A Learning Object created in PPT where students can learn about the different texts (Subliminal Man, Chronopolis, Manhole 69 and Billenium) and how to write an analytical essay based on their understanding.
WRITTEN• In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message may be printed or hand written. In written communication messages can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo etc. Messages, in written communication, are influenced by the vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used.
ORAL• In oral communication, Spoken words are used. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking.
AURAL• Aural communications include all communications that rely on the recipient hearing the communication. This includes spoken words, sirens, alarm bells, and so on.• Aural communications can be useful over long distances (as is the case with fog horns on ships). They are useful for communicating to several people at once and also in situations where the exact recipient of the communication is not known (for example, warning sirens).• The Radio and Spruiker‟s are examples of Aural Mass Media.
VISUAL• Visual communications can be thought of as all forms of communication that rely on the visual perception of the recipient (with the exception of written communications, which are described separately below). Examples of visual communications are traffic lights, billboards, smoke signals, and so on.• The Television and the Internet are examples of Visual Mass Media.
PURPOSETexts are pieces of spoken or writtenlanguage created for a particular purpose.When we speak or write, we create texts.When we listen, read or view texts, weinterpret them for meaning. A good pieceof text requires the creator to make theright choices from the language system;choices about words, sentences, processesand features. These choices will reflect ourpurpose and context.
PURPOSEENTERTAIN INFORM EXPLAIN Make (an idea, situation, or To keep, hold or To give the problem) clear to maintain the audience facts your audience attention of the or information to by describing it in audience, often make them more detail or through the use aware of revealing of humour. something. relevant facts or ideas
AUDIENCE Socio- Interests Economic Religion Background Age Gender Background
CONTEXTEvery text is influenced by the fact that it iscreated at a particular time, in a particularplace, and by a particular person withparticular purposes, ideas, experiences andattitudes – in other words, every text isinfluenced by context.
TEXTS and CONTEXT •This refers to the values, beliefs, behaviour, and ways ofSOCIOCULTURAL thinking and acting that influence the creators of texts. It also includes the ways in which people interpret, alter CONTEXT meaning, are altered by, and respond to the texts they encounter, are engaged by, and choose. •This refers to the function, audience, subject, and mode (e.g. written, spoken, or visual) of a text. Consider how SITUATIONAL these elements influence the choices made by the CONTEXT creators of texts in their efforts to communicate their message most effectively, and how these elements affect other people‟s responses to the texts.
Responding to TextThe Author … Critical Understanding • What ideas has Ballard discussed in his IDEAS stories? • Where do you think he got these ideas? • What does Ballard value?VALUES • What things may have influenced his values? • Does Ballard hold any preconceivedBELIEFS beliefs about modern society? • Why might this be so?
Responding to TextPersonal UnderstandingCHALLENGE •How has Ballard challenged the way you view society? •Has Ballard raised questions in your mind aboutQUESTION society and the power of the individual? •Have these stories made you question humanity? •Why do you think Ballard wrote these stories? ANALYSE What message was he trying to convey to his audiences and how effective has he been in capturing their attention?
Textual Analysis – Analytical Essay When writing an analytical essay on a text you are aiming to show that you: •can analyse and understand the topic; •can answer the question, i.e. discuss the topic; Knowledge •know the plot and characters; •know the themes, messages, issues well; Textualunderstanding •understand the topic in relation to the text, the characters, themes; •can draw upon appropriate evidence from the text and use brief quotations which can support your argument. Evidence
Textual Analysis – Analytical Essay Throughout your essay you are showing that you can: • write an argumentKnowledge andCommunicationunderstanding • develop a point of view • support that view through close textual references and analysis Application
Dystopia"A dystopia is any society considered to be undesirable, for any of anumber of reasons. The term was coined as a converse to a Utopia, and ismost usually used to refer to a fictional (often near-future) society wherecurrent social trends are taken to nightmarish extremes. […] Often, thedifference between a Utopia and a Dystopia is in the authors point of view.[…] Dystopias are frequently written as warnings, or as satires, showingcurrent trends extrapolated to a nightmarish conclusion. […] A dystopia isall too closely connected to current-day society." (Wikipedia On-lineDictionary)Many dystopias found in fictional and artistic works present a utopiansociety with at least one fatal flaw, whereas a utopian society is founded onthe good life, a dystopian society‟s dreams of improvement areovershadowed by stimulating fears of the "ugly consequences of present-day behavior.“ People are alienated and individualism is restricted by thegovernment. (Wikipedia On-line Dictionary)
Essay Structure • Essay titles come in two types, the specific and the general. QUESTION • You must write the question or thesis statement at the start of your essay • Say how you intend to approach the question, define terms, outline the points youINTRODUCTION intend to elaborate on in the order you plan to tackle them • take each point you have outlined in the MAIN BODY introduction and discuss it using evidence from the text and quotes as support. • This single paragraph pulls together the parts of CONCLUSION your argument in a summary, do not include new information here
Essay Questions • J G Ballard‟s stories often reveal a dystopian view ofQuestion future society. How is this true One of any of stories you have read as part of his short story compilation? • J G Ballard‟s short stories areQuestion prophetic in that they offer Two insights into current society. Discuss.
Essay PlanningSTAGE 1 STAGE 2Analyse thequestion. Define STAGE 3key terms and ideas Outline, in pointand rewrite these form, the main STAGE 4 ideas for each Begin writing.in your own words Ensure that eachto ensure that you paragraph. This Proof read your means your paragraph has aunderstand. topic essay and let it sit introduction, main for a while – you body and sentence, clear argument and that may find errors conclusion later. Submit it for this is supported with evidence. drafting prior to the due date.
Writing an Introduction: Question One: ideasJ G Ballard‟s short stories evoke deeper meaning as they ask the reader to question future society, and the world in whichthey live . Billenium and Subliminal Man are two short stories set in the future that present dystopian views of the societies inquestion. Billenium present‟s a world that is so over crowed it has reached the point where people have become likecattle, inhumanely walking through the streets, pushed up against each other and crushed due to a lack of space; both in aphysical and personal sense, and “Subliminal Man” depicts a futuristic society that has lost their rights for freedom due to theuse of subliminal advertising that has invaded their mind turning the cities occupants into nothing more than roboticconsumers. Question Two: ideasJ G Ballard‟s short story collection, “The complete works of J G Ballard”, contains stories that are prophetic in nature. Many ofthe stories offer insights into present day society and our future, as they describe issues such as governmental control, the riseof all-powerful companies, population growth and the impact of new technologies on society. Through reading the stories thereader becomes aware that Ballard‟s view of the future society was somewhat bleak as he sought to draw attention to theproblems of the time and highlight them by creating stories about imagined futures that could occur if things were leftunchecked, Billenium and Chronopolis, are two such stories.
J G Ballard – Shared Text• Billennium, 1961• Subliminal Man, 1961• Chronopolis, 1960• Manhole 69, 1957 Information about J. G. Ballard
BillenniumBillennium was written in 1961 and is set in the future. Ballarddepicts a society, who concerned with its economy andproductivity, have encouraged a population boom. The city atthe centre of the story is described as noisy, alwaysilluminated, over populated, and completely without anyprivacy. The character at the heart of the story, John Ward, livesin a cubicle; a narrow alcove in a bend of [a] staircase (267). Itis through him that the reader learns about the harsh realities ofan over populated civilisation and the strains that this places onhousing, infrastructure and one‟s person freedoms and choices. QUOTES
Subliminal ManSubliminal Man was written in1961 and looks at a „dark‟future where man‟s choicesand freedoms are taken awaythrough the use of subliminaladvertising. The maincharacters in the story are Dr.Robert Franklin, and hiseccentric friend, Hathaway.This story challenges the readerto consider the capatalistnature of modern society. QUOTES
ChronopolisWritten in 1961, Chronopolis„ (city of time), is an ironic name for acity that has no time. The central character in the story, Newman, isin prison for understanding time - yet while he is in prison he controlsthe situation because of his knowledge of time, and organises theevents of the day for Brocken (the block sergeant). The focus of thestory are flashbacks to when Newman was a child, and when hefirst became interested in time. It becomes apparent to the readerthat for some reason time is outlawed. The story is not inchronological order, and instead it switches between differentpoints in time. This brings our attention to the way time works inChronopolis. Due to the fact that they have no time, their world is„muddled up‟, and things have no real order and much of the cityis in ruins - and this is reflected in the way Ballard writes the story. QUOTES
Manhole 69 Manhole 69 was written in 1957 and it focuses on two doctors; Neill and Morley, who have discovered how to block the Medullary gland so that sleep is no longer necessary. Ballard tells the story of the three patients used to trial this medical breakthrough and in doing so allows the reader to question medical advancement and the almost „godlike‟ capabilities of our modern doctors.QUOTES
BILLENIUM quotes:Ward sits in his tiny cubicle and • “They smuggled in furniture.” (pg.275)listens to the endless noise of the 30 • Ward: “relaxing back around the circular red-million people living in the city wood table. He played with the tassel of the arsenic-green lamp shade, for a moment felt like aaround him: Victorian man of letters, leading a• "...Ward‟s cubicle. Built into a narrow alcove in a spacious, leisurely life.” (pg. 275) bend of a staircase.” (267) • “The size of this room staggers me. It almost gets• “Ward, at least. Had a certain degree of privacy.” larger every day.”(pg. 276) (267) • “If you ask me there‟s too many people in here.• “The street was always full, an endless clamour of Down below they‟ve only got six to our seven, and voices and shuffling feet.” (267) it‟s the same size room.” (pg. 278)• “…‟locks‟ would occur when a huge crowd at a • The wardrobe: “It had been a beautiful piece of street junction became immovably jammed. furniture, in a way symbolizing this whole private Sometimes these locks would last for days.” (268) world, and the salesman at the store had told him• “…census statistics … classified information … it there were few like it left … It was a beautiful was feared they might set off a mass attack of wardrobe. Without doubt, but when it was gone it claustrophobia.” (271) would make the room seem even larger.” (pg.• “…The countryside, as such, no longer existed. 278) Every single square foot of ground sprouted a crop of one type or another. The one-time fields and meadows of the world were now, in effect, factory floors … the internal colonization of the city. (pg. 271)• “short-sighted nationalism and industrial expansion put a premium on a rising population. “ (pg. 271)• “It‟s fantastic … panel by panel, they prised away the lower half of the door and nailed it onto a wooden frame … the sensation of absolute spatial freedom.” (pg. 275)
SUBLIMINAL MAN quotes:Dr. Robert Franklin is annoyed with • "I am thinking of them!" Hathaways voice rose to ahis friend Hathaway, who insists controlled scream. "Those cables were 40,000-voltthat the dozens of gigantic blank lines, Doctor, with terrific switch gear. The trucks were loaded with enormous metal scaffolds.signs being constructed all over Tomorrow theyll start lifting them up all over thethe city motorways are being used city, theyll block off half the sky! What do you think Dora will be like after six months of that? Weve gotfor subliminal advertising: to stop them, Doctor, theyre trying to transistorize• "...Theyve started to build the first big signs! Over our brains!" a hundred feet high, on the traffic islands just • “If you can‟t believe your own senses what outside town. Theyll soon have all the approach chance have you left? They‟re invading your roads covered. When they do we might as well brain, if you don‟t defend yourself they‟ll take it stop thinking." (412) over completely!” (419)• "Your trouble is that youre thinking too much," • “Hathaway was in the grip of an obsession. If he Franklin told him. "Youve been rambling about hated advertising signs so much, why didn‟t he these signs for weeks now. Tell me, have you dynamite those we can see, instead of worrying actually seen one signalling?" about those we can‟t?” (425)• Hathaway tore a handful of leaves from the • “We‟ve no real freedom of choice” (425) hedge, exasperated by this irrelevancy. "Of • Hathaway started to protest, and Franklin raised his course I havent, thats the whole point, Doctor. - right hand firmly. "Listen. For the last time, if you He dropped his voice as a group of nurses can show me one of these new signs, and prove walked past, watching him uneasily out of the that its transmitting subliminal commands, Ill go to corners of their eyes. "The construction gangs the police with you. But you havent got a shred of were out again last night, laying huge power evidence, and you know it. Subliminal advertising cables. Youll see them on the way home. was banned thirty years ago, and the laws have Everythings nearly ready now." never been repealed. Anyway, the technique was• "Theyre traffic signs," Franklin explained patiently. unsatisfactory; any success it had was marginal. "The flyover has just been completed. Your idea of a huge conspiracy with all these Hathaway, for Gods sake, relax. Try to think of thousands of giant signs everywhere is Dora and the child." preposterous. "
CHRONOPOLIS quotes:After his mother‟s death, Conrad • “In its hey-day this city was fantastically complex social organism … only by synchronizing everyNewman found her wrist watch, an activity, every footstep forward oritem outlawed in modern backward, every meal, bus-halt and telephone call, could the organism support itself.” (159)society, and he soon became • “Every individual here had to subserve theobsessed with it. overriding needs of the city.” (159)• His Trial had been fixed for the next day. Exactly • “Can you imagine what life was like for all but a when, of course, neither Newman nor anyone else few of the thirty million people here? … Don‟t you knew.” (150) think there‟s a point beyond which human dignity• “Brocken … relied on Newman to programme is surrendered?‟ (161) the day for him” (150) • “…in this revolt the white collar office worker , living• “Pointless embellishment” (151) in his tiny so-called modern flat, supporting through• “…endless afternoons. Sometimes he went to credit pyramids and economic system that denied school, until he was ten spent most of his time him all freedom of will or personality, chained him with his mother queuing outside the closed food to a thousand clocks.” (162) stores.” (151) • “Every revolution has a symbol of oppression.” (162)• “He was in no hurry to grow up; the adult world • …Stacey had been armed, almost certainly was a was unsynchronized and ambitionless.” (151) member of the Time Police!” (163)• “Why is it against the law to have a clock?” • “Marshall … had worked in Central Time Control as• “Isn‟t it obvious? You can time him, know exactly a programmer, had survived the revolt and the how long it takes him to do something … Then Time Police.” (165) you can make him do it faster.” (153) • “…twenty years for the murder of Stacey, five for• “…on all sides there were clocks. Conrad fourteen offences under the Time Laws, to run noticed them immediately, at every street concurrently … He made no attempt to defend corner, over every archway, three-quarters of himself against the charge of killing Stacey … to the way up the sides of buildings, covering every shield Marshall” (167) conceivable angle of approach”. (157) • “it was a clock … The irony of the situation … He• “Time zones. Depending on your professional was chuckling over the absurdity of it all … when category”. (158) for the first time he noticed the clock‟s insanely irritating tick …” (168)
MANHOLE 69 quotes:Dr‟s Neill and Morley have found a • “The gymnasium was shrinking . Inch by Inch , theway to eliminate sleep. Their test walls were moving inwards, encroaching acrosssubjects; Lang, Avery and Gorrell the periphery of the floor … the ceiling sank towards the floor.” (pg. 60)have just been taken out of • “the gymnasium was closed in. Now less than halfhypnosis to see what effects this its original size.” (pg. 61) • “Gorrell was slumped over the stool … Dead eyesmay have on the human mind and peered down at his feet” (pg. 64)body: • “Lang was still staring at the clock, his body in the stiff unreal posture of a waxworks dummy.” (pg. 64)• “Dr Neil smiled. „Don‟t worry,‟ he said. „The wires • “I slipped into the office to pick up a few test are cut. You couldn‟t go to sleep now if you cards, I wasn‟t gone more than ten minutes.” (pg. tried‟ (pg. 50) 65)• “The results are going to be spectacular. You‟ll • “after working hopelessly on the three men … He probably precipitate the greatest social and looked down at them, lying inertly in their cots.” economic revolution since the Fall. But for some (pg. 65) reason I can‟t get that story of Chekov‟s out of • “continual consciousness is more than the brain my mind” (pg. 53) can stand. Any signal repeated often enough• “In Man sleep is largely volitional, and the reflex is eventually loses its meaning.” (pg. 65) conditioned by habit‟ (pg. 55) • “They must have reached a stage beyond which• „What do you think the next step forward will be? they could no longer contain the idea of their own … I mean up the evolutionary slope. Three identity.” (pg. 66) hundred million years ago we became air- breathers and left the seas behind. Now we‟ve taken the next logical step forward and eliminated sleep. What‟s next?” (pg. 58)• “There must be at least one person on duty … what about that one?” “Locked‟, Lang said. „69 always has been‟. (pg. 60)