Continuous vs. Continual
Continual means "repeated regularly and
Julia hated the continual negative political ads.
Continuous means "extended or prolonged
The alarm bell was jammed and rang
continuously; it never stopped and was making
The American Dream
Books IV andV
Introduce Exam #1
The Answers to the Quiz:Take 10 minutes
A. Gaston Cleric
B. Lewis Hale
C. Frances Harling
D. Mina Loy
E. Mrs. Shimerda
F. Otto Fuchs
G. Samson d'Arnault
H. Wick Cutter
I. Molly Gardener
J. Tiny Soderball
K. Lena Lingard
L. Minnie Foster
M. Anton Cuzak
N. Mr. Marinetti
JamesTruslow Adams, who coined the phrase “The American
Dream” in 1931, wrote this about it:
[The American Dream is] that dream of a land in which life
should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with
opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is
a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret
adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary
and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high
wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each
man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest
stature of which they are innately capable, and be
recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the
fortuitous circumstances of birth or position. [The Epic of
The Beginnings of the Dream
Yet, the concept of the American Dream existed
before Adams articulated it. Perhaps the first
verbalization of the American Dream isThomas
Jefferson’s statement from the Declaration of
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are
created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with
certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life,
Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.”
Benjamin Franklin gave the definitive formulation of
the American Dream in his autobiography (begun in
1771, published in 1818). At least five characteristics of
the American Dream have been noted in Franklin’s
1. the rise from rags to riches through industry and thrift;
2. the rise from insignificance to importance, from
helplessness to power;
3. a philosophy of individualism;
4. the efficacy of free will and action;
5. and a spirit of hope, even of optimism.
In 1867 when writer, Horatio Alger came out
with his book Ragged Dick, the concept of the
American Dream became an American Idea.The
story is a rags-to-riches tale of a poor orphan
boy in NewYork City who saves his pennies,
works hard and eventually becomes rich.This
model of honesty, hard work, and strong
determination as the keys to success in America
became the goal of Americans and the
immigrants who would soon come to America.
In time, many Americans became disenchanted with
the theme. Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville,
Edgar Allan Poe, Henry James, and MarkTwain
probed the dark side of the dream.
Twain, writing during the rise of nineteenth century
finance capitalism and industrialism, became
increasingly disillusioned with social corruption in
the Gilded Age. In his classic novel Adventures of
Huckleberry Finn (1884), before Huck “lights out for
the territory” to escape being civilized, he struggles
with a corrupt world of frauds, desperadoes, and
money-grubbing confidence men.
The 20th Century Dream
Twain set the tone for twentieth century versions of the
American Dream, many of which have depicted the
American Dream turned nightmare.Twain’s legacy is
certainly discernible in such a writer as F. Scott
Fitzgerald. Wealth and material possessions are shown
as the constituents of the American Dream, a theme
Fitzgerald develops in The Great Gatsby (1925).Yet in
much of 20th C literature, the American Dream is
ambiguous; while some deny it, others cling to it. While
some ignore it, others insist they will achieve it.
The American Dream: My Antonia
Mrs. Shimerda uprooted her family against her husband's wishes. She
said, "America big country, much money, much land for my boys,
much husband for my girls."
Pavel and Peter were fugitives.The burgeoning country and economy
provided many opportunities.
Tiny Soderball follows the frontier to Seattle and then, during the gold
rush, to Alaska.
And, as always, swindlers and loan sharks, like Wick Cutter, preyed on
Lena is a successful dressmaker in San Francisco.
Ántonia and her husband flourish
For all the successes, the novel is riddled with
disappointments and failures
Otto and Jake go west, and except for one postcard, they are
never heard of again.
"Rooshian" Peter, who proudly told Ántonia that "in his
country only rich people had cows, but here any man could
have one who would take care of her," loses his partner, and
bankruptcy forces him to sell his possessions.
When Jim tells Ántonia that Coronado, who searched the
American west for the Seven Golden Cities, died in the
wilderness of a broken heart, she sighs, "More than him has
done that."The American Dream had also broken her father.
Dream in My
1. Compare and contrastTiny Soderball and Lena
Lingard’s success with money.
2. Discuss the reasons whyWilla Cather chose to have
Antonia return to the Shimerda farm as an unwed
3. Discuss the differences between the Cuzak household
and the Shimerda household from many years before.
Q:What does the development ofWick Cutter show about his true
Q: For what purpose does Willa Cather tell us about Mr. and Mrs. Cutter’s
Had Cather givenAntonia a tragically “lonesome” ending, what would
Jim’s reaction/interaction/resolution been with her at the end?Would he
have even gone to see her?
Q: After reunion with Jim andAntonia, did their relationship grew again?
Q: How can My Antonia be seen as an important part of forming modernist
literature? How does the plot, narrative, and choice of characters
represent the importance of understanding the coming modernist trends,
and why is this important today?
1. Rules of writing based on introduction slides
I waited with bated/baited breath.
2. Passage identification by work
“But Mrs. Hale, the law is the law.”
3. Character identification
Similar to quiz
4. Who said it? Modern Manifestos
“It is better to present one Image in a lifetime than to produce
5. Author identification
In 1912, on a visit to her family in Red Cloud, she stood on
the edge of a wheat field and watched her first harvest in
6. Name events that influenced social and political modernity
The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution
7. Terms: Fill in the blank
________________occurs when a word, image, or event
generates two or more different meanings”
8. Identify theTheory
This theory maintains that a literary work contains
certain intrinsic features, and the theory “defines and
addresses the specifically literary qualities in the text."
9. Short essay/Long answer
Name and explain one important symbol from Trifles
Study for Exam: Vocabulary, Theory,
Gatsby, Trifles, My Antonia, Modern
Rules of Writing: Multiple Choice
Fill in the blank
Who said it?