the lid on theCONSTRUCTION tricity from yourself before handling them, inside. If a metal box with a see-through Details of the component and track lay- by touching the bare grounded metal of an lid can be found, it would provide evenouts for the printed circuit board (p.c.b.) item of earthed equipment, for example. greater durability.Everyday Practical Electronics, April 2003 293
  7. 7. pinouts for the latter are shown in Fig.8. It will probably be necessary to adjust its contrast using VR1 before a display will be seen. With power switched on again, check that +5V and –5V are still present where they should be. Switch off immediately if they are not, and correct the cause of malfunction. On line 1 of the l.c.d., the message “SOIL RESISTIVITY” will be displayed briefly before being replaced by some numerical values, with more on line 2. L.C.D. display following switch-on. The final prototype board prior to installation. It is recommended that a case of at least differing lengths and cores. Obviously the50 per cent larger than used in the proto- thicker it is, the lower the loss over longtype should be employed to allow a large lengths, but 50m (say) of such cable is Example display when carrying out soil9V to 12V battery to be adequately housed. expensive, and heavy to drag about. monitoring with S9 switched on to test Probe sockets were 2mm types on the Details of constructing customised mode.prototype, simply because the author had probes are given in Part 2, but in simplethem in stock. It is recommended that 4mm applications four thin metal rods of the With Test switch S9 switched on, the firsttypes should be used. These provide type used in gardens as flower supports can two values on line 1 show the monitored val-greater robustness of the plugged connec- be used. ues present at the outputs of IC4a/IC4b, astions and allow them to be removed readi- detected by the PIC’s ADC conversions.ly. Nick recommends the use of restraints TESTING Respectively, they are suffixed by the lettersnear the sockets to prevent the connections Having established that +5V is present B and A, indicating the op.amp to which theypulling out during a survey. on the output of regulator IC1, plug in the refer (as given in the circuit diagram Fig.4). The probe sockets should be colour voltage inverter chip, IC6, and check that With S9 off, the values are the upper andcoded, as should their respective plugs. around –5V is present on its output. lower peak values resulting from the ADCColour suggestions are shown in the circuit Naturally, always disconnect power before conversion of the output of IC4d. They arediagrams of Fig.3 and Fig.4, but may be making component changes. suffixed by the letters H and L (High andchanged to suit availability. It is important If all is well, the remaining i.c.s can be Low). Any value between 0 and 1023 couldNOT to duplicate the colours – doing so inserted and the l.c.d. connected. Typical appear at this time for all four readings.could result in leads being incorrectlyallocated to probes. The use of crocodile clips with colour-coded plastic covers was found to facilitatethe connection of leads to the probes them-selves. Heavy-duty crocodile clips are rec-ommended for ease of use (especially incooler or wet weather!). When testing the prototype, it did notappear to matter whether the probe leadswere screened or not. Consequently, stan-dard lighting or low current cable could beused. Twin-core mains cable was used bythe author and Nick, but in long term sur-veys it might prove more convenient tohave a mix of cable arrangements, of Interior of the case showing the relative positioning of the components. The p.c.b. is the first prototype which did not include the RS-232 device, IC7. The latter canFig.8. The two “standard” l.c.d. module be seen on its own sub-board to the left of the push-switches. It is recommendedpinout arrangements. that a larger case is used to allow a heavier-duty battery to be inserted.294 Everyday Practical Electronics, April 2003
  8. 8. At the top right of line 1 is another incrementing beyond 127, or rolling over ability to display values as different inten-number, suffixed by a hash symbol (#). to 127 after decrementing below 0. sity grey-scales was found to be too limit-This is the processed value that, when Pressing Mode switch S6 changes the ed to justify the extra expense (at leastSave switch S8 is pressed, is stored to the position of the asterisk, thus allocating the another £30) and so the facility wasserial memory as a grid value for the +/– switches to that aspect of the grid, i.e. dropped.coordinates on line 2. Switching between vertical (column) or horizontal (row). Had the result been acceptable, again settings using S3, the value will PIC16F877 would have been used with thechange. (During a survey always keep S3 DATA TRANSFER screen, in a manner similar to the author’sat the same setting.) SWITCH Using Graphics L.C.D.s with PICs article Note that if too strong an input signal is Pressing Download switch S7 causes the of Jan ’01.amplified, the op.amp’s output may satu- PIC to send the contents of the serial mem-rate (reach its maximum obtainable level). ory to the PC at a rate of 9600 baud. As EEPROM RESETTINGIn practice, keep the value at the right of previously said, the values for each of the The contents of the serial EEPROMline 1 well below about 500. A value of 16384 possible grid coordinates are stored can be reset to zero when required. As a1023 is the maximum that can result from as two bytes – the MSB and LSB of the 10- security measure (to avoid resetting inap-an ADC conversion, indicating that the bit ADC values. propriately!), the reset routine can onlyADC has received an input voltage equal to No attempt has been made to be selec- be called at the moment that the power isthe power line voltage of +5V. This is an tive about which set of values is sent to the being switched on. With the power off,improbable event as the op.amp output is PC. All 32768 values are sent on each press and hold down Save switch S8,unlikely to swing that high. occasion that S7 is pressed. The transfer then switch on the power. When the mes- takes about 30 seconds. sage CLEARING EEPROM is seen,L.C.D. LINE 2 During transfer, the top l.c.d. line shows release S8. At the left of line 2 are shown the col- the message “SENDING TO PC”, withumn and row values which represent the line 2 blank. Upon completion of the trans-survey grid coordinates, and thus the loca- fer, line 2 shows “SENDING FINISHED”,tion in the serial memory at which the and line 1 briefly displays the “SOILprocessed IC4 value is stored. They are RESISTIVITY” message again, beforesuffixed C and R respectively. An asterisk clearing to once more show the valuessymbol (*) will be seen to the right of one being sampled.or the other of these coordinate values Line 2 remains with its last message Example display during serial memory(more on setting coordinates in a moment). shown until the asterisk (Mode) switch S6 resetting. At the right of line 2 is shown the value is again pressed, to once more show thethat is currently stored at the specified coordinate values.memory address. During the survey it will On line 2 will be a progress count dis-normally show 0 as each new coordinate is play as the software writes zeros to allselected. When the Save switch S8 is 32768 EEPROM data locations. It is apressed the display will change to repeat somewhat lengthy process, taking aboutthe number that has just been saved to the three and half minutes. This is due tomemory as a 2-byte value. At any time dur- numerous essential delays that are builting the survey, the coordinate switches into the writing procedure.may be used to recall the values that are Example display when downloading The software for the EEPROM writingstored for each grid location. stored data to a PC-compatible and reading was originally downloaded There are three switches for coordinate computer has been completed. from Microchip’s CD-ROM for use in thesetting. Two of them, S4 and S5, respec- PIC16F877 Data Logger referred to earli-tively increment or decrement the value Check that all the switches perform as er. It is recommended that you do notbeside which is shown the asterisk. The intended. It is not necessary to have probes attempt to modify Microchip’s coding torange is 0 to 127, rolling over to 0 after connected at this time, and it does not mat- speed the resetting process! ter that the serial download will not be des- On completion of the resetting, which tined anywhere – the PC’s data reception also resets the column and row values, the side of things will be covered in Part 2. screen briefly shows the SOIL RESISTIV- ITY message and proceeds in the normal PROGRAMMED ASIDE way as described earlier. Incidentally, experiments were made using a graphics l.c.d. instead of an NEXT MONTHExample of display when Save switch alphanumeric one, to see if survey data In the final part next month, the PC-S8 is pressed. In this case saving 28 to could be illustrated by the unit as an in- compatible Windows software is describedEEPROM location 41. built 20 × 20 grid display. However, the and probing methods discussed. NEWSAGENTS ORDER FORM Please reserve/deliver a copy of Everyday Practical Electronics for me each month Signed ....................................................................................................................................................................................... Name and Address ................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................ Post Code ................................................ Everyday Practical Electronics is published on the second Thursday of each month and distributed S.O.R. by COMAG Make sure of your copy of EPE each month – cut out or photostat this form, fill it in and hand it to your newsagent.Everyday Practical Electronics, April 2003 295

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