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American gothic

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American gothic

  1. 1. 1. SWBAT understand key components of theModern literary era.2. SWBAT identify and analyze essential elementsof the Southern gothic genre.3. SWBAT understand and identify effect of wordchoice in A Streetcar Named Desire.4. SWBAT identify and analyze the use of figurativelanguage and other literary techniques.5. SWBAT to apply several literarytheories/approaches to A Streetcar Named Desire.Unit GoalsDay 1
  2. 2. Day 1
  3. 3. ―At the age of fourteen Idiscovered writing as an escapefrom a world of reality in which Ifelt acutely uncomfortable. Itimmediately became my place ofretreat, my cave, my refuge.‖Said Tennessee Williams:Day 1
  4. 4. POSTMODERNISM1940s - TODAYPuritanism1472 - 1750Rationalism1750 - 1800Romanticism1820 - 1860Transcendentalism1830 - 1860RealismNaturalismRegionalism1860 - 1920Imagism1912 - 1927The HarlemRenaissance1920 - 1935The LostGeneration1920 - 1930MODERNISM1900-1940sAmerican Literary MovementsDay 1
  5. 5. •Modernism was a literary movement that lastedroughly from WWI to WWII.•Modernist authors felt…1. alienation, like outsiders in their own society.2. disillusionment with the number of WWI casualties and andecaying American culture. Where are all the heroes?3. existential angst, wondering, ―Is this all there is in ameaningless, chaotic, godless world?‖•In other words, reality bites. No wonderWilliams used writing as an escape.What is Modernism?Day 1
  6. 6. •Modernist authors wanted…1. to explore America’s cultureof striking contrasts• young and old• rich and poor• old money and new money• haves and have-nots2. to create new literarytechniques in order to betterexpress themselves• stream-of-consciousness• surreal (dreamlike) imageryWhat is Modernism?Day 1
  7. 7. • Eliot grew up in St. Louis.• (His grandfather foundedWashington University.)• He is famous for a long poemcalled The Waste Land that ―spokefor the collapse of a whole[American] culture‖ (AmericanLiterature 1992)• Later in life, Eliot was anAmerican expatriate living inLondon.T.S. Eliot (1888 – 1965)Day 1
  8. 8. • This poem is about amiddle-aged white mantrying to work up the nerveto ask a woman out on adate.• The problem is, he has nogame. Definitely not aladies man.J. Alfred Prufrock: The Ultimate Modern ManDay 1
  9. 9. • Think of Prufrock as thespokesman for thealienated, angst-riddenAmerican culture of thistime period.• He is self-deprecating, i.e. hedoesn‘t think much of himself.• He is fed up with the spirituallyempty, inauthentic people heknows.• The drudgery of modern life hasturned him into an observer ratherPrufrock: The Ultimate Modern ManDay 1
  10. 10. • Anti-heroes are protagonistswho have…• imperfections(selfishness, ignorance, etc.) thatseparate them from typically ―heroic‖characters, AND/OR• a lack of positive qualities(courage, physicalprowess, fortitude, etc.), AND/OR• qualities normally belonging to avillain (amorality, greed, violenttendencies) tempered withidentifiable human traitsLiterary Term: Anti-HeroDay 1
  11. 11. SurrealismThe Enigma of Desire by Salvador DaliThe Three Sphnixes of Bikini by Salvador DaliThe Anthropomorphic Woman by Salvador DaliSurrealism is an art movement thatbegan in the 1920s. Modern authorscreated surreal, or dreamlike, imageswith their words, much in the same waythat surrealist painters create those sameimages in their works.
  12. 12. • For our first reading of this poem, we‘regoing to listen to Mr. Eliot himself read hiswork.• I want you to follow along and annotate thepoem as you listen. I‘ll collect your annotatedpoem for points when we are finished with it.• Today‘s focus:• Where do you see Prufrock worried about aging?• Where do you see him focused on sex?Prufrock: Take OneDay 1
  13. 13. • dramatic monologue – a poem in which acharacter speakers directly to one or morelisteners• The first line starts, ―Let us go then, you and I…‖• That ―you‖ could be you the listener, but we don‘tknow for sure.Literary Term: Dramatic MonologueDay 2
  14. 14. • stream-of-consciousness - aliterary technique thatpresents the thoughts andfeelings of a character as theyoccur• This poem jumps all over theplace, as our minds tend to do.• However, Prufrock gets sidetrackedvery easily.Literary Term: Stream-of-ConsciousnessDay 2
  15. 15. • allusion – a brief reference to a historicalevent, another piece of literature, etc.Literary Term: AllusionDay 2
  16. 16. • irony - the use of words to expresssomething different from and oftenopposite to their literal meaningLiterary Term: IronyDay 2
  17. 17. • Yesterday, I asked you to focus on Prufrock‘saging and his desire to have sex.• Today, I‘m going to walk you through thepeculiar rooms in Prufrock‘s mind while youannotate the poem.• Then, you‘ll get with a partner to look forspecific ideas.Prufrock: Take TwoDay 2
  18. 18. Day 3
  19. 19. 1. SWBAT understand key components of theModern literary era.2. SWBAT identify and analyze essentialelements of the Southern gothic genre.3. SWBAT understand and identify effect ofword choice in A Streetcar Named Desire.4. SWBAT identify and analyze the use offigurative language and other literarytechniques.Unit GoalsDay 3
  20. 20. • a subgenre of Gothicfiction unique toAmerican literature thattakes place exclusively inthe American South• the style is one that employsthe use of macabre, ironicevents to examine thevalues of the AmericanSouth• macabre - pertaining to, dealingwith, or representingdeath, especially its grimmer oruglier aspectWhat is the Southern Gothic Genre?Day 3
  21. 21. • Cold War Kids are an American indie rockgroup from Long Beach, California.• The band is known for its gothic lyrics thattell stories about seedy and sordid characters.Southern Gothic Song LyricsDay 3
  22. 22. • ―Old to Billie Joe‖ is a songwritten in 1967 by BobbieGentry and is ranked #419as Rolling Stone‘s Top 500Songs of All-Time.• Two big questions ariseafter listening to this song:• What was thrown off thebridge?• Why did Billie Joe commitsuicide?Southern Gothic Song LyricsDay 3
  23. 23. • American author from Savannah, Georgia• very religious (Catholic)• often wrote in the Southern Gothic styleand relied heavily on…• regional settings• local color• violence to make a point• grotesque charactersFlannery O’Connor (1925 – 1964)Day 4
  24. 24. • In fiction, characters are usuallyconsidered grotesque if theyinduce both empathy anddisgust.• (If a character only elicits disgust, thenhe/she is considered a monster orvillain.)• The reader becomes interested inthe grotesques positive side andcontinues reading to see if thecharacter can conquer his or herdarker side.Important Term:Grotesque CharacterDay 4
  25. 25. • short story written byO’Connor in 1953• great example of SouthernGothic literature• In the story, O‘Connor…• uses darkness to reveal beauty• uses violence as a means tomake grotesque characterschange for the better• very ambiguous ending(we‘ll debate the endingtomorrow in class)―A Good Man is Hard to Find‖Day 4
  26. 26. Finish the shortstory and be readyfor a three questionreading quiz!Homework for Tomorrow:Day 4
  27. 27. Answer these questions in complete sentencesto get full credit:1. What is the name of the serial killerthat is one the loose?2. What causes the car accident?3. How many survivors are there (notcounting the cat or the killers) at theend of the story?―A Good Man‖ Reading Quiz ADay 5
  28. 28. Answer these questions in completesentences to get full credit:1. How does the short story get its title?2. Who finds the family after their caraccident?3. How does each person in the familydie?―A Good Man‖ Reading Quiz BDay 5
  29. 29. • Foreshadowing is hintsor clues about what’s tocome in a story.Literary Term: ForeshadowingDay 5
  30. 30. • Divine grace is salvationto sinners grantedby, regardless of theirmerit.Important Term: Divine GraceDay 5
  31. 31. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS1. What is the grandmothertrying to do here? Is sheauthentically feeling ahuman connection toThe Misfit or is she justtrying to save her butt?In other words, does shereceive divine grace atthe end of her life?2. What does the Misfitmean?―Why you‘re one of my babies.You‘re one of my ownchildren!‖ She reached out andtouched him on the shoulder.The Misfit sprang back as if asnake had bitten him and shother three times through thechest…―She would have been a goodwoman,‖ The Misfit said, ―if ithad been somebody there toshoot her every minute of herlife.‖The Ambiguous EndingDay 5
  32. 32. Finish the worksheet ofquestions about ―AGood Man is Hard toFind,‖ if you don‘t finishin class.Homework for ThursdayDay 5
  33. 33. • American author fromOxford, Mississippi• One of the most important writersof Southern literature• Faulkner uses stream-of-consciousness and grotesquecharacters in his writingWilliam Faulkner (1897-1962)Day 6
  34. 34. • first published in 1930• a prime example of aSouthern gothic shortstory• Faulkner pays greatattention to…• small-town social status• the society’s changing values• the struggles people undergoto find joy• the South’s ugly racism“A Rose for Emily”Day 6
  35. 35. Finish reading the shortstory and be ready for areading quiz!Homework for MondayDay 6
  36. 36. Answer these questions in completesentences to get full credit:1. How does Miss Emily kill her ex-boyfriend?2. What is the significance of the iron-gray hair found on the pillow at theend of the story?―A Rose for Emily‖ Reading Quiz ADay 7
  37. 37. Answer these questions in completesentences to get full credit:1. What was the ―dank‖ smell comingfrom Miss Emily‘s house after all?2. What did the townspeople find whenthey went into Miss Emily‘s houseafter she died?―A Rose for Emily‖ Reading Quiz BDay 7
  38. 38. • An anachronism occurs when a person, object, orword from one time period is put into a differentera.• Picture a movie set in 1930. A woman, standing in herkitchen, pours milk into a glass from a carton.• WRONG! Only milk bottles were used in 1930. Cartonsweren’t popular until the 1960s.• Picture a story set in rural Illinois in 1880. A man excuseshimself from the dinner table to use the restroom.• WRONG! This area would not have indoor plumbing in1880. Only outhouses were used then.• How is Miss Emily an example of anachronism?Literary Term: AnachronismDay 7
  39. 39. • An allegory is a storywith two meanings: aliteral one and ametaphorical one.• The Crucible is anexample of allegory.• How is the title of thisshort story allegorical?Literary Term: AllegoryDay 7
  40. 40. Day 8
  41. 41. 1. SWBAT identify and discuss majorthemes, symbols, and motifs.2. SWBAT support the argument that Blanche istragic hero.3. SWBAT apply psychoanalytic literary theoryto the play.4. SWBAT identify and understand effect ofslang, idiom, and dialect, and word choice inthe play.Unit GoalsDay 8
  42. 42. • He was a Southern writer born inMississippi who later moved to St.Louis (he was not happy here).• He grew up in a tense household withunhappily married parents.• His father was very controlling.• He turned to drugs and alcohol tocope.• He’s the author of more thantwenty-four plays, including:• Cat on a Hot Tin Roof• The Glass Menagerie• A Streetcar Named DesireTennessee Williams (1911 – 1983)Day 8
  43. 43. • Williams wrote about such subjects asmurder, rape, homosexuality, nymphomania, and drug/alcohol addiction at a time whenthese topics were still regarded as toocontroversial for the American stage.• His characters are complicated, realpeople.• He wrote with deep sympathy aboutoutcasts in our society: the poor, thesocially awkward, the loners, the despised.His WorkDay 8
  44. 44. ―I don‘t believe in ‗original sin.‘ Idon‘t believe in ‗guilt.‘ I don‘tbelieve in villains or heroes– onlyright or wrong ways thatindividuals have taken, not bychoice but by necessity…‖Said Tennessee Williams:Day 8
  45. 45. • The play takes place in a working classneighborhood in New Orleans on a street called“Elysian Fields.”• The name is an allusion to a place in Greekmythology where the honorable and righteous goafter death to live a happy and blessed life.• This name is purposefully ironic; we tend not to think ofpoor, working class neighborhoods as ―paradise.‖The SettingDay 8
  46. 46. The Main CharactersStanley KowalskiStella KowalskiBlanche DuBoisDay 8
  47. 47. Can you predict any of the play‘s themes simplyby analyzing the book‘s cover art?The ThemesDay 8
  48. 48. • Themes are thefundamental and oftenuniversal ideas exploredin a literary work.• The themes in Streetcar are:1. Fantasy’s Inability to OvercomeReality2. The Relationship Between Sexand Death3. Women’s Dependence on MenThe ThemesDay 8
  49. 49. • Motifs are recurringstructures in a literarywork that help toestablish the text’smajor themes.• The motifs in Streetcar are:1. light2. bathing3. drunkennessThe MotifsDay 8
  50. 50. (1)Read Arthur Miller‘sintroduction to the play on p.ix – xiv and the ProductionCredits on p. xv.(2)Be ready for a reading quiz!Tonight‘s Homework
  51. 51. • An epigraph is a suitablequotation at the beginning ofthe book, chapter, etc.• Every chapter in Into the Wild hadone or more epigraphs.Remember?• Epigraphs are like little appetizersto the great entrée of a story.They illuminate important aspectsof the story, and they get usheaded in the right direction.Literary Term: EpigraphDay 9
  52. 52. Analyzing the EpigraphAnd so it was I entered the broken worldtrans:To trace the visionary company of love, its voicetrans:An instant in the wind (I know not whither hurled)trans:But not for long to hold each desperate choice.trans:Day 9
  53. 53. In Class: Scene One• Narrator• Stanley• Stella• Eunice• Colored Woman• Negro Woman• BlancheDay 9
  54. 54. • Symbolism is the use ofordinary objects torepresent morecomplex, abstract ideas.• Music and sounds arethe major symbols inthis play.1. shadows and cries2. the blue piano3. the Varsouviana Polka4. “It’s Only a Paper Moon”The SymbolsDay 10
  55. 55. In Class: Scene Two• Narrator• Stanley• Stella• Blanche• VendorDay 10
  56. 56. Scene Two: Blanche and Stanley Meet• Video clip• How does the film portray the firstmeeting between these two?• How is it the same or different from theplay?• How is it the same or different from whatyou imagined?Day 11
  57. 57. In Class: Scene Three• Narrator• Steve• Pablo• Mitch• Stanley• Stella• Blanche• EuniceDay 11
  58. 58. Scene Three: Stanley and Stella Reunite• Video clip• How does the film visualize Williams’sanimalistic word choice?Day 12
  59. 59. Answer these questions in completesentences to get full credit:1. How does Stanley finally turn off themusic once and for all?2. Why does Blanche take her sisterupstairs to Eunice‘s apartment?Scene Three Reading Quiz ADay 12
  60. 60. Answer these questions in completesentences to get full credit:1. What do the men do to sober Stanleyup?2. What does Stanley do at the end ofthe scene to find Stella?Scene Three Reading Quiz BDay 12
  61. 61. • Turn to the chart on thebackside of your Scene Twoquestions.• By yourself or with apartner, look back throughScene Three to complete thechart. You are looking forwords/phrases that indicateStanley and Stella act likeanimals.• Then, answer the BIGQUESTION at the bottom. 10Close Reading: Scene ThreeDay 12
  62. 62. In Class: Scene Four• Narrator• Blanche• Stella• StanleyDay 12
  63. 63. Answer these questions in completesentences to get full credit:1. What did Stanley do the night he andStella were married?2. What is Blanche‘s plan for getting her andStella out of there?3. What does Stella think of this plan? Howdo you know?Scene Four Reading Quiz ADay 13
  64. 64. • First, we‘ll reread Blanche‘sspeech at the end of SceneFour.• By yourself or with apartner, look back throughScene Four to completethe sheet.• Then, answer the BIGQUESTION at thebottom. 20 minutes max.Close Reading: Scene Four (Blanche‘s Speech)Day 13
  65. 65. In Class: Scene Five• Narrator• Blanche• Stella• Steve• Eunice• Stanley• Young ManDay 13
  66. 66. 1. How is Steve and Eunice‘s relationship similar to Stanley andStella‘s? Why does Williams put a brief mention of them at thebeginning of this scene?2. What does Stanley tell Blanche about his acquaintance, Shaw?How does Blanche react?3. Blanche is trying to attract Mitch and keep him interested inher. Why?4. In order to attract Mitch, Blanche admits that she needs todeceive him. Why?5. Describe Blanche‘s behavior with the young man who comesto the door. What is it about the young man that attractsBlanche?Discussion Questions: Scene FiveDay 14
  67. 67. In Class: Scene Six• Narrator• Blanche• Mitch• The Varsouviana polka is one of the symbolsof this play. The music dominates this scene.Take note of what Blanche is talking aboutwhen the music starts to play.Day 14
  68. 68. Establishing a ThemeTHEME
  69. 69. • Motifs are recurringstructures in a literarywork that help toestablish the text’smajor themes.• The motifs in Streetcar are:1. light2. bathing3. drunkennessThe MotifsDay 15
  70. 70. • With a partner, begin to fill outthe ―Tracking Motifs andThemes‖ chart with directquotes or paraphrases.• Be sure to include the internalcitation.• TODAY‘S GOAL: 3 examplesof each motif. YOU WILLNOT FINISH TODAY.Today‘s TaskDay 15
  71. 71. • Katelyn and Jasmine• Isaiah and Greg• Matt and Liam• Sam, Zach, and Harper• Natalie and Destini• Hailey and Nozima• Iskander and Stephen• David and Alex O.• Alex D. and Ben• Jonathan and Wayne7th Hour Partners
  72. 72. In Class: Scene Seven• Narrator• Stanley• Stella• Blanche• ―It‘s Only a Paper Moon‖ is one of the symbols ofthis play. Blanche is singing this song‘s veryappropriate lyrics while bathing, one of the motifsof this play. This scene helps to establish thetheme, ―Fantasy‘s Inability to Overcome Reality.‖Day 14/15
  73. 73. In Class: Scene Eight• Narrator• Stanley• Stella• BlancheDay 15
  74. 74. • Symbolism is the use ofordinary objects torepresent morecomplex, abstract ideas.• Music and sounds arethe major symbols inthis play.1. shadows and cries2. the blue piano3. the Varsouviana Polka4. “It’s Only a Paper Moon”The Symbols
  75. 75. In Class: Scene Nine• Narrator• Blanche• Mitch• Mexican Woman (someone who speaksSpanish, preferably)• In this scene, you will see the motif of light usedfrequently. This helps establish the theme of―Fantasy‘s Inability to Overcome Reality.‖
  76. 76. • Themes are thefundamental and oftenuniversal ideas exploredin a literary work.• The themes in Streetcar are:1. Fantasy’s Inability to OvercomeReality2. The Relationship Between Sexand Death3. Women’s Dependence on MenThe Themes
  77. 77. Establishing a ThemeTHEME
  78. 78. Establishing a ThemeFantasy’sInability toOvercomeReality(diction)(motif)(tone)
  79. 79. • With a partner, begin to fill outthe ―Tracking Motifs andThemes‖ chart with directquotes or paraphrases.• Be sure to include the internalcitation.• TODAY‘S GOAL: 3 examplesof each theme. YOU WILLTURN IN YOURFINISHED WORK.Today‘s Task
  80. 80. In Class: Scene Ten• Narrator• Blanche• Stanley• In this scene, you will see the last symbol ofthis play: the jungle sounds. Like TennesseeWilliams‘s word choice in both stage directionsand Blanche‘s dialogue, these sounds helpcharacterize Stanley as an animal.
  81. 81. In Class: Scene Eleven• Narrator• Stanley• Pablo• Mitch• Eunice• Stella• Blanche• Doctor• Matron• Echoes• Steve
  82. 82. • SWBAT to apply severalliterary theories/approachesto A Streetcar Named Desire.Unit Goal for Today:
  83. 83. • Literary theory asks us—the readers—toexamine literature from anotherviewpoint, or with another ―lens,‖ differentfrom what we inherently bring to the table(pardon the idiom).• Literary theories we‘ve used this year:1. New Historicism2. Archetypal3. FeministRefresher: What is Lit Theory?
  84. 84. • This is the approach that you have (unknowingly)taken with Streetcar so far.• Formalism is primarily concerned with form, and itinvolves inspecting a piece of literature‘s:1. Form (cadence, repetition, recurrences, relationships)2. Diction(denotation, connotation, etymology, allusions, ambiguity, symbolism)3. Unity (imagery, figures of speech, irony, paradox)Formalist Approach
  85. 85. Refresher: Archetypal Literary Theory• An archetype is a recurring pattern ofimages, situations, or symbols found inthemythology, folklore, fantasies, religion,art, literature, and dreams of culturesaround the world.• Recognizing archetypal patterns inliterature brings patterns we allunconsciously respond to in similarways to a conscious level.• For example, the hero archetype ispresent in a vast array of mythologiesand cultures from past to present time.We all know what a hero is, and we canall connect to that idea.
  86. 86. Twelve Hero Archetypes1. Hero as Warrior2. Hero as Lover3. Hero as Scapegoat4. Tragic/Transcendent Hero5. Romantic/Gothic Hero6. Proto-Feminist Hero7. Apocalyptic Hero8. Anti-Hero9. Defiant Anti-Hero10. The Unbalanced Hero11. The Denied Hero12. The Superheroic
  87. 87. Talk to your partner and come up with ananswer. You will report back to the class.
  88. 88. Character ArchetypesAside from the many different kinds ofhero archetypes, there are many othercharacter archetypes.
  89. 89. Talk to your partner and come up with ananswer. You will report back to the class.
  90. 90. 1. male or femalepersonification of evil2. malice, or ill-will, isunmotivated, ormotivated by a singleincident from the past3. the malice is oftenlimitlessThe Villain Archetype
  91. 91. • Feminist literary theory looks at howthe characters, especially the femalecharacters, are portrayed.• The feminist approach is based onfinding and exposing suggestions ofmisogyny in literature.Questions to ask ourselves:1. How does this text reinforce sexualstereotypes?2. How does this text undermine sexualstereotypes?Refresher: Feminist Literary Theory
  92. 92. Closely examine:1. the characters2. the language of the text3. the attitude of the author4. the relationships between thecharacters5. the comments the author seemsto be making about society as awholeHow to Answer Those Questions
  93. 93. 1. Write a five-sentence paragraph that eitherapplies archetypal lit theory OR feminist littheory to A Streetcar Named Desire.2. Organizational pattern:• Effective topic sentence• Transition + supporting detail #1• Transition + supporting detail #2• Transition + supporting detail #2• Effective conclusion sentence• Transition• Restate topic sentence• Incorporate a thought-provoking or insightful ideaHomework for Tonight
  94. 94. • This theory involves theexamination ofconflicts, characters, dream sequences, andsymbols.• This theory is based onthe work of SigmundFreud, an Austrianneurologist and the fatherof psychoanalysis.Psychoanalytic Literary Theory
  95. 95. 1. There are strong Oedipalconnotations in this theory.These all operate on asubconscious level.• The son‘s desire for his mother• The father‘s envy of the son and rivalryfor the mother‘s attention• The daughter‘s desire for her father• The mother‘s envy of the daughter andrivalry for the father‘s attentionFreud‘s Influence
  96. 96. 2. There is an emphasis on themeaning of dreams.• This theory asserts that it is indreams that a person‘s subconsciousdesires are revealed.• What a person cannot express or dobecause of social rules will beexpressed in dreams, where there areno rules.Freud‘s Influence
  97. 97. 3. According to thistheory, there are threeparts to thesubconscious, which isthe largest part of thehuman personality.a) the id: basic desireb) the superego: the oppositeof the idc) the ego: reality, or thebalance between the id andthe superegoFreud‘s Influence
  98. 98. • The id is the part of the personality that contains our primitiveimpulses—such as thirst, anger, hunger—and the desire forinstant gratification or release.• According to Freud, we are born with our id. The id is animportant part of our personality because as newborns, itallows us to get our basic needs met.• Freud believed that the id is based on our pleasure principle.The id wants whatever feels good at the time, with noconsideration for the other circumstances of the situation.The Id
  99. 99. • The superego is the part ofthe personality thatrepresents theconscience, the moral partof us.• The superego develops dueto the moral and ethicalrestraints placed on us byour caregivers. It dictatesour belief of right andThe Superego
  100. 100. • The ego is the part of the personality that maintains abalance between our impulses (our id) and our conscience(our superego).• The ego is based on the reality principle. The egounderstands that other people have needs and desires andthat sometimes being impulsive or selfish can hurt us inthe end. It is the ego‘s job to meet the needs of theid, while taking into consideration the reality of thesituation.• The ego works, in other words, to balance the id andsuperego.The Ego
  101. 101. • Which characterrepresents the id?• Which characterrepresents thesuperego?• Which characterrepresents the ego?The Cat in the Hat
  102. 102. Group 1: Matt, Liam, Greg, Alex O.Group 2: Ben, David, Stephen, Iskander, WayneGroup 3: Katelyn, Jasmine, Destini, GregGroup 4: Natalie, Harper, Zach, NozimaGroup 5: Hailey, Isaiah, Alex D, Sam7th Hour Groups
  103. 103. POSTMODERNISM1940s - TODAYPuritanism1472 - 1750Rationalism1750 - 1800Romanticism1820 - 1860Transcendentalism1830 - 1860RealismNaturalismRegionalism1860 - 1920Imagism1912 - 1927The HarlemRenaissance1920 - 1935The LostGeneration1920 - 1930MODERNISM1900-1940sAmerican Literary Movements
  104. 104. Walt Whitman
  105. 105. ―Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking‖
  106. 106. Edgar Allan Poe
  107. 107. ―The Raven‖

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