2. TERMS• Economic class: Power and position related to economic level. Can be associated with related cultural norms and values, education, occupation, life-style and where one lives.• Ethnocentrism: Assumptions that key cultural aspects of one’s culture are/should be universal, with devaluing of those discrepant from these. May include a belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group.• Gender: A cultural notion of what it is to be a woman or a man. A construct based on the social shaping of femininity and masculinity. It usually includes identification with males as a class or with females as a class. Gender includes subjective concepts about character traits and expected behaviors that vary from place to place and person to person.
3. • Gender Expression: Refers to the ways in which people externally communicate their gender identity to others through behavior, clothing, hairstyle, voice and emphasizing, de- emphasizing, or changing their body’s characteristics. Gender expression is not necessarily an indication of sexual orientation.• Inclusiveness: To include everyone in a community rather than attempt to treat them all equally, when equality may not be as effective.• Internalized Oppression: The process by which a member of an oppressed group comes to accept and live out the inaccurate myths and stereotypes applied to the group.
4. • Queer: Used as an umbrella identity term encompassing lesbian, questioning people, gay men, bisexuals, non-labeling people, transgender folks, and anyone else who does not strictly identity as heterosexual. “Queer” originated as a derogatory word, but is being reclaimed and used as a statement of empowerment. Some people identify as “queer” to distance themselves from the rigid categorization of “straight” and “gay.” Some transgender, lesbian, gay, questioning, non- labeling, and bisexual people, however, reject the use of this term due to its connotations of deviance and its tendency to gloss over and sometimes deny the differences between these groups.• Resistance: The action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with, possibly group action in opposition to those in power.• Sexism: Discrimination based on gender or sex, especially discrimination against women.
5. ESSAY #2: WORKING OUTLINEIntroduction: Choose your strategyThesis: This will likely be near the end of your introduction. This is yourresponse to the question and the map to your essay.BodyBody Paragraph 1: First reason supporting the thesis. Topic sentence;explanation; example; explanation; analysis; conclusion/transition.Body Paragraph 2: Second reason supporting the thesis. Topic sentence;explanation; example; explanation; analysis; conclusion/transition.Body Paragraph 3, 4, 5: Reasons supporting the thesis. Topic sentence;explanation; example; explanation; analysis; conclusion/transition.Counter Argument: Anticipate your readers questions or doubts:Acknowledge, Accommodate, or RefuteConclusion: Wrap it up: Choose your strategy
6. A Sentence Strategy: Concession Followed by Refutation As you draft, you will need to move back and forth smoothly between arguments for your position and counterarguments against your readers’ likely objections and preferred positions. One useful strategy for making this move is to concede the value of a likely criticism and then to refute it immediately, either in the same sentence or in the next one.The following sentences from Jessica Statsky’s essay illustrate several ways to make this move (the concessions are in italics, the refutations in bold):The primary goal of a professional athlete—winning—is not appropriate for children. Their goals should be having fun, learning, and being with friends. Although winning does add to the fun, too many adults lose sight of what matters and make winning the most important goal. (par. 5)And it is perfectly obvious how important competitive skills are in finding a job. Yet the ability to cooperate is also important for success in life. (par. 10)
7. CONSIDERING THE OPPOSING ARGUMENT Think about the reasons someone might doubt your conclusions and respond to each of them. Remember, you did some of this work when you filled out your FREECASH chart.
8. YOUR COUNTERARGUMENT: ANTICIPATE OBJECTIONS USINGACKNOWLEDGMENT, ACCOMMODATION, OR REFUTATIONFirst anticipated objection: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ __Acknowledgement, Accommodation, or Refutation? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ __Second anticipated objection: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ __Acknowledgement, Accommodation, or Refutation? _____________________________________________________________________________ _
9. STRATEGIES FOR WRITING A CONCLUSIONConclusions are often the most difficult part of an essay towrite, and many writers feel that they have nothing left to sayafter having written the paper. A writer needs to keep in mindthat the conclusion is often what a reader remembers best.Your conclusion should be the best part of your paper.A conclusion should• stress the importance of the thesis statement,• give the essay a sense of completeness, and• leave a final impression on the reader.
10. SUGGESTIONS ANSWER THE SYNTHESIZE, DONT QUESTION "SO SUMMARIZE W H AT ? "Show your readers why Dont simply repeatthis paper was information from yourimportant. Show them paper. They have read it.that your paper was Show them how the pointsmeaningful and useful. you made and the support and examples you used were not random, but fit together.
11. CONCLUSIONS SUGGESTIONS CHALLENGE THE C R E AT E A N E W READER MEANINGBy issuing a challenge to You dont have to giveyour readers, you are new information to create a new meaning.helping them to redirect By demonstrating howthe information in the your ideas work together,paper, and they may you can create a newapply it to their own picture. Often the sum oflives. the paper is worth more than its parts.
12. PROPOSE A COURSE ECHO THE OF ACTION, A INTRODUCTION: SOLUTION TO AN FRAMING ISSUE, OR QUESTIONS F O R F U R T H E R S T U D Y.This can redirect your Echoing your introductionreaders thought can be a good strategy if it is meant to bring theprocess and help her to reader full-circle. If youapply your info and begin by describing aideas to her own life or scenario, you can endto see the broader with the same scenario asimplications. proof that your essay was helpful in creating a new understanding.
13. CONCLUSIONS TO AVOID1. The "Thats My Story and Im Sticking to It” conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they cant think of anything else to say.2. The "Sherlock Holmes" Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you dont want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then "wow" him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front.3. The "America the Beautiful"/"I Am Woman"/"We Shall Overcome" Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on excessive emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic.4. The "Grab Bag" Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldnt integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion.
14. LET’S TRY A COUPLE OF CONCLUSIONS1. Answer the question "So What?”: Show your readers why this paper was important.2. Synthesize information: Show how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together.3. Challenge the reader: Help readers redirect the information in the paper, so they may apply it to their own lives.4. Create a new meaning: demonstrating how your ideas work together can create a new picture. Often the sum of the paper is worth more than its parts.5. Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study: Redirect your readers thought process and help him or her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.6. Echo the introduction: If you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay was helpful in creating a new understanding.
15. MLA FORMAT: ON OUR WEBSITE: “MLAGUIDELINES” DOWNLOAD “HAPI TOBIA STUDENT”MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used towrite papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using theEnglish language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with asystem for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation intheir essays and Works Cited pages.Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility bydemonstrating accountability to their source material. Most importantly,the use of MLA style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism,which is the purposeful or accidental uncredited use of source materialby other writers.http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
16. PAPER FORMAT
17. MARGINS ANDF O R M AT T I N G HEADER: LAST NAME 1 1” all around Double Click in Header Go to “Layout” and Area adjust margins or use Type your last name custom settings Justify right Times New Roman 12 Go to “insert” and click Indent body paragraphs on “page number” ½ inch from the margin
18. HEADING: DOUBLES PAC E D TITLE Your Name Original Title (not the title Dr. Kim Palmore of the essay we read) EWRT 1B No 3 May 2012 italics, bold, underline, or quotation marks Centered on the page No extra spaces (just double spaced after your heading and before the body of your text)
19. SHORT QUOTATIONSTo indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
20. For example, when quoting short passages of prose,use the following examples:According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.According to Foulkess study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?When short (fewer than three lines of verse) quotationsfrom poetry, mark breaks in short quotations of versewith a slash, /, at the end of each line of verse (a spaceshould precede and follow the slash).Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / Thats all I remember" (11-12).
21. LONG QUOTATIONSFor quotations that extend to more than four lines of verse or prose, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented one inch (10 spaces) from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line of the quotation by an additional quarter inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
22. MLA STYLE: INTEGRATING QUOTATIONSAccording to the St. Martins Guide, there are You can, however, build your own signal three main ways to set up a signaling phrases by mixing these three basic styles phrase: with verbs that describe your sources1. With a complete sentence followed by a attitude towards the subject of the quote. colon. Here is a list of such verbs, as well as otherThe effects of Aulds prohibition against phrases you can use: teaching Douglass to read were quite profound for Douglass: "It was a new and special revelation" (29).2. With an incomplete sentence, followed by a admits agrees argues asserts b comma. elievesDouglass argues that Aulds prohibition against claims compares confirms contends literacy for him was a profound experience, declares denies saying, "It was a new and special emphasizes insists notes observes revelation" (29). points3. With a statement that ends in that. out reasons refutes rejects reportsThe importance of Aulds prohibition to responds replies suggests thinks Douglass is clear when he states that "It writes was a new and special revelation" (29). In _____s words According to ____s (notes, study, narrative, novel, etc.)
23. USING THE SOURCES NAMEGenerally, the first time we use a source in a paper, whether it be through a paraphrase or a quote, its a good idea to use the author(s) full name(s) and the title of the source we are using in the actual sentence so that readers feel that we have introduced the source to them. After we have introduced the source, its perfectly acceptable to refer to the author by his or her last name or even to leave the name out of the body of our text and simply include it in the citation.First use:In his Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself, Frederick Douglass argues that "Slavery proved as injurious [to slave holders] as it did to me" (31).Second use:Douglass earlier argues that slavery was "a fatal poison of irresponsible power" to slave holders (29).Third use:The use of the word "hypocrites!" suggests that even the religious faith of the slave holders was tainted by their ownership of other humans (Douglass 77).
24. PUNCTUATING QUOTES CAN BE FRUSTRATING BECAUSE WE OFTEN GET CONFUSED ABOUT WHERE TO PUT PUNCTUATION. THE FOLLOWING CHART OFFERS A STRAIGHTFORWARD VIEW ON HOW TO PUNCTUATE THE END OF A QUOTE: QUESTION MARKS & E X C L A M AT I O NPERIODS & COMMAS POINTS If the original quote ends with an exclamation mark or a question mark, we mustThey go inside the quotation marks include it inside the quotation marks. even if there is no period or comma ORIGINAL TEXT: Will not a righteous God visit for these things? at the end of the quoted material in QUOTED TEXT: the original text. When Douglass asks, "Will not a righteous God visit for these things?" he raises the question of doubt about the future salvation of the "Christian"Exception: If there is a parenthetical slaveholders. citation immediately after the Notice that we dont put a comma after the question mark, even though normally quote, the period or comma goes we would if there was not a question mark. We omit the comma to avoid double punctuation. after the parenthetical citation. If we want to use a quoted statement in a question or exclamation we create,COLONS & SEMI-COLONS then the question mark or the exclamation mark goes outside the quotation marks.Colons and semi-colons always go ORIGINAL TEXT: outside the quotation, even if the The grave is at the door. (FD 38) original quoted material ends with QUOTED TEXT: either form of punctuation. How can we take Douglass seriously when he indulges in excessively romanticized language such as "The grave is at the door"?
25. Note that the works cited page is in alpha order and that there are no numbers next to the entries. You may underline or italicize your titles, but pick one and be consistent. This, like all of your papers should be done in Times New Roman 12.
26. HOMEWORKReading: Stone Butch Blues (50-150)Writing: Finish and post complete draft.Bring: three complete, clean copies to our next meeting.Studying: Vocab/Terms