Hence/Thus/Therefore• Hence means from this place: Away; from this time; because of apreceding fact or premise: Therefore*.• We will reunite five years hence.• She won the talent competition, hence her good spirits.• She grew up in Florida, hence her familiarity with palmetto bugs.• Therefore means for that reason: Consequently; because of that; on thatground; to that end*. It directly relates to reasoning.• I think, therefore I am.• She was early and therefore had to wait out in the cold.• He has a race tomorrow; therefore, he can’t stay out late tonight.• Thus means in this or that manner or way; to this degree or extend: So;because of this or that: Hence, Consequently; as an example*• The professor described it thus…• We’ve had quite a few examples thus far.• He studied a lot, thus making it easier for him to pass the test.
Chair Poet?“If I feel physicallyas if the top of myhead were takenoff, I know that ispoetry.”Emily Dickinson
AGENDA•Maxine Hong Kingston•Historical Context•Themes and Style•Discussion•QHQ•Theme•Critical Lens
Historical Context: Women in Chinese Society• Kingston takes revenge on centuries of Chinese female oppressionin The Woman Warrior, the larger work from which “No-NameWoman” was taken. Through her stories about herself and herfemale relatives, Kingston paints a picture of Chinese tradition thatportrays women as objectified and enslaved by men. From the daysof Confucius through the early twentieth century, the Chineseplaced men above women and family above social order. Whenpeople married, new family ties formed, and new wives becamesubservient to their grooms’ parents. Women from the higherclasses lived extremely secluded lives and suffered such treatmentsas foot-binding. The Chinese chose young girls who were especiallypretty to undergo foot-binding. The binder bent the large toebackward, forever deforming the foot. Men favored women withbound feet, a sign of beauty and gentility, because it signified thatthey could support these women who were incapable of physicallabor.
SettingThe narrator grows up inStockton, California, where she was born in 1940.The events that actually occur in her life takeplace in California. Her imagined warrior life andher mothers "talk stories," however, take place inChina. For example, the story of No-NameAunt, the ghost aunt, occurs in China from about1924 to 1934.
StyleKingston combines fact with fiction—relying on herown memories, her mothers "talk stories," and herown vivid imagination—to create a view of what it islike to grow up a Chinese-American female.She reworks traditional myths and legends tomodernize their messages.Some critics argue that her dependence oninventiveness (from the myths and legends) rendersher writing difficult to classify as autobiography orfiction.
Postmodern Aspects Shrugs off old forms and limits: Her work differs from most autobiographies inthat it is not a first-person narration of the authors life. Multiple genres and approaches: memory, fantasy, speculation, translation, andpoint of view. Moves away from the metanarrative: Kingston struggles to reconcile heridentity as a member of two cultures, Chinese and American, who does not feelentirely at home in either culture. It is a story of an individual. Themes: Kingston combats what Shirley Geok-Lin Lim has called "the culturalsilencing of Chinese in American society and ….. the gendered silencing ofwomen in Chinese society,” through the telling of stories about women who areeither literally or mythically her ancestors. Her words are her weapons againstsilence, racism, and sexism.
Critical Lens: Marxism• I think it would be interesting to look at this story through a Marxistlens.• one of the first things the townsfolk did was to slaughter the family’sanimal stock, trash the seemingly few material items they owned, and take“sugar and oranges” as well as “cut pieces from the dead animals” and“took bowls that were not broken and clothes that were not torn.” Thelivestock, and their material possessions were the two things focused onby these people? That seems like they were trying to shame themfinancially.
Feminist Lens• The aunt obviously suffered greatly if she had to get to the pointwhere she threw herself and her newborn down a well. This wholeidea of “slut shaming” by the villagers destroying her house andkilling her livestock gave her almost nothing to live for. No otheroptions were even considered.• The clear message is that the narrator finds the traditional Chineseculture to be masogenistic and inconsiderate of women’s desiresand independence. However, the more interesting feministdiscourse that one can engage in is how the speaker sees thedichotomy between how women operate in America in contrast toChina
ThemesA common theme I saw throughout this was theidea of beauty and what is considered beautiful inChinese culture.Theme of Sexual RepressionThe place of women in traditional Chinese society isa theme in this chapter.An overlying theme in Warrior Woman is shame.
Symbol• The well/water• A well is filled with water and water symbolizes purity, so when the auntjumps I to the well, perhaps it symbolizes that she is trying to purify herself.It also symbolizes that because she dies in the water, a pure place, that herpregnancy was not her fault, so she dies pure.• the importance of the circle• “The round moon cakes and round doorways, the round tables ofgraduated size that fit one roundness inside another, round windows andrice bowls…”• Pig• Pork is revered as a life-giving food that nourishes the essence andstrengthens the weak. is the traditional character for pig. It you takethe left hand side of the character and put a “roof” over the top, you getthe character for family .
QHQDoes the No Name Woman fit into Anzaldua’s idea of the threesymbols for women (The Fucked One, La Llorona, and La Virgin deGuadalupe)?What empowering symbols does the narrator try to create out ofthe story of the aunt?How do we do this [punish women] in America? (Because I amcertain we do. As early as Scarlet Letter to Kristen Stewart)Why did the narrator treat the No Named Woman differently thanthe villagers?If the Chinese have a hard life in China, then how would their livesbe if they leave for America?
Author Introduction: Sandra CisnerosBorn in Chicago in 1954, Sandra Cisneros grew up with herMexican father, Mexican-American mother, and six brothers. Herfamily moved back and forth between Chicago and Mexico City.As a child, her defense against loneliness was reading booksand writing poetry. In high school, she continued writing, tryingto distinguish her own voice from the voices of the literary giantsshe studied. It was not until a creative writing class in college in1974, described in "Ghost Voices: Writing from Obsession," thatshe began to realize that she had not only a unique voice, butalso a new story to tell that had not been told in Americanliterature. It is the story of immigrant families living on theborders between countries, neighborhoods, social classes,linguistic groups, and races.
HOMEWORK•Read Sandra Cisneros•“Woman Hollering Creek” 1131-1139•Post #35•Discuss a theme: love and passion or sex roles or?•Discuss the text in terms of postmodernism or inarticulation with a postmodern manifesto.•Discuss the story as it reads through a feminist and/orminority lens.
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