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Papyrus Fall 2011



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  • 1. I N T E R N AT I O N A L A S S O C I AT I O N O F M U S E U M F A C I L I T Y A D M I N I S T R AT O R S PAPYRUS VOL. 12, NO. 2 FALL 2011 Benchmarking: 80 Questions Air to Water Schedule for the IAMFAHow to Use Data to Assess the Heat Pump for Annual Conference in as an Agent Productivity of Domestic Hot-Water Auckland, NZ for Change Your Organization Generation
  • 2. ContentsLetter from the Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Looking at Art in a New Light—Part Three in a Four-Part Series: Conservation to Conversation . . . 23Message from the President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2011 IAMFA Conference Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Update—IAMFA Annual Conference in Auckland . . . 4 Operations Review Reveals Hidden MaintenanceBenchmarking: How to Use Data as an Agent Improvement Resources—Part Three in afor Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Three-Part Series: How to Evaluate YourFade-Testing of Museum Objects at the Operations Review Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28National Museum of Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 The Smithsonian Institution’s Arts and IndustriesFamily Ties to the Auckland Museum . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Building Phase-2 Renovation Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42MOTAT’s Aviation Display Hall has More Action Exploratorium Construction Update. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44on the “Wings” than the All Blacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Harvard Art Museums Renovation andAir-to-Water Heat Pump for Domestic Expansion Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Hot-Water Generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Torpedo Bay: New Home of the Royal Chapter News and Regional Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47New Zealand Navy Museum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 IAMFA Members—Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48Meet Archie, the Four-Legged Pest Controller . . . . . 18 Index of Papyrus Technical and Historical Articles . . . 50National Library of New Zealand BuildingRedevelopment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Puzzle Page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Cover photo: The silver fern—photographed at the Auckland Zoo—is widely used to represent New Zealand and New Zealanders. Photo: John CastleIAMFA BOARD OF DIRECTORS REGIONAL CHAPTERSPresident Secretary and Papyrus Editor Atlanta, U.S.A. — Kevin Streiter, Ottawa-Gatineau, Canada —John de Lucy Joseph E. May High Museum of Art Marc Chretien, Canadian Museum of NatureThe British Library (Retired) Sustainability Engineer mchretien@mus-nature.caLondon, United Kingdom Los Angeles, CA, USA Australia — Ray McMaster, National Maritime Museum Philadelphia, USA — John Castle, Winterthur Museum & GardenV.P., Administration Chairman — Conference 2011 Bilbao, Spain — Rogelio Diez,Randy Murphy Patricia Morgan Guggenheim Museum San Francisco, USA — Joe Brennan,Los Angeles County Museum Auckland Art Gallery San Francisco Museum of Modern Art of Art Toi o Tamaki ¯ Chicago, USA — William Caddick,Los Angeles, CA, USA Auckland, New Zealand Art Institute of Chicago United Kingdom — Jack Plumb, Patricia.Morgan@ National Library of Scotland j.plumb@nls.ukV.P., Regional Affairs Los Angeles, USA — Randy Murphy, Los Angeles County Museum of Art Washington/Baltimore, USA —John Castle Membership Committee Chair Maurice Evans, SmithsonianWinterthur Museum, Guy Larocque InstitutionGarden and Library Canadian Museum of New England, USA — John H. Lannon, Boston AthenaeumWinterthur, DE, USA Civilization Gatineau, QC, Canada For more information on New York, USA — Mark Demairo, becomming a member of theTreasurer Neue Galerie International Association ofAlan Dirican Museum Facility Administrators,Baltimore Museum of Art For additional contact information, New Zealand — Patricia Morgan, please visitBaltimore, MD, USA please visit our website at Auckland Art Gallery patricia.morgan@aucklandcity.govt.nzIAMFA/ Papyrus Bruce Ford Design and Layout Statements of fact and opinionVol. 12, Number 2 Jennifer Fragomeni Phredd Grafix are made on the responsibility ofFall 2011 Pam Harris authors alone and do not imply an Joe May Editing opinion on the part of the editors,Editor Jim Moisson Artistic License officers, or members of IAMFA. The editors of IAMFA Papyrus reserve theJoe May Patricia Morgan Printed in the U.S.A. by right to accept or to reject any Article Mirjam Roos Knight Printing or advertisement submitted forPapyrus Correspondents Nicola Smith publication.Auckland Conference Team Rob Stevens ISSN 1682-5241Joe Brennan Allan Tyrrell While we have made every attempt to ensure that reproduction rights haveSara Carroll Emrah Baki Ulas been acquired for the illustrationsJohn Castle Thomas Westerkamp used in this newsletter, please letJohn de Lucy Stacey Wittig us know if we have inadvertentlyMaurice Evans David C. Wright overlooked your copyright, and we will rectify the matter in a future issue.Past issues of Papyrus can be found on IAMFAs website:
  • 3. Letter from the EditorJoe MayEditor, PapyrusGreetings from Los Angeles! Please see the articles about the Royal the first step in managing something Navy Museum and the Museum of is to measure it. This basic manage-D uring the time since the last Transport and Technology in this issue. ment principle dates back to the 1800s, issue of Papyrus was published, You’ll also find part-three of two and is attributed to Frederick Taylor, IAMFA’s Board of Directors informative series of articles: “Seeing who is considered the Father ofdecided to open up its LinkedIn Group Art in a New Light” by Emrah Ulas and Scientific non-members, and the Group hasaccordingly grown to 160 members You will notice in this issue offrom 17 countries. The LinkedIn Group Papyrus that we have not translatedis an effective way for IAMFA’s mem- the Message from the President orbers, and others engaged in common Everyone wants to have articles about the upcoming annualinterests, to tap into the collective a productive workforce, conference. This is purely a cost-basedknowledge of the Group. If you haven’t decision, related not only to translation and the first step in costs, but also the added publishing,yet joined the Group, I hope you willconsider doing so now. The more who managing something is printing, and postage costs. We arejoin, the more beneficial the Group to measure it. currently looking into possible wayswill become, and we believe that more to translate an electronic version ofmembers in the Group who do not cur- Papyrus into numerous languagesrently belong to IAMFA will see that using translation software.membership has many advantages. If you have not visited our website Mirjam Roos from Steensen Varming This issue of Papyrus has a record recently, you will find (Australia) Pty Ltd; and “Operationsnumber of informative articles, thanks that we now have an index of past tech- Review Reveals Hidden Maintenanceto the willingness of so many IAMFA Improvement Resources” by Tom nical articles and historical articles withmembers to share their recent expe- Westerkamp. The latter also includes links to the appropriate issue of Papyrus.riences in operating their facilities. a multiple-choice questionnaire to I hope you will take advantage of thisIn this issue, you’ll find an update assess the productivity of your institu- resource to find how other IAMFAon IAMFA’s Annual Conference in tion’s maintenance workforce. Please members have dealt with issues youAuckland, New Zealand, and I hope take advantage of this opportunity; it face will soon finalize your plans to costs you nothing to complete this Finally, thank you to everyone whoattend. In the past few issues of Papyrus, questionnaire, and you can determine contributed material for this issue ofthe New Zealand Conference hosts have your score by yourself. Everyone wants Papyrus, and to the advertisers whowritten articles about their facilities. to have a productive workforce, and support our organization.2 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 4. Message from the PresidentJohn de LucyPresident, IAMFAA ll six of the Auckland cultural and they are keen to tell you about the whole-life cost of the project, and institutions that are hosting us their experiences. They have had to can make a financial difference of mil- for our November conference take seismic activity into account in their lions over time. I know most of us arewill have been through major refurbish- building works, which has led to many agreed that designers and constructionments, extensions or construction work challenges, and you will learn how inno- companies must provide integratedin the past few years, so there is plenty vative they have been in overcoming solutions that put an end to poor per -to see and learn about for those of you these obstacles. formance of buildings after handoverwho join us. The directors of all six Those of you who know Pat Morgan to clients. Through our conferences,organisations met with the IAMFA will not be surprised to learn that, not we have seen many excellent examplesBoard on their sites at our mid-year only has she been fully engaged in com- of how our members get it right.board meeting, and expressed their pleting a major new extension at the This conference will give you a valu-delight that we were bringing our Art Gallery and arranging to move able opportunity to learn professionallyconference to them. They are fully back in, but she has also put together from our New Zealand members, andsupportive of this conference, and an excellent programme for us all. I also about their culture. The Europeanslooking forward to hosting you all. encourage all of our members to book and North Americans have a relatively All of this construction activity was their hotel rooms and sign up for the mature facilities management pro-of course not for our conference, but conference now, so that she can plan fession and industry, but there is a lotwe are lucky that we will see the recently her numbers. to be learned from the New Zealanders,finished product of major upgrades In addition to seeing the physical who often approach issues in a differ-at Auckland’s museums and galleries. results of a great deal of construction ent way. You are bound to pick upThey are particularly proud of their work, we’ll also be learning about the ideas that are not common in youruse of New Zealand’s ancient kauri fruits of successful collaboration. The country. Knowledge exchange of howwood, which is a delight to look at. New Zealanders seem to have the right things are done elsewhere will helpYou will see fantastic examples of this model for public-sector construction you create improved environments,usage in the ceilings at the Art Gallery procurement, which creates an align- and will help us all do our jobs better.(shown on the cover of the last issue ment of interest between those who You, our members, are the life-of Papyrus), in the “cocoon” at the design and construct a cultural facility blood of IAMFA, and through yourAuckland Museum, and at the Museum and those who subsequently occupy and membership I hope you obtain increas-of Transport and Technology. It is lovely manage it. Pat has plenty of examples ing value to your organisations andto see this handsome wood used so of how, by working together, they have professional standing. Make sure youextensively. produced a fantastic new building that improve your networking and edu- Facilities Managers often bemoan works for everyone! cational opportunities by attendingtheir lack of involvement in the plan- For those of you with similar stories, our conferences!ning of a construction project. Similar I encourage you to write an article for See you in Auckland, everyone!to what we saw in San Francisco last year, publication in Papyrus. It helps us allhowever, those who will be running to learn how others have managed to get John de Lucythe Auckland buildings when finished the message across that the occupation Head of Estates, British Libraryhave been fully involved in the process, of our buildings is a key component in (Retired) PAPYRUS FALL 2011 3
  • 5. Update—IAMFA Annual Conferencein AucklandP lease finalize your plans now to extra workshop space for art classes. The expansion will increase exhi- attend this year’s exotic, action- Several artists maintained studio space bition space by 50%, resulting in over packed 21st IAMFA Conference in in the complex during the period just 4,200 square meters of gallery space,Auckland, New Zealand. The agenda after the Second World War; weaver which will be able to display up tois full of educational content, oppor- Ilse Von Randow utilized the clock 900 works of art, and will providetunities to network with your fellow tower rooms and created the Art dedicated education, child and familyIAMFA members, and an opportunity Gallery Ceremonial curtains onsite, spaces. As part of the upgrade, existingto see how museum facilities are man- executed as part of a modernization parts of the structure have been reno-aged in a part of the world that many in the 1950s. vated and restored, and what was inIAMFA members have never seen. From 1969 to 1971 the building effect an adaptive re-use building hasPlease review the agenda for the underwent remodeling, and a new wing finally been transformed into a logical21st IAMFA Annual Conference in and sculpture garden were added. In and cohesive twenty-first-centurythe centerfold of this issue. 1971, the public library was moved purpose-built art gallery building. Many of us are challenged these to the new Auckland Public Library The Conference team led bydays with budget constraints, and building, designed by Ewen Wainscott, Patricia Morgan is excited that con-many more are deeply into major in nearby Lorne Street. There have ference goers will have the opportunityredevelopment projects. This spring’s been a number of major and minor to see the amazing new Auckland Art(fall in the Northern Hemisphere) building works since that time. Gallery within weeks of its reopening.conference will be an opportunity to In 2003, Auckland Council con-learn from your peers, who are going firmed its support for the seismic strengthening, heritage protection Auckland Civic Theatrethrough the same challenges that you and reinstatement and extension of The Auckland Civic Theatre is inter-are. Please don’t overlook this tremen- this Category A heritage listed build- nationally significant as the largestdous opportunity to learn from your ing, at a total cost of NZ$121 million. surviving atmospheric cinema infellow IAMFA members. The completed building will re-open Australasia (and also one of the only There are numerous venues partici- to the public on September 3, 2011, seven of its style remaining in thepating in this year’s conference. Here three years from the date construction world), and as the first purpose-builtis a brief history of each of them. commenced onsite. cinema of this type in New Zealand. It is also known for its Indian-inspiredAuckland Art Gallery foyer, which includes seated Buddhas,The main gallery building of the twisted columns and domed ceilings.Auckland Art Gallery was originally The main auditorium was designeddesigned by Melbourne architects in a similar style, imitating a MoorishGrainger and Charles D’Ebro, to garden with turrets, minarets, spireshouse not only the Art Gallery but and tiled roofs, as well as severalalso the City Council Offices, Lecture famous Abyssinian panther statues.Theatre, and Public Library. It was When it opened, it could hold 2,750constructed of brick and plaster in an people, and even with its currentlyearly French Renaissance style and was reduced seating, it is still the largestcompleted in 1887, with an extension— theatre in New Zealand.the East Gallery—built in 1916. It was The Auckland Civic Theatre wasthree storeys high, with an attic in the the creation of Thomas O’Brien, whosteeply pitched roofs, and a six-storey built a movie empire in Auckland’sclock tower. inner suburbs in the 1920s. He first The new building eventually proved brought the atmospheric cinema—atoo small to house all the Council theatre style which gives the impressiondepartments and, following comple- that audiences are seated in an out-tion of the Auckland Town Hall in door venue, complete with twinkling The Auckland Art Gallery, still under1911, all Council departments left the construction in this photo, combines the night sky—to New Zealand when heGallery building. This allowed expan- old with the new, and features beautiful opened Dunedin’s Moorish-stylesion of the Gallery’s facilities, including kauri wood in its new ceilings. Empire De Luxe Theatre in 1928. The4 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 6. Government Domain, commanding an impressive view of Waitemata Harbour. The building is considered one of the finest Greco-Roman buildings in the Southern Hemisphere. It has an “A” classification from the New Zealand Historic Places Trust, designating it as a building whose preservation is of the utmost importance. Of particular inter- est is the interior plasterwork, which incorporates Maori details in an amal- gam of Neo-Greek and Art Deco styles. Similarly, the exterior bas-reliefs depict- ing twentieth-century armed forces and personnel are in a style which mixes Neo-Greek with Art Deco. The bulk of the building is English Portland Stone, with detailing in New Zealand granite from the Coromandel Peninsula. Two additions were made to the 1929 building, the first in the late 1950s to commemorate the SecondThe Auckland Civic Theatre. World War, when an administration annex with a large semi-circular court- yard was added to the southern rear.Civic opened amid great fanfare in in the Neoclassical style, and sitting This extension is of concrete block con-December 1929, but the onset of the on a grassed plinth (the remains of a struction, rendered in cement stuccoGreat Depression contributed to disap- dormant volcano) in the Auckland to harmonize with the Portland Stonepointing attendance—as did O’Brien’s Domain: a large public park close to of the earlier building. The secondstubborn insistence on showing British the Auckland Central Business District. addition was in 2006, when the innerrather than the more popular American The Auckland Museum traces its courtyard was enclosed in the grandfilms—and O’Brien eventually went lineage back to 1852, when it was estab- atrium at the southern entrance.bankrupt. After several modifications lished in a farm worker’s cottage on the The quotation “The Whole Earth isduring the ensuing decades, the Theatre current site of Auckland University. the Sepulchre of Famous Men” overwas eventually restored to very near its With an initial call for the donation of the front porch is attributed to theoriginal design in the late 1990s. wool specimens for display, it attracted Greek general, Pericles, in keeping with The Theatre also recently gained 708 visitors in its first year.some insider fame when it was used One of the visitors during the 1890sfor the scenes representing a period- was the French artist Gauguin, whostyle New York theater in Peter Jackson’s sketched several Maori items, laterKing Kong remake. incorporating these into his Tahitian- We plan to hold our opening period paintings.reception in the foyer of the Auckland In the early years of the twentiethCivic Theatre. It is a stunning venue, century, the Museum and its collectionsand we promise you will be amazed! flourished under visionary curator Thomas Cheeseman, who tried to establish a sense of order, separatingAuckland Museum the natural history, classical sculptureThe Auckland War Memorial Museum and anthropological collections, which(or simply the Auckland Museum) is had previously been displayed in aone of New Zealand’s most important rather unsystematic way. The need formuseums and war memorials. Its col- better display conditions and extra spacelections concentrate on New Zealand necessitated a move from the Princeshistory (and especially the history of Street site, and eventually the projectthe Auckland Region), natural history, for a purpose-built museum mergedand military history. with that of a war memorial to com- The Museum is also one of the most memorate soldiers lost in the Firsticonic Auckland buildings, constructed World War. The site was a hill in the Atrium at the Auckland Museum. PAPYRUS FALL 2011 5
  • 7. its commemorative status to affairs of The tower is part of the SKYCITYa martial nature. Auckland casino complex, having Over the past two decades, the been originally built for Harrah’sMuseum has been renovated and Entertainment, Inc. The tower attractsextended in two stages. The first stage, an average 1,450 visitors per day (overin the 1990s, saw the existing build- 500,000 per year).ing restored, and the exhibits partly The upper portion of the towerreplaced for NZ$43 million. The second contains two restaurants and a cafe,stage of this restoration involved the including a revolving restaurantconstruction of a great dome/atrium located 190 meters from the ground,within the central courtyard, increas- turning 360 degrees once every the building’s floor area by 60% Conference attendees will have lunch(an addition of 9,600 m2) for a price Model of the Museum, showing the new in the revolving restaurant during theof NZ$64.5 million. The second stage copper dome/atrium at the rear. Conference. The tower has threewas completed in 2007. observation decks at different heights, The copper and glass dome, as well Innovate NZ Gold Award (Structural each providing 360-degree views ofas the viewing platform/event centre Engineering) for the redevelopment. the city. The main observation levelbeneath it, quickly won the admiration at 186 meters has 38-mm-thick glassof critics and the public alike, being Auckland Sky Tower sections of flooring, providing a viewnoted for “its undulating lines, whichecho the volcanic landscape and hills straight through to the ground. The The Sky Tower is an observation andaround Auckland.” Standing in the telecommunications tower located on topmost observation deck—the Skydeckevent center underneath the top of the the corner of Victoria and Federal Streets —sits just below the main antenna atdome was likened to being beneath the in the Auckland Central Business 220 meters, and offers views of up to“cream-coloured belly of a giant sting- District. It is 328 meters (1,076 feet) 82 kilometers in the distance.ray . . . with its rippling wings hovering tall, as measured from ground level to The tower also features theover the distinctive city skyline.” In the top of the mast, making it the tallest “SkyJump”: a 192-meter jump offJune 2007, the Grand Atrium project freestanding structure in the Southern the observation deck, during whichalso received the Supreme Award of the Hemisphere, and the 15th-tallest mem- a jumper can reach speeds of up toNew Zealand Property Council, which ber of the World Federation of Great 85 km/h (53 mph). The jump is guide-noted it as being “world-class” and a Towers. Due to its shape and height, cable-controlled to prevent jumperssuccessful exercise in combining com- especially when compared to the next from colliding with the tower in theplex design and heritage demands. The tallest structures, it has become an event of wind gusts. Climbs into theMuseum has also received the ACENZ iconic structure in Auckland’s skyline. antenna mast portion (300 m/980 ftThe Auckland Sky Tower. View of Auckland Harbour from the Sky Tower.6 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 8. heights) are also possible for tour with both native and exotic wildlife. incorporating key conservation issuesgroups, as is a walk around the exterior. Auckland Zoo’s contributions to con- and actions throughout. Te Wao Nui The tower is also used for tele- servation also include a wide range of will be home to more than 100 nativecommunications and broadcasting, research, in-situ and ex-situ wildlife plant species and around 60 differentwith the Auckland Peering Exchange management, and education projects. animal species—many new or never(APE) located on Level 48. The aerial Te Wao Nui, the New Zealand before seen at the the top of the tower hosts the precinct, will open to the public in Auckland Zoo is a full institutionallargest FM combiner in the world, September 2011. This is the biggest member of the Zoo and Aquariumwhich combines with 58 wireless development the Zoo has ever under- Association (ZAA), and received ISOmicrowave links located above the top taken, and is dedicated entirely to show- 14001 accreditation for its Environ-restaurant to provide a number of casing New Zealand’s native flora, fauna, mental Management System in These include television, and culture. The new exhibit encom-wireless Internet, radio transmitter, passes six diverse habitats: The Coast, Museum of Transport andand weather-measurement services. The Islands, The Wetlands, The Night, The Forest, and The High Country, Technology The Museum of Transport and Tech-Auckland Zoo nology (MOTAT) was established inAuckland Zoo opened in 1922, and by 1960 by a number of groups including1930 a sizeable collection of animals the Old Time Transport Preservationhad been assembled. After the Second League, which was formed in 1957World War, the collection grew further, and preserved trams and railwayand in 1973 the Zoo expanded further locomotives. MOTAT was formallyinto the adjacent Western Springs Park. opened in 1964.From the late 1980s to the present day, Exhibits include trains, trams, vintagemany old exhibits have been phased traction engines, carriages, cars, buses,out and replaced by modern natural- trolleybuses and trucks, fire engines,istic enclosures, and Auckland Zoo is electrical equipment, Space flightnow set in 17 hectares (42 acres) of exhibits (including a Corporal rocket),stunning park-like grounds. and general science exhibits. There is Auckland Zoo is a truly modern zoo, also a “colonial village” of early shopsdriven by a passion for wildlife and and houses, including a fencible cot-conservation. Not only is Auckland tage (a style built for retired militaryZoo dedicated to making a difference personnel) and a blacksmith wildlife and the environment, it Known in the past as the Sir Keithjumps at the chance to inspire others to Park Memorial Airfield—named afterdo the same. In today’s world, where Keith Park, the Battle of Britain andmost people live in urban environ- Battle of Malta hero—MOTAT’s avia-ments, zoos play a key role in offering tion collection is on a separate site,experiences for people to connect The new Wetlands habitat in Te Wao Nui. adjacent to Waitemata Harbour andOne of Auckland Zoo’s ambassador cheetahs during a behind-the- New hangar under construction at MOTAT.scenes walking tour. PAPYRUS FALL 2011 7
  • 9. Auckland Zoo. It contains memorials heritage, so that they honour the con- maritime museum. It is located onto Fleet Air Arm and RAF Bomber tribution New Zealand’s sea warriors Hobson Wharf Auckland, adjacent toCommand pilots, as well as radar and have made to peace, security and pros- Viaduct Harbour. It houses exhibitionsother aviation related material, and perity. The Museum’s mission is to spanning New Zealand’s maritimeincludes workshops for work on other capture and preserve New Zealand’s history from the first Polynesianvehicles. The main feature, however, is naval culture and heritage for current explorers to modern-day triumphs inthe collection of New Zealand civil air- and future generations through col- the America’s Cup. Its Maori name iscraft, as well as some Royal New Zealand lection, preservation, presentation, “Te Huiteanaui-A-Tangaroa”: HolderAir Force aircraft. education, research and scholarship. of the Treasures of Sea God Tangaroa. There is also a military section, which Torpedo Bay, on the shores of the A NZ$8-million extension to therestores and demonstrates a selection harbour at Devonport, is the new northern end of the Museum openedof Second World War military trucks, home of the Navy Museum. The in late 2009, and houses a permanentlight-tracked vehicles and tanks used by move to Torpedo Bay has been both exhibition about Sir Peter Blake, includ-Allied forces. The military section has an outstanding opportunity and an ing the original NZL 32 (Black Magic).regular open days, when the Military incredible journey. The exhibition is called Blue Water,Reenactment Society displays and Torpedo Bay itself is a site of excep- Black Magic.demonstrates the vehicles and uniforms. tional significance, having been a key MOTAT 2 also has an operational part of Auckland’s early defence system,railway with a kilometer of track, as well as having been continuously Mudbrick Vineyardstations and a selection of former occupied by New Zealand military The Mudbrick Vineyard is one ofNew Zealand Government Railways, forces since 1880. Torpedo Bay is the Waiheke’s best-known wineries, andlight industrial locomotives, wagons most substantial and intact surviving includes a Provence-style restaurantand carriages. nineteenth-century mining base in made of mudbrick. The vineyard pro- MOTAT 2 is undergoing a major New Zealand. duces merlot, chardonnay, cabernetexpansion project to increase its Relocating the Museum to Torpedo sauvignon, and Syrah grapes.covered display space. This involves Bay has added a new chapter to the Waiheke Island is an island in themoving and restoring the existing site’s extraordinary heritage, with Hauraki Gulf of New Zealand, locatedblister hangar and constructing a new the original 1896 buildings being about 17.7 kilometers (11.0 miles)and larger building to extend the main redeveloped to accommodate the from Auckland. The island is thedisplay hangar. The project is planned new Museum. second largest in the Hauraki Gulffor completion in late 2011 at an Conference attendees will visit the after Great Barrier Island. It is also theestimated cost of NZ$16.6 million. Royal Navy Museum on Tuesday after- most populated, with nearly 8,000 noon, after enjoying a bird’s-eye view permanent residents, plus another of it during lunch in the Sky Tower. estimated 3,400 who have second orRoyal Navy Museum at holiday homes on the island. It isTorpedo Bay New Zealand’s most densely popu-The Royal Navy Museum’s vision is Voyager New Zealand lated island, with 83.58 people/km2,to enrich the lives of present and Maritime Museum and the third most populated afterfuture generations with an awareness The Voyager New Zealand Maritime the North and South Island. It is theof New Zealand’s naval culture and Museum is New Zealand’s premier most accessible offshore island in the View of the extension centered around NZL32 Black Magic: the boat on which Team New Zealand, led by SirExhibits at the Royal Navy Museum. Peter Blake, won the America’s Cup in 1995.8 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 10. Langham Hotel The hotel’s restaurant, Partington’s, The Langham Hotel is a five-star hotel is named after the windmill founder, in Auckland, and occupies the historic and has won various awards, including site of Partington’s Windmill, a local Restaurant of the Year in 2006. landmark until its demolition in 1950. The Langham Hotel is located near numerous Auckland attractions and landmarks, such as the Auckland Domain, the Auckland Central Busi- ness District, and the Auckland War Memorial Museum. It offers a compli- mentary city bus shuttle so that guestsDining room at the Mudbrick Vineyard, can easily access various attractions.overlooking the Bay on Waiheke Island.Gulf, due to regular passenger andcar ferry services and some air links.Waiheke translates as “the descendingwaters” or “ebbing water”. Members and guests will travel toWaiheke Island by catamaran at theend of the first day of the Conferenceto enjoy the sunset with cocktails,followed by an unforgettable dinnerand networking with IAMFA membersand guests. Lobby at the Langham Hotel. Typical room at the Langham Hotel. Delivering extraordinary outcomes Coffey Projects is a leading project management company and works in partnership with clients through the project lifecycle. Some of our iconic cultural projects in New Zealand and Australia include the Christchurch Art Gallery, Canterbury Museum, National Gallery of Victoria and the Sydney Opera House facility upgrades. Our expertise includes: • business case development • project scope definition • program management • value management • strategic risk management • design management • negotiations and approvals • contract procurement • project close-out • post occupation studies PAPYRUS FALL 2011 9
  • 11. Benchmarking: How to Use Data as an Agent for Change By Stacey WittigB enchmarking is more than just data collection. The constraints based in part on how our building operation real value of the IAMFA Benchmarking Exercise costs compared to those of similar facilities.” comes from the understanding of how your peers are May included charts in his presentation to senior man-doing similar jobs for less cost. Indeed, IAMFA participants agement that tracked cost per square foot with both thehave saved US$3.11 per GSF over the past five years by “All Fine Arts Museums” and “All Participants” groups.implementing “pretested” practical solutions. But, you may “The first year our costs were noticeably higher than bothask, how do you motivate others in your organization to of these average groups,” notes May.implement the best practices revealed through bench- “We began a best-practices effort to reduce our operatingmarking? As others will tell you, use the benchmarking costs and, as we added another year’s data to the charts,data as an agent for change. we could see the gap between our costs and the averages A key component to benchmarking success lies in com- narrow, until—six years into the benchmarking exercise—municating the findings to your organization. Benchmarking our costs were near or below the averages of other bench-expert Keith McClanahan recommends three different marking participants. While inflation drove higher operatingstrategies for communicating to the various groups within costs for most facilities, we reduced our costs by a significantyour organization. Here are some quick tips: percentage,” he adds. When communicating to senior management, make apresentation of key findings and action plans. To reach your FM organization: 1) Post key charts from the report in highly visible areas.1) Compare your costs and user satisfaction with your peers using key charts* included in the IAMFA report. 2) Use benchmarking results as a basis for goal-setting— data shared by a collective of institutions helps create2) List the peers. acceptance for change.3) If this is your first time benchmarking, emphasize that 3) The report will identify improved work processes— benchmarking is a learning process, and encourage recognize those involved. them not to overreact to your first-year data findings. 4) Communicate the benefits of benchmarking: for example,4) Present action plans that you have identified from the when auditors see benchmarking results, they will often best practices listed in the report. turn away to focus on other departments. “Benchmarking got a lot of attention with senior man-agement,” says Joe May, Sustainability Engineer and formerManager, Maintenance Planning and Support, for a largeLos Angeles museum. “It was an important factor in budgetallocations. Each year, I would list the most significantimprovements made to reduce each category of buildingoperation costs, and made a presentation with the results tosenior management and functional heads. In turn, seniormanagement overseeing Facilities would provide budget*Key Charts included in the IAMFA Benchmarking Report: • Space utilization: GSF/person • Variable Costs — Electrical usage per GSF — Maintenance cost per GSF — Custodial cost per area cleaned — Total operating cost per GSF • Fixed Costs Implementing handheld devices to dispatch maintenance job — Depreciation or orders improves worker efficiency between 5% and 10% and — Depreciation + Insurance + Taxes + Rent improves response times and customer service.10 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 12. An effective BMS (Building Management System) will identify Sharing of best practices is a key component of the IAMFAwhere energy is being utilized, as well as opportunities for savings. benchmarking program.5) Benchmarking is a two-way street: ask those in your Stacey Wittig is Marketing Director for Facility Issues, endorsed FM organization for suggestions for improvement. by IAMFA to facilitate the benchmarking exercise. She may be reached at or 928-255-4943. Learn more about benchmarking at “Each month I would meet with Facilities Supervisorsand Shop Technicians to log ideas for improvement, andwould update the log following each meeting to track ourprogress in implementing their ideas,” says May. “By the sixthyear, we had implemented over two hundred ideas to reduce INSPIRED DESIGN, INNOVATIVEoperating costs.” Some of these ideas for improvementwere shared as best practices in IAMFA benchmark reports. ENGINEERINGCommunicate with your Customers/Users by sending ashort, written summary report:1) Include where you stand, and what you are doing to improve.2) Point out improvements since the last report.3) If you have done an occupancy report, respond by e-mail Smithsonian Institution - National History Museum or phone to each employee who provided contact infor- mation. Let them know if you are or are not implementing Our their requests or suggestions. Clients Include: Baltimore “I think any structured program to reduce operating costs For more information, visit Museum of Artmust have certain steps that advance the process from an Delaware Museum ofidea stage through implementation of operating improve- 410.646.4500 Natural Historyments,” says May, who used a Methods Improvement Control Monticello Visitor CenterSystem for twenty years with consulting clients prior to his “Our museum clients, and the National Gallery of Arttenure at the museum. “It is very simple, and it works. If architects they select, are Smithsonian Natural sophisticated and knowledgeable History Museumyou find anyone who would like to learn more about how about their objectives. Weit works, I would be happy to provide more information pride ourselves on being U.S. Holocaust Museum up to the challenge.”individually.” Virginia Museum The IAMFA Benchmarking Practices and Learning Robert Marino, of Fine Arts PE, LEED AP Walters Art MuseumWorkshop will take place on November 13, 2011 in Auckland, President,New Zealand. The workshop is open to benchmarking Mueller Associates Winterthur Museumparticipants. Non-participants are welcome to register as paid observers. PAPYRUS FALL 2011 11
  • 13. Fade-Testing of Museum Objects at theNational Museum of AustraliaBy Nicola Smith and Bruce FordO ne of the fundamental dilemmas in museums is the It is also the case that 50 lux illumination is often inade- need to exhibit collections, which include objects quate for comfortable viewing, especially for older visitors that are sensitive to light. Light not only fades some (taken as anyone over 40 years of age), or for objects withcolours, but these reactions are cumulative and irreversible.1 fine details, objects that are dark in colour or large in size,Every museum has its most important or most popular and objects with long viewing distances. The over-50 demo-objects that are in constant demand for display; however, graphic comprises 60% of NMA visitors; but interestingly,to paraphrase Oscar Wilde, museums risk destroying that as with other museums worldwide, negative feedback onwhich they most love. exhibition lighting is not a common complaint in visitor Exhibition lighting guidelines at many international surveys. Low lighting is often taken as a sign of the impor-museums still refer to Thompson’s The Museum Environment tance of the artifacts, and an indication the museum is taking(1978) in which he recommends “50 lux for very sensitive good care of its collection. This needs to be reconsidered,objects,” and 200 lux for less fugitive materials. More recent because there are times when exhibition lighting designexposure frameworks have also introduced the element of does not even reach the minimum lighting standards fortime: e.g., the Victoria and Albert Museum lighting guide- public circulation.lines (1999) recommend 50 lux for a 20% exposure period With the increasing use of risk management in museums,(often taken as two years of display over a ten-year period) the NMA has been questioning some of the underlyingfor all potentially light-sensitive materials corresponding to assumptions of its previous lighting guidelines. We areequivalent International Organization for Standardization slowly moving from an “every object is equal” model to(ISO) Blue Wool (BW) standards 1-4; and permanent dis- a risk-management model, in which the significance ofplay at 150 lux for more durable materials equivalent to objects or collections, and the specific risks to which theyBW 5-8. The BW fading standards are standardised swatches are exposed, become the drivers for collection manage-of fabric manufactured for the International Organization ment decisions. To do this we are using a technique whichfor Standardization that fade at known rates under par- involves correlating individual colourants on an object withticular conditions, with BW 8 being the most stable, and the ISO standards.BW 1 the least. The use of ISO Blue Wool standards are In the late 1990s, Dr. Paul Whitmore, a scientist at thehelpful where fading information exists for the specific Carnegie Mellon University Art Conservation Researchobjects or materials. Where data does exist (often European Center, invented a machine for just this purpose. Thefine art), it is usually derived from accelerated aging studies Oriel® Fading Test System is able to provide virtually non-on surrogate samples that are likely to behave differently to destructive fade testing of each colour on a real object inreal objects with their unique histories of production, use 10-15 minutes. Each colour is exposed to a tiny spot of veryand exposure. bright light (5,000,000 lux), and its response is recorded. Many museums, however, including the National Museum The test is virtually non-destructive, because the fadedof Australia (NMA), are full of potentially light-sensitive area is about the size of the head of a pin and, becausematerial for which there is little or no fading informationavailable. We know the amount of fading is dependent onthe specific dye, pigment and/or substrate, the intensity ofthe light and the length of exposure. Because very little isknown about fade rates for specific objects, some conserva-tors tend to recommend that organic materials are routinelydisplayed at 50 lux and rotated off display every two years.This generates a huge amount of work, however, andbecomes unsustainable in terms of staff time, budgets, andobject selection. Applying general rules means that theresources involved in protecting sensitive items are nottargeted to the areas of identified need and, even worse,the small percentage of highly light-sensitive material maynot be adequately protected.1Lightcan also affect the very structure of some materials; however, Bruce Ford and Nicola Smith using the fading test machine onfor the purposes of this discussion the focus is on fading. Azaria Chamberlain’s christening gown.12 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 14. the extent of fading is carefully limited, it remains below to be very different for different museums and galleries,what is perceptible to the human eye (even if the size of especially those that have most of their collection on per-the area was larger). manent display, or those that regularly rotate exhibitions Although the fading response of an object exposed to for reasons other than limiting light damage. However, alltypical museum lighting will not be exactly the same as that collections would benefit from the identification of objectswhich follows exposure to the very bright light of this accel- most at risk of fading, especially within the group considerederated aging machine, this method allows colourants to be to be the most significant or popular, and thus in constantseparated out across the light-sensitive Blue Wool 1-4 range. demand for display.In fact, it can reliably identify those colourants most at risk The NMA has used this machine in conjunction with aof light damage—the “fast-faders”—from the medium and significance-based assessment to modify and inform ourmore stable ranges. lighting guidelines. This approach provides better pro- In 2008, the NMA purchased the necessary equipment tection for the most vulnerable and significant collectionand began testing many of the objects destined for the per- items at a much lower cost, and recommended illumina-manent exhibition areas illustrating Australian history and tion levels have increased for all but the most light-fugitivesociety. A broad cross-section of the collection was tested objects. The aim is for greater dialogue between lightingacross acrylic paintings, natural and synthetic dyed objects designers, conservators and curators; improved access;and textiles, photographs, inks on historical documents, better-looking exhibitions in which the public can see thefur and resins, and even modern plastics. It was found that detail of objects on display; and more targeted expenditure,exhibition duration recommendations were unchanged for providing value for money.40% of the objects, and that restrictions had to be tight- The next challenge for conservators, lighting engineersened for a relatively small group of fugitive objects, while and facilities managers is how and when to introduce solid-the rest were assessed as being safe for longer display than state lamps. Performance, cost effectiveness and collectionpreviously recommended. safety will all be drivers in the decision-making process. Like At a rough estimate, the average cost of a changeover at the issue of lighting-exposure guidelines, this will requirethe NMA is around A$1,000 (including mounting, fabrica- collaborative effort across the various disciplines involvedtion, text panels, graphics and lighting). The Museum has in protecting and displaying our common heritage.around 3,000 objects on display in its permanent galleries,and each time an object can be extended on display from Nicola Smith is Deputy Manager Conservation, and Bruce Ford istwo years to five or even ten years, this can save the Museum Conservation Scientist, Art & Archival at the National Museum ofa considerable amount of money. These figures are likely Australia in Canberra.Fade data for Azaria Chamberlain’s christening gown. The effect of micro-fade testing results on exhibition duration, as compared to previous recommendations. Become a Member of IAMFA For more information on becoming a member of the International Association of Museum Facility Administrators, please visit WWW.IAMFA.ORG PAPYRUS FALL 2011 13
  • 15. Family Ties to the Auckland MuseumA t our recent Board meeting in Auckland, IAMFA President John de Lucy came face to facewith a stunning piece of family history.One of the Museum’s exhibits is anornate silver bowl, presented to John’sgreat-grandfather Edward Selby Littlenearly 100 years ago. Little was hon- IAMFA President Johnoured for his work hosting and facili- de Lucy at the Aucklandtating—at his Shanghai home—the Museum, holding the beautiful silver bowlChinese peace negotiations that brought presented to his great-an end to the long rule of the Manchu grandfather, EdwardDynasty and its Emperor, and marked Selby Little, for his partthe beginning of the Republic of China in the Chinese Peaceunder Sun Yat-sen. The country’s cen- negotiations that led to the founding of thetennial celebrations will begin next Republic of China.year on February 12, 2012. The Qing Dynasty, also known as theManchu Dynasty, was the last dynastyof China, ruling from 1644 to 1912(with a brief, abortive restoration in1917). It was preceded by the MingDynasty, and followed by the Republicof China. The dynasty was founded bythe Manchu clan, Aisin Gioro, in mod-ern northeastern China (also knownas Manchuria). Starting in 1644, itexpanded into China proper and itssurrounding territories, establishing the Signing of the TreatyEmpire of the Great Qing (simplified at Edward Selby Little’sChinese). house, February 12, Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925) was a Han 1912. This photographChinese doctor, revolutionary and polit- was taken on theical leader. As the foremost pioneer of verandah of 30 Gordon Road, Shanghai, afterNationalist China, Sun is frequently the signing of the peacereferred to as the “Father of the Nation” negotiations that led(國父), a view agreed upon by both the to the founding of thePeople’s Republic of China and the original Republic ofRepublic of China. Sun played an China. Back, left to right: Tong Shao Yi,instrumental role in the overthrow of Representative of thethe Qing Dynasty during the Xinhai Manchu Dynasty andRevolution, and was the first provisional Edward Selby Little. Front,president when the Republic of China left to right: Ameliawas founded in 1912. He later co- Gladys Little (John de Lucy’s grandmother);founded the Kuomintang (Chinese Wu Ting Fang, Repre-National People’s Party) which he served senting Dr. Sun Yat-sen;as its first leader. Sun was a uniting figure and Caroline Amelia Littlein post-Imperial China, and remains (John de Lucy’s great-unique among twentieth-century grandmother).Chinese politicians for remainingwidely revered among people onboth sides of the Taiwan Strait.14 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 16. MOTAT’s Aviation Display Hall has More Action on the “Wings” than the All Blacks N ew Zealand’s largest clear-span CARTER HOLT HARVEY wooden structure is steadily tak- ing form at Auckland’s Museum of Transport and Technology (MOTAT), with the new NZ$15-million Aviation Display Hall set for completion in time for the anticipated influx of domestic and international visitors in September. The 2,750m2 custom-designed Display Hall is more than double the size of MOTAT’s existing Aviation Hangar. The expanded facility will house around 40 MOTAT aircraft, including the newly loaned RNZAF Skyhawk, Sunderland and Solent flying boats, Lancaster Bomber, DC3, Cessna and Tiger Moth. The construction phase follows stage one of the aviation project: the relo- Inside the new MOTAT Aviation Display Hall. cation and restoration of MOTAT’s original World War II Blister Hangar. our volunteer team, have space to be running around it as well, including The Blister Hangar is the workshop displayed properly in all their glory. tours hosted by some of our aviation used by volunteers who restore the The previous hangar was becoming volunteers.” aircraft in the collection. cramped, and we even had to keep The new building is large enough MOTAT Museum Director Jeremy many of our prized planes, such as the to allow aircraft to be moved within Hubbard says that the new structure Sunderland Flying Boat, outside.” the Hall as the exhibitions change, upgrade will provide enhanced hous- “The Display Hall,” adds Hubbard, while also providing a unique expe- ing for the collection, and will allow “will be a fantastic attraction for rience in a venue that can be hired for the exhibitions to be upgraded both local and international visitors, out for special events. to tell the stories of the aircraft, the where they will be able to learn about The northern façade is a translu- people who flew them, and their New Zealand’s aviation history and the cent skin, which assists in providing contribution to the development of stories associated with our magnificent natural temperature regulation, includ- New Zealand. “We are committed to aircraft collection, housed in a world- ing heating and cooling. The structure ensuring that these historic planes, class structure. We’re working towards contains 440,000 nails, all inserted by which have been lovingly restored by getting more and more activities up and hand, as well as 531 cubic metres of poured concrete.CARTER HOLT HARVEY Mr. Hubbard notes that the Display Hall has been created with the next gen- eration in mind. “We have created some- thing that will last well into the future, and will keep generations of Kiwis coming back to MOTAT to learn all about New Zealand’s aviation history.” Following completion of the Aviation Display Hall, MOTAT will focus on upgrading the existing Aviation Hangar, building a new entrance to the site, and adding washrooms. Exterior view of the new MOTAT Aviation Display Hall. PAPYRUS FALL 2011 15
  • 17. Air-to-Water Heat Pump for DomesticHot-Water GenerationBy Allan TyrrellT he National Portrait Gallery peratures of up to 50˚C. At present, (NPG) in London recently this unit is providing 2–3 cubic metres installed an air-source heat- of hot water a day. While this is only apump unit in one of its plant rooms, small amount, the unit has capacity forto replace a domestic hot-water calori- future expansion, and it has provenfier. This was undertaken as a trial to that DHW generation from this sourcetest the efficiency claims of the manu- is feasible.facturers, and as part of an overall strat- The risk of Legionella has been dealtegy to reduce the carbon footprint of with through an automatic pasteurisa-the building. tion cycle that uses less expensive over- At the NPG, the boilers operate to night electricity and an electric heaterprovide steam-injection for humidity to raise the water temperature beyond The National Portrait Gallery in London,control, and steam-to-water calorifiers the standard supply temperature. provide low-temperature hot water High levels of insulation allow thefor heating. Domestic hot water is stored water temperature to be main- all savings achieved by the system’sheated by localised electric calorifiers. tained in a storage vessel, and a heat greater efficiency.The steam infrastructure is extensive, exchanger between refrigerant gases Recent replacement of the mainand the cost of removal and substi- and the primary water source removes chillers with higher-efficiency units—tution with other forms of humidity any risk of contamination to the water along with a chiller capacity morecontrol would be high. The boilers supply. While this is still a new instal- closely matched to the cooling require-were replaced in 2006 with high- lation, it has so far proven reliable and ment of the building, using chillers withefficiency units. capable of supplying sufficient capacity. different size capacities—has further The steam plant and pipework have Higher maintenance costs are a down improved matters. LED lighting hasan elevated surface temperature, and side when compared to the system reduced the consumption of powerthere are heat losses to the local space, it replaced, but will still show over- through higher efficiency and lowereven with good levels of insulation. heat output, reducing the cooling loadThis, along with other plant functions, on the plant. Continual developmenthas meant elevated temperatures in of the Building Management Systemplant rooms and, in some cases, heat to control the environmental require-transfer to adjacent areas, which must ments of the building more efficiently,then be countered with cooling. Instal- and rationalization of specialised areaslation of the off-the-shelf air-source heat have enabled us to reduce the mainpump offered us a chance to reduce ventilation plant speeds and runningthe ambient temperatures in the plant times. The installation of voltage opti-room, and to use waste energy to misation equipment has also played agenerate domestic hot water. major role in the reduction of energy Savings of up to 66% have been use at the Gallery.proven in electricity consumption for Discussion with other engineersdomestic hot-water (DHW) generation, and Facility Managers through IAMFAas compared to electric immersion- has often sparked ideas for develop-type heaters (typically 45kwh/week ment, along with the visits to otherfrom 135kwh/week). In addition, plant institutions, while the informationroom temperatures have dropped gained through articles in Papyrus iswith the supply of air as cool as 15˚C generally very useful.from the heat pump, while medium-grade heat from the condenser unit Allan Tyrrell is Engineering Manager at thehas provided a supply of water at tem- The new Altherma Air Source Heat Pump. National Portrait Gallery in London.16 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 18. Torpedo BayNew Home of the Royal New Zealand Navy MuseumBy Commander David C. WrightI n October 2010, Torpedo Bay, located on the picturesque shores of Waitemata Harbour in Devonport,Auckland, became Torpedo Bay: TeKainga O Te Waka Taonga O Te TauaMoana (Torpedo Bay: “Home of thecanoe of treasures of the Sea Warriors”).After 25 years in temporary accommo-dation, the Royal New Zealand NavyMuseum relocated from its site onSpring Street, Devonport to this historicwaterfront site. The move to Torpedo Bay has beenan incredible opportunity. Torpedo Bayitself is of exceptional heritage sig-nificance: not only was it a key part ofAuckland’s early defence system, but ithas also been continuously occupiedby New Zealand military forces since Aerial view of the Royal Navy Museum at Torpedo Bay.1880. Torpedo Bay is also the most sub-stantial and intact nineteenth-century the lens of the Navy’s values: commit- facilities spanning both sides ofmining base in New Zealand. ment, courage and comradeship. Waitemata Harbour. Relocating the Museum to Torpedo As New Zealand’s only Navy Museum, Since opening in October 2010,Bay has allowed the Museum to leverage the Torpedo Bay facility strongly com- the Museum has welcomed morethe site’s extraordinary heritage value, plements other icons of New Zealand’s than 80,000 visitors, and is on track toby adaptively re-using existing onsite military, maritime and social heritage, welcome over 100,000 people in itsheritage buildings to accommodate the such as the Auckland War Memorial first year of operation. The Museumnew Museum. Inside, in addition to an Museum, the Voyager Maritime is quickly becoming an importantoutstanding café, conference facility and Museum, North Head, Bastion Point component of the cultural landscapeeducation space, completely new per- and the Auckland Art Gallery. Along- in the Auckland area.manent exhibitions showcase the story of side Auckland’s other museums andthe Navy’s contribution to the develop- heritage sites, this creates an unmatched Commander David C. Wright is Director atment of New Zealand’s identity through clutch of valuable national historic the Navy Museum.Torpedo Bay. Gallery 6 at the Royal Navy Museum. PAPYRUS FALL 2011 17
  • 19. Meet Archie, the Four-LeggedPest ControllerBy Sara CarrollR odent infestations can be damag- ing to an organisation’s reputa- tion, as well as to its bottom line.And in Museum facilities they can alsothreaten the collections. It usually fallsto the soft services team to managethe pest control contract, in conjunc-tion with cleaning. Needless to say,catering areas tend to be vulnerableto rodent infestation because of theready food supplies—despite vigilanceand strict hygiene and cleaning regimes.Another area in which mice are oftenseen is in the educational serviceslunchroom. During the school year,this is a very heavily used resource,where large numbers of schoolchildrenenjoy their packed lunches, supple-mented from the vending machines.And you can imagine the mess andrubbish they leave behind! The binareas in most facilities back onto anexternal roadway, so it is relatively easyfor mice to enter the building. Apparently, mice are developingresistance to rodenticides, and are also Archie visited the British Museum because they can target their attentionslearning how to avoid conventional in June. His handler took him to the on specific areas.traps. A novel solution is required to catering areas, and to the school ser- Staff who watched Archie in actionfight this ongoing battle. And that’s vices lunchroom. Happily, the hygiene were charmed. He never stops moving,where Archie comes in. He is a cute regime in the kitchens must be paying unless and until he senses current miceand lively springer spaniel—and is off, because he showed little interest activity. Only then does he calm down.also on the MITIE (our facilities during his thorough search. The lunch- Otherwise, he wags his tail in perpetualmanagement outsourcing company) room, however, was another matter. motion as he is guided around thepayroll. He has been (expensively) He stood stock-still and pointed his building by his handler.trained to sniff out active mouse infes- nose at several locations in this area,tations, and to indicate regularly used thus identifying the routes used by Sara Carroll is Head of Building Services at“runs”. Often, these cannot be detected mice. After Archie has done his work, the British Museum in other means. As a result, effective the technicians can move in. They placetraps can be placed more accurately. fewer traps and use less rodenticide, Past issues of Papyrus can be found on IAMFAs website www.IAMFA.org18 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 20. National Library of New ZealandBuilding RedevelopmentBy Rob Stevens and Pam HarrisT he National Library of New Zealand (NLNZ) has recently embarked on a significant modernisation programme. The New Generation programme isaimed at transforming the services the Library offersto customers, both in response to the growing digitalenvironment and to focus on providing improved services. In 2007, the Library published its 10-year strategicpriorities, “Strategic Directions to 2017”, following afundamental review of how its funding baseline wasprioritised, its productivity, and its capacity and capabilityfor change. In 2008, an integrated implementation pro-gramme was established, charged with “repositioning andmodernising the National Library.” The scope and objectives of the change programmeare wide-ranging and touch on all areas of the Library’soperations, but can be broadly categorised as follows: National Library of New Zealand in Wellington.• Delivering improved services: developing and delivering new and improved services. the new Auckland centre (completed in May 2010), as well• Infrastructure: enhancing the National Library’s presence as developing online platforms to support the new services. and supporting infrastructure in Wellington and Auckland, and creating a stronger digital platform. Wellington Facility Upgrade• People: transforming staff capability and organisational The redevelopment of the Library’s Wellington building is culture to sustain the new services, and realigning crucial to the modernisation programme. Designed in the business structures and funding to support the delivery 1970s in the “Brutalist” architectural style and built in the of the new services framework. 1980s, the 2008 business case identified three key problems: • The integrity and safety of the Library collections were at The successful delivery of redeveloped services is critically risk if storage space and service issues were not improved.dependent upon supportive infrastructure, so a key part ofthe New Generation strategy is improving infrastructure, • Aging plant and infrastructure were increasing theboth physical and digital. This includes the redevelopment risk of failure that could cause irreplaceable loss to theof the National Library’s Wellington headquarters building, heritage collections.Concept for the ground floor exhibition area and gallery. Concept for the service hubs in the Alexander Turnbull Library. PAPYRUS FALL 2011 19
  • 21. • The impact of New Zealand’s cultural, social and eco- As part of the reorganisation, storage conditions for nomic capital was under-realised because the Library’s heritage collections will be improved from 55% to 100% collections were not easily accessible. of collections housed in appropriate controlled-atmosphere rooms. The environments range from 2 +/- 2°C and 30 The upgrade of the Wellington facility, which houses and +/- 5%RH through 18 +/- 2°C and 48 +/- 5%RH.provides access to collections (including the internationallyrecognised heritage collections of the Alexander Turnbull Relocation ProjectLibrary) is due to be completed in late 2012. The scope of Because the scope of the facility upgrade extended overthe project includes full interior refurbishment, extensive the entire main building, an early decision was made tonew shelving, replacement of the aging plant and a new roof relocate Library operations for the duration of the con-system. The building has six levels, and a total floor area of struction. In 2010, the Library completed moving its staff23,400 m2. The redevelopment budget is NZ$65 million. A critical factor in the success of the redevelopment was and operations to four temporary premises in Wellington.solving the problem of collections storage space, which in This included the relocation of some higher-use and2008 was estimated to run out in two years. A number of researcher-requested collections; however, for practicaloptions were considered, including additions to the build- reasons, this amounted to less than 20% of the collectionsing, moving some collections offsite, and the chosen solu- held in the building. The bulk of collections (valued attion of increasing the efficiency of space utilisation in the nearly US$1 billion) had to be closed and either movedbuilding. Improvements in the utilisation of space were offsite, or managed onsite during construction.achieved by consolidating public-service points and staff work An investigation into housing the closed collections off-areas, but most importantly by reorganising and intensifying site determined that all of the options were quite challeng-the Library collections storage, adding a further 20 years of ing. New Zealand is a seismically actively country (mostcollections growth capacity within the facility. recently a series of earthquakes has caused extensive damage in the city of Christchurch), and Wellington is not only built on a major fault zone but is also coastal, with large areas at risk from liquefaction and tsunamis. The analysis of oppor- tunity and risks undertaken concluded that the collections would need to be transported to Auckland, which is 700 km by road from Wellington. The risk and costs involved in such a move were assessed to be higher than managing the collections onsite during construction, so a decision was made to pack up and store the closed collections onsite. Packing Up Collections The challenge of moving a large number of the unique heritage collections—including manuscripts, rare books, ephemera, cartography, photographic materials, drawings, paintings and prints, oral and music recordings—required extensive planning. Working with the library’s conservatorsCollection protection: temporary plastic sheeting to contain dust and curators, collections were carefully pre-packed toand volatile organic compounds. ensure that they were safely protected for their physicalNew film-negative store under construction. Pre-pack and storage of newspapers.20 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 22. relocation en masse, and temporary storage conditions. The ground floor former reading rooms and galleryPre-pack projects included: space have been fitted with pallet shelving for storage of over 35,000 boxes of collections, larger format rolled items• Custom boxing of over 6,700 individual fragile, damaged and works of art. The existing floor coverings were removed, and rare books, sketchbooks, photo albums and manu- and air conditioning isolated and adjusted to better suit scripts. This work took over a year to complete, the main collections storage conditions. The packing of the collec- challenge being the high resource demand. tions and moving to the ground floor was carried out over• Custom wrapping/boxing of approximately 7,000 bound and groups of unbound newspapers. A standard box solution was found for the stable newspapers, while the most fragile ones were to be wrapped in a corflute (inert corrugated plastic) then shrink-wrapped in plastic.• Rehousing of the photographic glass negative and AV cassette/CD collections. This improved storage for a number of unique and vulnerable collections, while also maximising space efficiency. This involved the time of conservation and curatorial staff, due to the fragility/ vulnerability of a number of the collections, resulting in the movement of collections item by item.• Rationalisation of plan cabinets for the medium- and large-format material (e.g., maps and architectural drawings). Sheets of corflute the size of the drawers Collection protection: temporary external hoarding around the were placed beneath and on top of the contents in building’s ground floor. order to prevent the folders from shifting during the move, and to protect the collections from dust or metal particles in the drawers. Some 15,000 hours were devoted to this work, over aperiod of 18 months. Completion of this project has long-term benefits. In particular, custom boxing of the mostfragile/rare items and housing the newspapers in archivalboxes means that they now have extra permanent protectionin their storage environments.Collections ProtectionWith a large proportion of the Library’s heritage collectionsremaining in the building for the duration of construction,storage, protection and security were key concerns. Collec-tions have been consolidated and stored on two floors Temporary wall to isolate and protect shelved collections from(ground and basement levels). construction area.Pre-pack custom box for curios. Collection bulk storage on the ground floor of the building. PAPYRUS FALL 2011 21
  • 23. an eight-month period, and all boxes have been bar-coded to collections, separate contactor access to work areas, and HAWKINS: PROUD BUILDER OF THEto ensure that collections can be traced. The collections on security in general, has been challenging.this floor have been closed to visitor access, and the area In order to undertake the construction work safely while AUCKLAND ART GALLERY DEVELOPMENT.locked for the duration of construction. Access has been managing risks in and around collections, a unique Collec-restricted to conservation staff carrying out site audits, and tions Protection Plan and Process was established. Thisto contractors carrying out only essential services checks. included both the Library and main contractor establishingEnsuring security of the floor is a key consideration and, in dedicated collection protection roles. Robust work proceduresaddition to restricting access, potential for reputational (method statements) are agreed upon, ahead of constructiondamage has been mitigated by constructing an external activity. The key responsibility of these roles is to develop andhoarding over the exterior windows. agree upon method statements and work plans before work The basement was already a collections storage floor can commence. The method statements identify and address(including several specialised controlled-atmosphere rooms), the mitigation of risks to the collections (including water,and as such relatively limited upgrade work was planned. dust, gases and vibration) from particular construction activ-Collections have been stored on open shelving for the ities. All construction staff are required to work in accordanceduration of construction, and plant operation has been with the relevant method statement, and must attend a col-maintained to the controlled atmosphere rooms through- lections protection induction before being permitted toout the period. Collections in the basement are required to work onsite. To date, over 100 method statements have beenremain accessible to library staff, and managing staff access produced, ranging from drilling a hole in concrete for the installation of pipes to replacement of roof membranes. The building contractor understands that the working situation is unique, and that different methods of work are required. Independent quality-assurance audits of the Collections Protection processes, outcomes and incidents are under- taken regularly by an internationally recognised conservator. This independent oversight provides a high level reassurance to stakeholders, politicians, staff and the public that the every practical step is being taken to keep the collections The Auckland Art Gallery development has been an inspiring and ground breaking safe and secure during construction. The process has been project for Hawkins, and we applaud the commitment and vision of Auckland Art Gallery, and its wide network of supporters, in realising this ambitious project. very effective so far, with only two minor incidents to date We expect that all users of this great facility will draw as much enjoyment from it and no damage to collections. as we have building it. Rob Stevens is the Programme Director of the New Generation Implementation Programme for the National Library of New Zealand. Pam Harris is the Collections Site Liaison OfficerRelocatable temporary roof for weather protection during new responsible for protecting the collections for the Nationalroof construction. Library of New Zealand. Hawkins Auckland Level 2 - Hawkins House, 70 Stanley St, Parnell, Auckland Phone | 09 918 8100 Private Bag 93214 Parnell, Auckland 1151 Reserve this space to advertise in a future issue of Papyrus Please contact the Editor of Papyrus for details22 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 24. Looking at Art in a New LightPart Three in a Four-Part Series:Conservation to ConversationBy Mirjam Roos and Emrah Baki UlasM useums and galleries are spaces in which collec- of the visual display quality, balancing it carefully with the tions are made available, and where old and new risk of fading. information, heritage values, cumulative knowl- There are some fundamental issues in today’s lightingedge and the experiences of individuals and communities and preventive conservation practice, due in part to thecan be shared and cultivated in order to advance society, fact that many approaches to lighting conservation arewhile contributing to people’s lives. At the same time, these based on outdated data. For example, a key documentare the very institutions that preserve and protect cultural used in many current lighting conservation guidelines isheritage, keeping it safe for the benefit and enjoyment of Garry Thompson’s The Museum Environment, written inthe future generations. As simple as this seems, these two 1978. Although this book and other similar key sourceskey objectives often conflict with one another, because plac- were milestones when published, and have proven usefuling objects on display may cause aging and have a detrimental for decades, it is time to approach certain conservationimpact on the exhibition materials. An institution’s decision issues with a new perspective. One important reason forto exhibit an object may thus mean that its future usable this is technological advances, both in measurement tech-life is compromised to some degree. It is therefore crucial niques and the precision and accuracy of the understand the effect of environmental parameters on Another important consideration is more fundamental: thisobjects in exhibition (and storage) areas, to ensure that is a time in which exhibition display lighting is undergoingthey are displayed in a manner that minimises the impact perhaps its most significant change in many decades, due toon the objects, while also providing adequate conditions the phasing out of incandescent lighting and replacementto maximise the visitor experience. This generally requires of these sources with new lighting technologies.that design of the spaces, selection of material, and setting Current lighting guidelines related to conservationof environmental parameters work hand in hand. are primarily on the nature of the light that is emitted by Lighting is important to the appearance of displays, and incandescent light sources. It is important to note that theis a fundamental element in shaping the visitor experience composition of the light from an incandescent source is veryof an exhibition. On the other hand, lighting, as an envi- different from that of a metal halide discharge lamp or aronmental parameter, is unquestionably one of the key fluorescent tube—or, more importantly, LED sources, whichissues in conservation. It needs to be used mindfully, and are likely to become the primary source of exhibition displayoften sparsely, in order to minimise damage to the objects. lighting in the near future. It has been known for centuries that light may damage Two of the most common misconceptions affectingexhibited materials by fading pigments, and may degrade preventive conservation strategies related to lighting areobjects in other ways over time. Photodegradation is thescientific term for the fading of materials from exposure tolight, and can be defined as the decomposition of moleculescaused by the absorption of energy in the form of photons—particularly from the ultraviolet and visible parts of the elec-tromagnetic spectrum. As a result of photodegradation, thematerial’s composition breaks up and becomes irreversiblytransformed. When photodegradation takes place on mole-cules carrying pigmentation, the chemical composition ofthe pigments can break down, and colour quality may shiftor weaken. Photodegradation is an irreversible process, andit is sometimes virtually impossible to create or repair thelost information in an exhibition object. On this basis, the best way to prevent light damage onan exhibition material would be to keep it in darkness.This is obviously not practical for display purposes, sincewe have yet to invent the means of viewing artifacts in theabsence of light. The exhibition of a light-sensitive object The Berlin Function. Source: PLDC 2011 Conference Proceedings,thus requires well-balanced lighting that optimises the quality Light for Art’s Sake by Cit Cuttle—2009 via Verlag. PAPYRUS FALL 2011 23
  • 25. that certain levels of light should not be exceeded, and For example, 200-lux illumination provided by an incan-that 50 lux is the minimum level required in lighting an descent source may have a very different photodegradationexhibition. We will look at each of these in turn. potential compared to 200-lux illumination provided by a LED source. This is due to the difference in the spectral- energy distribution of these two sources. The extent ofMisconception 1: damage will of course also be dependent on the duration ofCertain Illuminance (Lux) Levels Should exposure, and may even be more dependent on the object’snot Be Exceeded surface characteristics, such as absorption and reflectivityThere are certain illuminance (lux) levels that are widely responses to the different parts of the incoming light energy.regarded as the acceptable limits of illumination for cer- What all this means is that, by simply managing the dura-tain types of exhibition objects. These levels typically follow tion of the exhibition display and tailoring the compositiona hierarchy, based on the classification of the exhibited of incoming light affecting certain surfaces, the acceptablematerial in terms of light sensitivity: acceptable levels of lux levels may be increased or decreased.light are lower for highly light-sensitive materials, andhigher for materials that are less sensitive. This approach has proven useful; however, it is important Misconception 2:to look at the basis on which these illuminance levels were 50 Lux is the Minimum Level for Viewingdetermined. The question of the amount of light damage Artworkson an exhibition object is a multidimensional issue with This is an issue related to the quality of display lighting, rathermany parameters. These parameters can be summarised than a conservation issue. It is important to understand theas follows: background of this issue, however, as it may help to create new strategies for conservation—particularly for highly• the composition of the energy contained in the light sensitive materials. (both luminous and non-luminous); Similar to the first misconception, while a 50-lux level is• the exhibition material and the light-related properties a good general rule of thumb, it lacks accompanying infor- of its surface; and mation related to the type of object (e.g., size, colour, con- trast), the environment (e.g., background/foreground colour• how long the object will be exposed to exhibition and contrast), and audience (e.g., age of visitor and visual lighting. acuity). This is thus an issue in which a range of parameters play an important role in determining the acceptable level Light damage follows the law of reciprocity in general. of illumination for satisfactory viewing of artworks. These(It has been proven via further research, however, that this parameters include:relationship is nonlinear and can be very complex.) Eachof the above parameters have complex sub-parameters of • the composition of the luminous energy contained intheir own, and play a role in the extent of fading; all of these the light;parameters should be considered in order to determine an • the material and the light-related properties of theacceptable level of lighting for display. The light levels that surface being viewed;are often noted in loan agreements and industry guidelinesare thus meaningful only when they are supported with • the size/detail/contrast and colour diversity of thefurther information on the other factors. surface being viewed; Spectral Power Distribution— Tungsten Incandescent White LED 100 1.0 Relative Spectral Power 80 0.8 Relative Power 60 0.6 40 0.4 20 0.2 0 400 500 600 700 800 0.0 Wavelength (nm) 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 Wavelength (nm)Spectral power distribution diagrams for tungsten incandescent and white LED sources. Source: PLDC 2011 Conference Proceedings, Lightfor Art’s Sake by Cit Cuttle—2009 via Verlag.24 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 26. • the position and distribution of the light source and illumination for the satisfactory viewing of an exhibition. At the observer; and the same time, a decision needs to be made on the desired usable life of the exhibition material. These two parameters• the state of adaptation and visual skills of the observer. can then be used in making the programmatic—including spatial and operational—arrangements. This can open up When determining acceptable lighting conditions in an new opportunities for different conservation methodologiesobject-specific manner, you may find that the required level and help create a bridge between the two fundamentalof illumination can be much lower or much higher than aspects in exhibition display lighting: the longevity of the50 lux—which can then inform the conservation strategy. exhibit for tomorrow’s visitors, and the communication In summary, lighting in exhibition spaces should respond and connection of today’s visitors with the exhibit. In otherprimarily to two key parameters: the exhibition experience words, a bridge from conservation to conversation.for today’s visitors, and how long it will be practical andpossible to keep the exhibition material for the benefit of Mirjam Roos (MA, Dipl.Ing., Assoc PLDA) and Emrah Baki Ulasfuture generations. One way of achieving both goals would (MA, BSc, PLDA) are Senior Lighting Designers at Steensenbe to carefully reconsider the acceptable level and type of Varming Australia. When traveling, keep photocopies of your passport and all your other travel documents as backup. While it’s not likely that these would be valuable to anyone else, they will be very helpful if you lose the originals. Do not carry all of your credit cards and cash in your wallet. That way, if you would lose your wallet, or become the target of a pickpocket, you will not be left without money. Use your hotel room safe or the hotel’s safety deposit box for any larger sums of money or valuables when you are away from your room. PAPYRUS FALL 2011 25
  • 27. 2011 IAMFA Con DELEGATE PROGRAM SUNDAY 8:30 am Benchmarking workshop Art Gallery—Art Lounge NOTE: This is a separate workshop for benchmarking participants only, and not part of the IAMFA Conference. 3:00 pm Conference registration and bag pick-up Langham Hotel 6:30 pm Opening reception Civic Theatre—Verandah Bar MONDAY 8:15 am Bus to Auckland Museum To Auckland Museum 9:00 am Powhiri/Welcome Maori Hall, Auckland Museum Maori cultural group performance 10:00 am Auckland Museums balancing act: Auditorium, Auckland Museum (1) Building conservation and construction (2) Systems vs. visitors (visitor-centric)Auckland Museum 11:30 am Museum site visits—chillers, conference floor, roof Auckland Museum 12:45 pm Bus to lunch at Waterfront Café, Viaduct Harbour To Voyager, NZ Maritime Museum 1:45 pm IAMFA planning session Functions room—Voyager 3:00 pm (1) Construction in a marine environment; Functions room—Voyager (2) Challenges for NZ Green Buildings 4:10 pm Visit exhibitions in Voyager Voyager NZ Maritime Museum 5:15 pm Ferry to Waiheke Island for vineyard dinner To Mudbrick Vineyard 10:15 pm Return to hotel by ferry and bus To Langham Hotel TUESDAY 7:45 am Walk to Auckland Art Gallery To Auckland Art GalleryStructural steel roof modules, 8.00 am (1) The Dialectic Relation of Art and Architecture— Auditorium—Art GalleryFebruary 2010 Lead Architect Richard Francis-Jones (2) The New Auckland Art Gallery: An Art Museum for the 21st Century—Director Chris Saines 10:00 am Seismic strengthening for a heritage building Auditorium—Art Gallery 10:45 am Gallery site tours to conservation labs, chillers/plant; Back-of-house, Gallery exhibitions; Maori dimension 12:00 pm Lunch at Sky Tower Sky Tower restaurant 1:30 pm Benchmarking and best practices report Auditorium—Art GalleryVoyager NZ Maritime Museum 2:15 pm Casting New Light on Your Collection Auditorium—Art GalleryExtension New spatial typologies, conservation approaches and sustainability perspectives for museum and gallery exhibition lighting 3:00 pm Bus to Navy Museum and tour Navy Museum, Devonport 5:30 pm Bus to hotel or Devonport; free evening for delegates in Devonport or Auckland 6:00 pm IAMFA Board meeting Langham Hotel WEDNESDAY 8:00 am IAMFA Annual General Meeting Langham Hotel 9:15 am Bus to Auckland Zoo, morning tea To Auckland ZooNavy Museum Torpedo Bay 10:00 am Te Wao Nui: A Modern Zoo— Auckland Zoo Director Jonathon Wilken 11:00 am Site visits, introductions to Te Wao Nui, Zoo Doo Auckland Zoo and NZ Centre for Conservation Medicine 1:00 pm Lunch in the Old Elephant House Auckland Zoo 2:00 pm Walk/tram ride to Museum of Transport and Technology To MOTAT 2:15 pm (1) Aviation Display Hall—development and challenges Museum of Transport and Technology (2) The Pumphouse—Auckland waterworks history 4:30 pm Bus to hotel, dress for Gala dinner To Langham HotelMuseum of Transport and 6:30 pm Bus to Gallery, group photo, gala dinner Atrium, Auckland Art GalleryTechnology 10:15 pm Bus back to hotel To Langham Hotel26 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 28. ference Schedule GUEST PROGRAM13 NOVEMBER 2011 3:00 pm Conference registration and bag pick-up Langham Hotel 6:30 pm Opening reception Civic Theatre—Verandah Bar14 NOVEMBER 2011 8:15 am Bus to Auckland Museum To Auckland Museum 9:00 am Powhiri/Welcome Maori Hall, Auckland Museum Maori cultural group performance10:00 am Visit museum exhibitions and shop Auckland Museum10:45 am Bus to Viaduct Harbour To Viaduct Harbour Viaduct Harbor11:00 am Look, Cook & Eat—seafood cooking class and lunch Viaduct Harbour 2:00 pm Walk/bus to Voyager NZ Maritime Museum To Voyager, NZ Maritime Museum 2:15 pm Sailing trip on historic scow—the Ted Ashby Waitemata Harbour 3:20 pm Visit exhibitions at Voyager/downtown shopping Downtown Auckland 5:15 pm Ferry to Waiheke Island for vineyard dinner To Mudbrick Vineyard10:15 pm Return to hotel by ferry and bus To Langham hotel15 NOVEMBER 2011 8:30 am Pilates by the pool (optional) Langham Hotel Aucklands Sky Tower 9:00 am Free time10:00 am Bus pick-up for day trip From Langham Hotel Experience NZs flora and fauna, rain forests and beaches, Waitakere Ranges and West Coast with an award-winning boutique tourism operator Picnic lunch, brewery lunch or winery lunch (again!) Out West! Auckland Zoo 5:00 pm Return to hotel 5:30 pm Free evening16 NOVEMBER 2011 9:15 am Bus pick-up Langham Hotel 9:30 am Parnell shops and rose garden; heritage walk through Parnell or One Tree Hil; sculpture in Auckland Domain Parnell/One Tree Hill Langham Hotel10:45 am Bus to Zoo To Auckland Zoo11:00 am Visit Zoo exhibits Auckland Zoo 1:00 pm Lunch in the Old Elephant House Auckland Zoo 2:00 pm Zoo; Museum of Transport and Technology; back to hotel for spa time (own arrangements) 2:15 pm Stroll and shop at Zoo and/or MOTAT Auckland Zoo/Museum of Transport and Technology 4:30 pm Bus to hotel, dress for Gala dinner To Langham Hotel 6:30 pm Bus to Gallery, group photo, gala dinner Atrium, Auckland Art Gallery Mudbrick Vineyard10:15 pm Bus back to hotel To Langham Hotel PAPYRUS FALL 2011 27
  • 29. Operations Review Reveals Hidden Maintenance Improvement Resources Part Three in a Three-Part Series: How to Evaluate Your Operations Review Results By Thomas Westerkamp(Parts 1 and 2 of this series can be found in the There are 80 questions included in this review method,previous two issues of Papyrus) with a maximum of 10 points per question. This allows for a total possible score of 800 points, distributed among theE ach application of the operations review audit will result eight survey areas, as seen below. The first three areas are in more insight into your maintenance department related to the people in your organization, and represent a dynamics, and continued improvement in department total of 230 points (29%) in the survey. The people scoreeffectiveness. You can summarize your review results using is weighted heavily because skilled, well-motivated peoplethe Maintenance Productivity Polygraph shown in Figure 1. can overcome many system shortcomings. No matter how P dazzling the system, however, people who are poorly orga- nized, trained or motivated will not get the best out of it. Cost Control Training They will not understand how to use the system, or won’t have the will to make it work. You can look at your scores for individual questions to identify specific items in your system that will help you improve. For example, assume that under “Planning” you scored low when you answered the question “What percent-Planning Organization age of hours worked is covered by work orders?”. Using the guidelines of 85–90% planned and scheduled work, you can apply techniques—such as Finite Capacity Planning based on daily scheduling—to improve the use of your work order system. The more work hours you cover on work orders, Materials Facilities the better your scheduling will be and the more complete your equipment records will be. That improvement activity Engineering will have a major impact on your program’s success, because it will immediately give you greater control of labor and Potential Productivity Current Productivity material resources, and increase the amount of work done by the same workforce. Potential Savings: $2,850,000.00 Using all the data you have gathered, answer the multiple-Figure 1. The Maintenance Productivity Polygraph for performing a choice questions on the following pages to complete yourstructured assessment of your maintenance department. operations review. Past issues of Papyrus can be found on IAMFAs website www.IAMFA.org28 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 30. Maintenance Assessment QuestionsCircle the point value for the answer that most closely fits your situation. Total your points and divideby possible total points to find your percentage score in each area. List potential improvements in therighthand column. You will use these notes in your improvement plan and implementation. Put anasterisk beside anything on which you want to follow up and check facts.AREA 1: ORGANIZATION IMPROVEMENTS 1. Is the organization structure effective, and is the organization chart current and complete? a. Effective, current and complete 10 b. Not reviewed in the past year or incomplete 6 c. Not current and incomplete 4 d. Not effective, current or complete 0 2. Do all supervisors have their own and their crew’s job descriptions? a. Yes, all 10 b. More than 90% 9 c. 80–90% 8 d. 70–79% 7 e. 50–69% 6 f. Less than 50 percent 0 3. What is the ratio of hourly workers to supervision? a. 15:1 10 b. 8:1 to 14:1 8 c. 16:1 to 20:1 8 d. Less than 8:1 or over 20:1 5 4. Are support functions—maintenance engineer, plant engineer, planner, material coordinator, training, stores—available? a. Yes, all 10 b. 4 or 5, including planner 8 c. 4 or 5, no planner 6 d. 1 to 3 4 e. None of these is available 0 5. Does the department use a written management control policy and management goals weekly? a. Yes, covering over 85% of costs 10 b. Yes, covering 75–85% of costs 7 c. Have, but not used weekly 5 d. Do not have or do not use 0Area 1: Organization—Subtotal _______ Become a Member of IAMFA For more information on becoming a member of the International Association of Museum Facility Administrators, please visit WWW.IAMFA.ORG PAPYRUS FALL 2011 29
  • 31. AREA 2: TRAINING IMPROVEMENTS1. Does a master training plan exist, covering higher management supervision, support and crafts? a. Yes, all of these areas 10 b. Two of these 5 c. One of these 2 d. None of these 02. Is productivity training included? a. Yes, in all of the above areas 10 b. Two areas 5 c. One area 2 d. None of these areas 03. Is there formal and on-the-job management training? a. Yes, both 10 b. On-the-job only 5 c. No management training 04. Who performs training? a. Staff specialists 6 b. Line management and staff specialists 10 c. Line management and other workers 5 d. No one 05. Is there formal and on-the-job training for planners? a. Yes, both 10 b. On-the-job only 5 c. No training for planners 06. Does the planner training program include work order planning, methods, scheduling, productivity, methods improvement, material planning, project planning, field checking, engineered time standards, standard practices, multi-craft planning, preventive maintenance and equipment history, and computer use? a. Yes, all of these areas 10 b. 75% of these 7 c. 50% of these 5 d. 25% of these 2 e. None of these 07. Is there formal and on-the-job craft training? a. Yes, both 10 b. On-the-job only 5 c. No craft training 08. Who performs craft training? a. Staff only 7 b. Staff plus line management 10 c. Other hourly workers 5 d. No one 030 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 32. AREA 2: TRAINING (cont’d) IMPROVEMENTS 9. What percentage of crafts are included? a. 100% 10 b. 75% 7 c. 50% 5 d. 25% 2 e. None 010. Are there minimum job skill requirements for each craft job title? a. Yes, for all 10 b. For 75% 7 c. For 50% 5 d. For 25% 2 e. For none 0Area 2: Training—Subtotal _______AREA 3: PERSONNEL IMPROVEMENTS 1. What is the overall management-labor climate? a. Cooperative 10 b. Neutral 7 c. Adversarial 0 2. Randomly select ten examples of substandard job performance. What percentage is caused by bad attitude, as opposed to lack of skill? a. 100% 0 b. 80–89% 2 c. 60–79% 4 d. 40–59% 6 e. 20–39% 8 f. 0–19% 10 3. Has a work climate survey been conducted recently? a. Yes 10 b. More than two years ago 5 c. Never 0 4. What is the annual turnover due to voluntary and involuntary departures? a. Less than 2% 10 b. 3–5% 7 c. 6–10% 5 d. More than 10% 0 5. What percentage of productive hours are lost due to late arrivals and early departures? a. Less than 2% 10 b. 3–5% 7 c. 6–10% 5 d. More than 10% 0 PAPYRUS FALL 2011 31
  • 33. AREA 3: PERSONNEL (cont’d) IMPROVEMENTS 6. Was there a strike before settling, or during, this contract? a. Yes 0 b. No 10 7. How many grievances have there been in the past six months, as a percentage of total maintenance workers? a. Less than 2% 10 b. 3–5% 8 c. 6–10% 6 d. More than 10% 0 8. How many grievances were settled at the first stage, as a percentage of total grievances? a. 100% 10 b. 75% 7 c. 50% 5 d. 25% 2 e. None 0Area 3: Personnel—Subtotal _______AREA 4: COST CONTROL IMPROVEMENTS 1. Do you use shop floor work measurement, budgets and actual historical costs to control your program? a. Yes, all three 10 b. Budgets and costs only 5 c. Costs only 0 2. Which control indices and trends—percentage of downtime, performance, coverage, delays, cost per standard hour, productivity, backlog, level of service, overtime—are used? a. All 10 b. 7 or 8 7 c. 5 or 6 5 d. 2 to 4 2 e. Less than 2 0 3. What is the time lag between the end of a period and receipt of control reports? a. A day or less 10 b. 2 to 4 days 5 c. More than 5 days 0 4. How often are performance reports prepared? a. Daily 10 b. Weekly 7 c. Monthly 5 d. Less frequently 0 5. How are job time and work reported? a. By individual and job 10 b. By day 5 c. By week 3 d. By month or clock-in/clock-out only 032 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 34. AREA 4: COST CONTROL (cont’d) IMPROVEMENTS 6. How is report information summarized? a. By responsible foremen 10 b. By department or work center 5 c. Total only 0 7. How are reports distributed? a. To responsible foremen, plus summaries to management 10 b. To foremen only 5 c. Not distributed to line organization, or not prepared 0Area 4: Cost Control—Subtotal _______AREA 5: PLANNING IMPROVEMENTS 1. What percentage of labor hours worked is on a written work order? a. More than 90% 10 b. 80–90% 8 c. 70–79% 7 d. 69% or less 5 e. None 0 2. What percentage of work orders relate to specific job content, as opposed to blanket content? a. More than 90% 10 b. 80–90% 8 c. 70–79% 7 d. 69% or less 5 e. None 0 3. What percentage of work orders have enough lead time for planning (2–4 weeks)? a. More than 90% 10 b. 80–90% 8 c. 70–79% 7 d. 69% or less 5 e. None 0 4. What percentage of work orders have all of the following preplanned: work content by craft, materials, special tools and equipment, multi-craft sequencing, engineered job time standards, job-site access, scheduled date? a. More than 90% 10 b. 75–90% 8 c. 60–74% 6 d. 40–59% 4 e. Less than 40% 2 f. None 0 PAPYRUS FALL 2011 33
  • 35. AREA 5: PLANNING (cont’d) IMPROVEMENTS 5. Is all shutdown work preplanned and scheduled? a. Yes 10 b. Major jobs only 5 c. None 0 6. Does foreman check quality and completeness? a. Yes 10 b. Most jobs 7 c. Half of all jobs 5 d. Less than half of all jobs 0 7. What percent of major equipment has a record of repair history? a. 100% 10 b. 75% 7 c. 50% 5 d. 25% 2 e. None 0 8. How many history records are reviewed at least once a year? a. All 10 b. 75% 7 c. 50% 5 d. 25% 2 e. None 0 9. What percentage of plant equipment is covered by preventive maintenance routines? a. 100% 10 b. 75% 7 c. 50% 5 d. 25% 2 e. None 010. What equipment is covered by all of the following reports: downtime trends, PM compliance with schedule, written PM instructions, total PM time, high repair-item time? a. All 10 b. 75% 7 c. 50% 5 d. 25% 2 e. None 011. How frequently are the reports prepared? a. Weekly 10 b. Monthly 7 c. Less frequently 4 d. No reports prepared 0Area 5: Planning—Subtotal _______34 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 36. AREA 6: MATERIAL IMPROVEMENTS1. Do you have an up-to-date stores catalog? a. Yes, for all items, except pre-expended 10 b. For major items 7 c. For some items 4 d. No up-to-date stores catalog 02. Do you have a perpetual inventory system for major items and spares? a. Yes, for all items 10 b. For 75% 7 c. For 50% 5 d. For 25% 2 e. No perpetual inventory system 03. Do you have a two-bin system for high-volume, low-cost pre-expended items? a. Yes, for all items 10 b. For 75% 7 c. For 50% 5 d. For 25% 2 e. No two-bin system 04. Are all except pre-expended item withdrawals controlled by use of a withdrawal procedure? a. Yes, all 10 b. 75% 7 c. 50% 5 d. 25% 2 e. None 05. Is there a tool control procedure used for all company tools? a. Yes, for all 10 b. For 75% 7 c. For 50% 5 d. For 25% 2 e. No tool control procedure 06. Are there standard lists of tools provided to individuals by the company and provided by the individual? a. Yes 10 b. Company only 5 c. Individual only 5 d. Neither 07. How many tools are out of service for repair? a. Less than 5% 10 b. 5–9% 8 c. 10–20% 7 d. More than 20% 0 PAPYRUS FALL 2011 35
  • 37. AREA 6: MATERIAL (cont’d) IMPROVEMENTS 8. Are economical order quantities calculated? a. Yes, for all items 10 b. For most items 7 c. For some items 5 d. For none 0 9. Are minimum/maximum levels set and maintained? a. Yes, for all items 10 b. For most items 7 c. For some items 5 d. For none 010. Does purchasing maintain a vendor rating system? a. Yes, for all vendors 10 b. For most 7 c. For some 5 d. For none 011. What percentage of material orders are delivered on time? a. 100% 10 b. 90–99% 9 c. 80–89% 8 d. 70–79% 7 e. 60–69% 6 f. 59% or less 0Area 6: Material—Subtotal _______AREA 7: ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENTS 1. On what percentage of your equipment is reliability engineering used to control downtime? a. 100% 10 b. 75% 7 c. 50% 5 d. 25% 2 e. None 0 2. What percentage of equipment histories are analyzed to statistically determine current mean time between failures (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR)? a. 100% 10 b. 75% 7 c. 50% 5 d. 25% 2 e. None 0 3. What percent of major repair and construction projects have an engineer assigned? a. 100% 10 b. 75% 7 c. 50% 5 d. 25% 2 e. None 036 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 38. AREA 7: ENGINEERING (cont’d) IMPROVEMENTS 4. On what percentage of your equipment are diagnostic routines—vibration, heat, erosion, corrosion, electrical gauging gas analysis, etc.—carried out on a regular, scheduled basis? a. Over 95% 10 b. 80–95% 9 c. 60–79% 7 d. 40–59% 5 e. Up to 39% 2 f. None 0 5. How are maintenance time standards set? a. Predetermined times, time study and standard data 10 b. Direct measurement, predetermined times and time 6 c. Work sampling 5 d. Estimates 4 e. No set standards 0 6. What application system is used? a. Slotting and work content comparison 10 b. Direct measurement 5 c. No application system 0 7. What percentage of actual hours worked is covered by time standards? a. More than 85% 10 b. 70–85% 7 c. Less than 70% 4 d. None 0 8. Are job times on the work order for the foreman and hourly worker to see? a. Yes, both 10 b. Given to foreman only 5 c. Neither 0 9. What percentage of maintenance hourly workers are paid a wage incentive plan tied to output? a. Over 95% 10 b. 80–95% 9 c. 60–79% 7 d. 40–59% 5 e. Less than 40% 010. What type of incentive plan are you using? a. Standard hour 1-for-1 individual or small group 10 b. Multi-factor or large group 5 c. None 0 PAPYRUS FALL 2011 37
  • 39. AREA 7: ENGINEERING (cont’d) IMPROVEMENTS11. Which information categories are available in your computer system—payroll, time reporting, work order, job planning, daily scheduling, for routine work, long- range scheduling for projects, management control reports, downtime, equipment history, preventive maintenance, material stores control, statistical analysis, cost justification? a. All 10 b. 75% 7 c. 50% 5 d. 25% 2 e. None 012. Is your system online? a. Yes 10 b. Batch 5 c. No 013. Does your system match capabilities with individual responsibility? a. Yes, always 10 b. Most of the time 7 c. Sometimes 5 d. Never 014. Are computer reports timely? a. Yes, weekly or more frequently 10 b. Monthly 5 c. Less often 015. Is the information complete and reliable? a. Yes, always 10 b. Most of the time 7 c. Sometimes 5 d. Never 016. Does your security system control who has access to what level? a. Yes, it controls both 10 b. Controls one of these 7 c. Inadequate control 5 d. Controls neither 017. How often is the system backed up? a. Daily 10 b. Weekly 5 c. Less often 018. Are memory and disk storage properly sized to support users? a. Yes, both 10 b. One 7 c. Neither is large enough 0Area 7: Engineering—Subtotal _______38 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 40. AREA 8: FACILITIES IMPROVEMENTS1. Do you have a current plant floorplan? a. Updated within the past year 10 b. 2 to 4 years old 6 c. Older, or none 02. How are maintenance shop locations and layouts? a. Ideal 10 b. Good 8 c. Fair 7 d. Poor 03. How is housekeeping? a. Superior 10 b. Excellent 9 c. Good 8 d. Fair 7 e. Poor 04. Are safety equipment and signs always used? a. Yes, in all areas 10 b. In most areas 7 c. In some areas 2 d. None 05. How do you rate availability of equipment and tools, considering the crafts needed and workload? a. Better than average 10 b. Average 7 c. Below average 56. What is the average square footage of office space for supervisors and staff? a. More than 75 square feet per person 10 b. About 75 square feet per person 7 c. Less than 75 square feet per person 5 d. None 07. How good is task lighting? a. Better than average 10 b. Average 7 c. Below average 5 d. Poor 28. Are the following services—electric, air, water, gas, steam, sewer, refuse removal—scheduled for maintenance at proper intervals annually? a. 100% 10 b. 75% 7 c. 50% 5 d. 25% 2 e. None 0 PAPYRUS FALL 2011 39
  • 41. AREA 8: FACILITIES (cont’d) IMPROVEMENTS 9. What percentage of custodial employees are on pre- planned daily routes and tasks, and engineered standards? a. Over 95% 10 b. 86–95% 9 c. 66–85% 7 d. 1–65% 4 e. None 010. Are all cranes, trucks, hoists, and lifting equipment on a PM plan? a. 100% 10 b. 75% 7 c. 50% 5 d. 25% 2 e. None 0Area 8: Facilities—Subtotal _______How to Calculate the Potential Savings The potential for a maintenance program with engi-from Productivity Improvement neered standards, and a formal planning and scheduling function with written work orders covering 90% of theImproving your maintenance program means real dollar work, is at least 80%. If there are 120 hourly employeessavings to your organization. You can calculate the savings in the maintenance department, and the average wagesresulting from improving your program. The key indicator and fringe costs are $50,000 per year, the improvementis your productivity percentage, based on the point total potential is:your program scored in the survey, compared to themaximum shown in Figure 2 below. 45 The following example shows how the calculation is 120 x = 68 hourly workers needed at 80% 80 =done. A typical score for a program with little or no formal 120 – 68 = 52 workers available for other assignmentsplanning and no engineered standards is 320 to 400points. This point total is equivalent to 40% to 50% 52 x $50,000 = $2,600,000 cost-avoidance or savingsproductivity. Using 360 points, we have: annually But which is it: cost-avoidance or savings? Why does it % Productivity = 360 x 100% 800 matter? It is cost-avoidance if the productivity improvement = 45% is used entirely for getting more work done, providing there is enough work to justify the workforce. It is savings if you use attrition to reduce the payroll, providing you can still Area Points Percent get all the work done. Or it can be a combination: get more Organization 50 6 work done, and get some payroll savings too. It matters because optimal staffing and high productivity are interde- Training 100 13 pendent. Management can make the right staffing decisions Personnel 80 10 if they have accurate workload information, by skill—work Cost Control 70 8 orders with specific work content and engineered standards applied—sufficient to justify the workforce. Planning 110 14 Regular auditing of your program, as described in this Materials 110 14 series of articles, will give you new insight into greater Engineering 180 23 potential and provide a catalyst for continuous improvement of your maintenance organization, planning, scheduling Facilities 100 12 and control. With the right control system in place, you Totals 800 100 can track savings versus cost, and plot the breakeven point,Figure 2: Survey areas, maximum points and percent of total points. as shown in the breakeven chart in Figure 3.40 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 42. Use the worksheet below to summarize the results ofyour assessment. Cumulative Savings vs. CostSavings Calculation Worksheet 4,500 Your Total Points Area Title Points Possible Productivity 4,000 1 Organization 50 3,500 2 Training 100 3 Personnel 80 3,000 Dollars (,000) 4 Cost Control 70 Break Even 2,500 5 Planning 110 Point 6 Material 110 2,000 7 Engineering 180 1,500 8 Facilities 100 1,000 Total 800 Your Total Points ( ) 500% Productivity = x 100 = % Total Points Possible (800) 0 Dec-92 Dec-93 Dec-94Current Your Productivity ( ) ( )x = Hourly neededHourly Potential Productivity (80%) Month-Year @ 80% Potential Cumulative Savings Cumulative Cost HourlyCurrent Hourly ( ) – Hourly needed @80% ( ) = available ( ) Figure 3: Breakeven chart—cumulative savings versus cost andHourly available ( ) x Annual wages & benefits ( ) breakeven point.= $ savingsSummary of Improvement IdeasScan the answers to the questions above to see where your Other Resourcessystem-improvement opportunities have been revealed.If you see a problem, but not a solution, write down the • The Maintenance Productivity Polygraph is available asproblem. You can document the problem as a place holder an automated application: Aware.MNT, Maintenanceon your continuous improvement project schedule, do Audit Software, www.pninc.comfurther research to pinpoint alternative solutions, and thenselect the best one to implement. • Hundreds of actionable solutions you can use right Like mountain climbing, the higher up you get, the farther away are found in Maintenance Manager’s Standardout you can see. So it is with productivity improvement— Manual, by Thomas A. Westerkamp, BNi Publications,only there is no top. The opportunities are limited only by Inc., www.bnibooks.comyour team’s creativity. Creativity is knowing how to see. Asyou progress along the path of improved sustainability and • Additional case studies of maintenance operationsavings, your viewpoint and vision will improve, and you reviews and elements of computerized maintenancewill see new opportunities for sustainability and savings. management systems are found in Maynard’s IndustrialThomas A. Westerkamp is author of the Maintenance Manager’s Engineering Handbook, 5th edition, edited by Kjell B.Standard Manual and AWARE.MPS, Maintenance Productivity Zandin, McGraw-Hill, Inc. (2001), and in Thomas A.Suite, and founder of Productivity Network Innovations, LLC (PNI). Westerkamp, Chapter 16.1, Computer-Aided Mainte-He has written over 200 journal articles, and has presented severalmaintenance management webcasts. He works with clients in nance Planning, Scheduling, and Control; Chapter 16.2,manufacturing, service industries and government around the Benefits of Auditing the Maintenance Department;world, installing integrated performance-management/CMMS and G.1, Glossary.and shop-floor control programs. He can be reached PAPYRUS FALL 2011 41
  • 43. The Smithsonian Institution’sArts and Industries BuildingPhase-2 Renovation ProjectBy Maurice EvansT he Smithsonian Institution’s Arts was named a National Historic Land- skylights, clerestory windows and and Industries Building, also mark and put on the National Register the rotunda. known as AIB, was designed by of Historic Places. It was noted at the All Phase I work has been completedAdolf Cuss and Paul Schulze. AIB is the time that it was the best-preserved and documented towards achievingSmithsonian’s second-oldest building, example of nineteenth-century “world’s LEED Gold Certification for newbut was its first museum. Built in the fair” or “exposition” architecture in construction. The work associatedHigh Victorian style, AIB is famous for the country. with Phase 2, and all other associatedits polychrome brick exterior, octagonal Those fortunate enough to experi- phases, will also be documented androtunda and Victorian ornaments. ence the tour of AIB Phase 1: “Interior completed in accordance with LEEDConstruction began in 1879, and the demolition and hazmat removal”, dur- criteria, as we continue the process ofbuilding opened in 1881 as the U.S. ing the 2009 IAMFA Conference got a pursuing LEED Gold Certification forNational Museum; it was renamed the chance to see the shell of this magnifi- new construction.Arts and Industries Building in 1916. cent building. Hopefully you were able Contracts for Phase 2 of the AIBAIB was designated a Washington, to get an idea of how the building was renovation were awarded September 30,D.C. landmark in 1964, and in 1971 partially lit using natural sunlight, 2010 at the end of fiscal year 10.Overview looking north at the Arts and Industry Building, prior to Independence Avenue view of construction.its preservation for construction.Scaffolding erected in the South Hall. Work platform/temporary roof inside Rotunda.42 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 44. A total of 900 calendar days has been ing could take place prior to their for Phase 2 construction. reinstallation. smithsonian/This phase of the project is intended to Photographs are by Derek C.preserve the historic building, stabilize Ross, Jr., Dennis Clark, Christopher Maurice Evans is Facilities Zone Managerand revitalize the building envelope, Lethbridge and Richard Strauss. at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.and prepare the building for future Follow the project’s progress at:phases of full building revitalization.Phase 2 work includes replacement ofthe roofs; replacement and repair ofthe iron roof structure; and installationof new steel, masonry and concretestructural elements to improve seismic,wind blast and snow-load performance.The project will also involve replace-ment of the windows; restoration ofmasonry and ornamental metals; andthe installation of lightning arrestequipment and systems. Prior to removal of the buildingroofs, extreme caution was taken toprotect previously identified interiorand exterior materials and finishesfrom damage and deterioration forthe duration of the construction pro-cess. Several of the historical buildingelements had to be removed in orderto accomplish this. Items were salvaged, inventoriedand properly stored so that refurbish- Interior view of AIB from the west wall. Original AIB windows.Removal of roof of SE Court Monitor. Roof ornaments removed and ready for restoration. SUDOKU SOLUTIONS FROM PAGE 52 PAPYRUS FALL 2011 43
  • 45. Exploratorium Construction UpdateBy Jennifer FragomeniO n October 19, 2010, a ground- breaking ceremony was held on San Francisco’s waterfrontat Pier 15, to mark the beginning ofconstruction at the future home of theExploratorium. Many of you heardabout the groundbreaking at the 2010IAMFA Conference, where a presen-tation was given about the zero-energygoals of the project. In the monthsthat have passed since then, hundredsof workers have been diligently work-ing both above and below the deck ofPier 15 (and on Pier 17, located nextdoor). The project is nearly at its half-way point, and I’d like to share withyou some of the highlights of the View from the Embarcadero.progress that has been made so far. torium was required to build new offices in and under Pier 15. Before construc-Moving a Tugboat Company for Baydelta. Finally, the Exploratorium tion began, engineers had discoveredBaydelta Maritime was a tenant at had to repair the north apron of Pier 17, that the piles that were holding upPier 15, now the site of the new which was in an unsafe condition. These Pier 15 had deteriorated significantly,Exploratorium. It had been agreed were some of the first major milestones and were no longer strong enough tothat they would be relocated to Pier of the project, and were completed on17, in order for the Exploratorium withstand the forces of a major earth- time and on budget in May 2011. quake. To ensure the current and futureproject to move forward. Before Bay-delta could be relocated, dredging stability of Pier 15, a seismic retrofit wasto the north of Pier 17 had to take Seismic Retrofit of Pier 15 required. The plan for the retrofit hadplace, as the bay was too shallow for Piles two components: repairing hundreds ofthe Baydelta tugboats to dock there. In While construction was going on at existing wood and concrete piles, andaddition to the dredging, the Explora- Pier 17, other crews were hard at work adding 64 new steel and concrete piles.Facing the cityscape. Pile preparation under the deck of the pier.44 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 46. The piles under Pier 15 were made at the top. This work was completed Rehabilitation of the Shedby driving 140-foot-long (43-meter- at the eastern end of the project in March 2011. The historical building on Pier 15 is along) Douglas fir timbers into the bay steel-trussed, wood-roofed, 1930s ware-mud. Above the mud line to the bottom house. This massive warehouse struc-of the pier—a length of about 20 feet Building the Observatory ture is technically referred to as “the(6 meters)—the timbers were encased The Observatory is the only new build- Shed” by our architects and protective concrete sleeves, for a ing being built on the Exploratorium Although it is made of steel and wood,diameter of about 24 inches (61 cm). project site. It is situated on the eastern the construction of the Shed does notOver the years, the concrete on many end of the site, looking out over the provide the lateral stability needed forof these piles had been subject to “sul- bay. After the steel piles were driven, present-day seismic codes. In order forfate attack” from the sea water, which and the concrete pier caps poured at this building to house the new Explora-had softened the concrete and weak- the eastern end in March 2011, the torium, it must first be rehabilitatedened the structure. These piles were steel frame of the Observatory was and retrofitted. Our structural engi-repaired by removing the old concrete, quickly erected. neers have built steel-brace frames insurrounding the piles with fiberglass both the north-south and east-westsleeves measuring 30 inches (76 cm) directions, while some of the older,in diameter, and pumping new sulfate- existing columns have been reinforced.resistant concrete into the annulus. Steel frames for the mezzanines, recentlySome of this seismic retrofit work is put in place, will also act as brace frames.being done under the water by teams of Additionally, plywood has been addeddivers, and some is being done above to the roof to add the strength neededwater by workers on rafts. The work on to support photovoltaic panels.rafts has to be scheduled during lowtide, so that workers can fit safely underthe pier with their equipment. As the Conclusiontides rise, workers go from standing, to While a significant amount of workkneeling, to lying on their backs, often has already been done, constructionoperating jackhammers held overhead. of the new Exploratorium at Pier 15 New steel piles, 6 feet (1.8 meters) is still more than a year away fromin diameter and 160 feet (43 meters) completion. To keep up on the latestin length, are also being added at each developments in the construction ofof the pier’s four corners. They are our new home, please visit our website:driven into the bay mud with a “vibrat- hammer”. The piles are then filled ?project=103with concrete from the mud line up,and connected with massive concrete Building the mezzanines; note that ducts Jennifer Fragomeni is Facilities Directorpier caps (8 x 8-foot concrete beams) and pipes have already been installed. at the Exploratorium in San Francisco.Observatory skeleton, top right; concrete pier cap and 6-foot pile, Roof reinforcement in progress.bottom right. PAPYRUS FALL 2011 45
  • 47. Harvard Art Museums Renovation andExpansion Project COURTESY OF HARVARD ART MUSEUMS— ©PRESIDENT AND FELLOWS OF HARVARD COLLEGET he Harvard Art Museums reno- vation and expansion project, scheduled for completion in 2013,is now underway at 32 Quincy Streetin Cambridge, Massachusetts. Designedby architect Renzo Piano, the projectwill unite the Harvard Art Museums’three constituent museums—Fogg,Busch-Reisinger, and Arthur M. Sackler—in a single, state-of-the-art facility. The design seamlessly combines theoriginal 1927 building with a strikingnew addition on its east side, alongPrescott Street. The Calderwood Court-yard, preserved in place in the centerof the original building, was the site ofthe closing banquet at the 2004 IAMFAConference. For more informationabout the project, please Aerial view of Harvard Art Museums Renovation and Expansion Project.46 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 48. Chapter News and Regional UpdatesWashington, D.C.-Baltimore Chapter Northern California ChapterBy Maurice Evans By Joe BrennanThe Chapter’s quarterly meeting was held on May 17,hosted by the Library of Congress (LOC). Lucy Suddreth,the Library’s Chief of The Office of Support Operations,welcomed members and discussed a little of how the LOCoperates. The meeting was held in the Thomas JeffersonBuilding, with over 35 individuals in attendance, represent-ing six different cultural institutions in the area. Membershad a chance to network with each other prior to the startof the meeting and during the lunch period. It was a great The Chapter’s most recent quarterly meeting was held onopportunity to discuss current challenges and share new May 4 at the Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum, home ofideas on how to approach those challenges. the Oakland Athletics. The presentation for the day was on the “Thomas Jefferson The Coliseum has all the facilities challenges we face—Building Floor Wear Study”, given by Greg Simmons and but with huge surges of visitors, along with the many needsJames Zeeck. They presented an overview of the study’s find- demanded by the team’s the-game-must-go-on seasonings, which included ways on how to reduce wear and tear schedule. Think of your facility with daily visitation inon the floors and steps in the Thomas Jefferson Building. the tens of thousands.Some of the recommendations from the study were discussed, This facility is designed to function flawlessly behind theas were those which have already been implemented by the scenes from zero to sixty and back to zero again, day in andLibrary. There were several recommendations from the study day out. Our tour provided a look at the infrastructure sup-that could be implemented in other buildings, possibly porting the game, as well as the excellent visitor serviceincreasing the longevity of the floors in your own institu- guaranteed by the Oakland A’s organization.tion. The presentation captured everyone’s attention and Our meeting began with a facility overview by David Rinetti,sparked several questions afterwards. Look for an article Director of Stadium Operations, and his crew. They talkedrecapping this study in the next issue of Papyrus. to us about stadium issues of interest to our group: security, During the meeting, we discussed the possibility of the emergency plans, medical issues and infrastructure that mustWashington, D.C.-Baltimore Chapter being represented at accommodate 40,000 people onsite at any given time. Wethe IAMFA Conference in Auckland. The benefits of attend- followed this with a walking tour of the facility itself, anding the Conference, as well as participating in the bench- ended with a visit to batting practice on the field. It was amarking workshop were discussed, and we are expecting highly enjoyable meeting, providing lots of food for thoughtChapter members to attend both the Conference and the on what it takes to manage a popular athletic facility.benchmarking workshop this November. The Chapter’s next meeting is scheduled at the NationalArchives in September. At the reception at London’s Royal Exchange celebrating his son William’s April 30 marriage to his Greek wifePresentation by James Zeeck and Greg Simmons of the Architect of Andrea, John de Lucy started off the dancing with thethe Capital. bride’s father: a Greek tradition! PAPYRUS FALL 2011 47
  • 49. IAMFA Members — Organizations National Gallery of Canada Camfil Limited Architrve PC Architects AUSTRALIA Ottawa, Ontario Haslingden, Lancashire Washington, DCAustralian Centre for the Nova Scotia Museum Creative Consulting Arkansas Art CenterMoving Image Halifax, Nova Scotia Partnership LLP Little Rock, ARMelbourne, VIC London, England Peterborough Museum & Art Institute of ChicagoMuseum Old and New Archives The National Archives Chicago, ILBerriedale, Tasmania Peterborough, Ontario Richmond, Surrey Arts and Industries BuildingMuseum Victoria Physical Resource Bureau National Galleries of Scotland Washington, DCCarlton, Melbourne, Victoria Ottawa, Ontario Edinburgh, Scotland Atlanta History CenterNational Gallery of Australia Royal British Columbia National Gallery, London Atlanta , GACanberra, ACT Museum London, England Victoria, British Columbia Baltimore Museum of ArtNational Library of Australia National Library of Scotland Baltimore, MDCanberra, ACT Edinburgh, Scotland FRANCE Beyer Blinder BelleNational Museum of Australia National Museum of Science New York, NYCanberra, ACT and Industry Bibliothèque nationale London, England Boston AthenaeumNational Portrait Gallery of de France Boston, MA ParisAustralia National Museums LiverpoolCanberra, ACT Liverpool, England Brooklyn Museum of Art International Council Brooklyn, NYQuestacon, The National of Museums Paris National Portrait GalleryScience and Technology London, England California Academy ofCenter SciencesCanberra, ACT Natural History Museum San Francisco, CA NEW ZEALAND London, EnglandSteensen Varming Camfil Farr (USA) Inc.Sydney, NSW Auckland Art Gallery — Royal Academy Newark, DE Toi o T¯ amaki Ware, Hertfordshire Auckland Carnegie Museums of CANADA Auckland Museum Tate Pittsburgh London, England Pittsburgh, PA AucklandCanada Science andTechnology Museum University of Greenwich CB Richard Ellis Christchurch Art Gallery London, England Doral, FLCorporation Christchurch, CanterburyOttawa, Ontario Victoria & Albert Museum Chicago Children’s Museum Internal Affairs London, England Chicago, ILCanadian Museum for Human WellingtonRights The Wellcome Trust Cleveland Museum of ArtWinnipeg, Manitoba National Library of London, England Cleveland, OH New ZealandCanadian Museum of Wellington Cooper-Hewitt NationalCivilization UNITED STATES Design MuseumGatineau, Quebec Royal New Zealand Navy New York, NY Devonport, Auckland AFS Chemical Filtration GroupCanadian Museum of Nature Burlington, MA Cypress Security, LLCOttawa, Ontario San Francisco, CA SPAIN Alaska State MuseumCofely Services Inc. Juneau, AK Delaware Art MuseumMontreal, Quebec Museo Guggenheim — Bilbao Wilmington, DE Bilbao, Viz Caya Allentown Art MuseumFacility Management Allentown, PA Elliot Lewis CorporationServices LTD Philadelphia, PACalgary, Alberta UNITED KINGDOM Anacostia Community Museum Energy Maintenance ServicesGroupe Smi-Enerpro British Library Washington, DC Houston, TXLongueuil, Quebec London, England Aquarium of the Bay Ewing ColeLundholm Associates British Museum San Francisco, CA Philadelphia, PAArchitects London, EnglandToronto, Ontario Architect of the Capitol Exploratorium Washington , DC San Francisco, CA48 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 50. Facility Issues M. Goodwin Associates, Inc. National Museum of the Smithsonian American ArtFlagstaff, AZ Pasadena, CA United States Army Museum Fort Belvoir, VA Washington, DCFine Arts Museum of San Mariner’s MuseumFrancisco Newport News, VA National Portrait Gallery Smithsonian InstitutionSan Francisco, CA Washington, DC Washington, DC McGuire EngineersFolger Shakespeare Library Chicago, IL National Postal Museum Smithsonian InstitutionWashington, DC Washington, DC Building, The Castle Metropolitan Museum of Art Washington, DCFreer Gallery of Art and New York, NY National Zoological ParkArthur M. Sackler Gallery Washington, DC Smithsonian National Air andWashington, DC Milwaukee Public Museum Space Museum Milwaukee, WI Neue Galerie Suitland, MDFriends of Iolani Palace New York, NYHonolulu, HI Morikami Museum and Sodexo Japanese Gardens New York Hall of Science Waltham, MAGlide Foundation Delray Beach, FL Corona, NYSan Francisco, CA Sodexo Mueller Associates Norton Museum of Art Canyon Country, CAHagley Museum & Library Baltimore, MD West Palm Beach, FLWilmington, DE Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum of Fine Arts — Oakland Museum of FoundationHammer Museum Boston California New York, NYLos Angeles, CA Boston, MA Oakland, California Stanford University Libraries,Harley-Davidson Museum Museum of Fine Arts — Office of Facilities Green LibraryMilwaukee, WI Houston Engineering & Operations Stanford, CA Houston, TX Washington, DCHarvard Art Museum U.S. Holocaust MuseumCambridge, MA National Air and Space Philadelphia Museum of Art Washington, DC Museum Philadelphia, PAHigh Museum of Art Washington, DC The Whiting-TurnerAtlanta, GA Pinkerton Consulting and Contracting Company National Air and Space Investigations Baltimore, MDHirshhorn Museum and Museum — Udvar-Hazy Sunnyvale, CASculpture Garden Center Winterthur Museum, GardenWashington, DC Chantilly, VA Questions and Solutions and Library Engineering, Inc. Winterthur, DEJ. Paul Getty Trust National Museum of African Chaska, MNLos Angeles, CA American History and Culture Yale University Art Gallery Washington, DC Renwick Gallery New Haven, CTThe Jewish Museum Washington, DCNew York, NY National Museum of African Art Salvador Dali MuseumLandmark Facilities Group, Inc. St Petersburg, FLNorwalk, CT Washington, DC This list reflects National Museum of San Francisco Art Institute membershipLee Construction Consultants San Francisco, CALLC American History dues paid as of Washington, DCRichmond, VA San Francisco Maritime August 23, 2011 National Museum of Marine National Historical ParkLibrary of Congress San Francisco, CA Although we do our bestWashington, DC Corps Triangle, VA to ensure that our San Francisco Museum ofLibrary of Congress (Packard Modern Art Directory information isCampus for Audio Visual National Museum of Natural San Francisco, CA as up-to-date as possible,Conservation) History Washington, DC errors and omissions canCulpeper, VA Santa Barbara Museum of Art Santa Barbara, CA always occur. If youLighting Services Inc. National Museum of the American Indian would like to make anyStony Point, NY Securitas Security Services Washington, DC San Francisco, CA changes to yourLos Angeles County Museum listing, please contactof Art National Museum of the Simpson Gumpertz & Heger American Indian — George Alan Dirican atLos Angeles, CA San Francisco, CA Gustav Heye Center New York, NY PAPYRUS FALL 2011 49
  • 51. Index of Papyrus Technical and Historical ArticlesTitle Author(s) Issue2009 Engineering Excellence Awards—Recovering the Lost Stream Pennoni Associates Winter 2009at Winterthur2010 Benchmarking Practices and Learning Workshop Revealed Stacey Wittig Winter 2010The A.A. Bakhrushin State Central Theatre Museum Dmitry V. Rodionov Spring 2009A New High for Atlanta Kevin Streiter Summer 2003Air Quality Standards for Preservation Environments Chris Muller Winter 2010Air Tightness Strategies—The British Library Additional Storage Program John de Lucy and Julian Taylor Summer 2006Construction ProjectApprenticing in Facilities Management Kate Hickman Summer 2006The Art Institute of Chicago’s Unique Fan Wall System William Caddick, William Strangeland, and Michael Murphy Winter 2007Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tamaki—Building Development Update ¯ Patricia Morgan Summer 2010Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tamaki—The Kauri Ceilings ¯ Patricia Morgan Winter 2010The Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tamaki Opens its Doors to Virtual Visitors ¯ Catherine Lomas, David Reeves and Patricia Morgan Summer 2003Be Seen in the Right Light: The Value of a Tight Lighting Specification Mark Rowling Summer 2003Benchmarking: A Comparison over Time Stacey Wittig Summer 2010Benchmarking Participants Save Their Institutions an Average of $1.79 M Stacey Wittig Spring 2011Best Practices Daniel D. Davies Summer 2002Best Practices in Recycling San Francisco Department of the Environment Winter 2010Beyond Hipopta agavis—Wet Collections Facility Design Walter L. Crimm and Bryan L. Stemen Spring 2004Black & McDonald, CMM, and Museums Richard E. Harding and Edmond Richard Summer 2002Boiler Replacement at the Natural History Museum in London Glynnan Barham Fall 2008British Library: An Energy-Saving Case Study Patrick Dixon Spring 2011British Library Additional Storage Program John de Lucy Summer 2007The British Library Centre for Conservation John deLucy and Harry Wanless Winter 2007The Canadian War Museum—River Water for Sanitary Use: Richard Harding Summer 2006Trials and TribulationsCarbon Saving at the Natural History Museum London CIBSE— Glynnan Barham Spring 2008100 Days of Carbon SavingCool Efficiency at Chicago’s Museum of Science and Industry—Careful Elizabeth Miller, Anthony B. McGuire, Winter 2009Planning and Analysis Leads to Successful Installation of New Central Plant David M. Brooks and Michael J. MurphyThe Donald W. Reynolds Center for American Art and Portraiture Opens in Daniel Davies and the Reynolds Center Public Affairs Staff Summer 2006Washington, D.C.Electrical Maintenance: An Opportunity Often Missed Arthur Miller Spring 2004Energy Management Improvements at the Canadian Museum of Civilization Guy Larocque and Todd Keeley Winter 2002Energy Star Roofs are Cool Richard Stomber Spring 2008Existing Building Commissioning Rebecca T. Ellis Spring 2008Experiences of a Facility Manager during the Evolution of Building Automation Vincent Magorrian Spring 2010Facility Managers Lead the Move to Green with Improvements Thomas A. Westerkamp Summer 2010in Energy EfficiencyFire Protection and the British Library Repository John de Lucy Spring 2006Getty Center Becomes First Facility in the U.S. to be Rated “Green” Joe May Spring 2005through LEED-EB CertificationGrand Prix Winner for Architecture in Scottish Design Awards 2002—Engineering Alastair Cunningham and Chris Mclaren Summer 2002the Sustainable Museum Environment at the Museum of Scottish Country LifeThe Harley-Davidson Museum—The First Museum to Gain GREENGUARD Tim Dotson Winter 2009CertificationHeritage Preservation Publishes First Comprehensive Study of Loss to Nation’s Heritage Preservation Winter 2003Cultural Heritage as a Result of 9/11History, Legacy in the New Canadian War Museum Raymond Moriyama Spring 2003IAMFA . . . The First Twenty Years IAMFA Members Summer 2010The Importance of Evacuation Plans Peter Fotheringham and Peter J. Gyere Spring 2002Improving and Adding Value for Benchmarking Participants—A Year in Review Stacey Wittig Spring 2009In the Light of Day—Daylight in Exhibition Spaces Mirjam Roos and Emrah Baki Ulas Spring 2011The Installations of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao: A Dialogue Between Rogelio Diez and Luis Pablo Elvira Summer 2002Engineering and ArchitectureIs Outsourcing Right for Your Organization? Guy Larocque Fall 2006It Began Just Like any Ordinary Day—A Museum Facility Manager’s View of Lloyd O. Headley Summer 2002September 11Lean Green Means Museum Restroom Sustainability and Savings Thomas A. Westerkamp Summer 2009LED Use in the Museum Environment Ken Kane Winter 2010The Library of Parliament—Ready for a New Generation Mary F. Soper Spring 2005Light Culture and Light Typology Mirjam Roos and Emrah Baki Ulas Winter 201050 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 52. Title Author(s) IssueLighting: Control and Innovation Mark Rowling, ERCO Lighting Ltd Winter 2003Long-Term Preservation at the Library of Congress Nancy Lev-Alexander Spring 2010Major Renovation Project at the National Gallery of Scotland Robert Galbraith Summer 2003Making Light Work: How to Fit a Drum into a Rectangle—The full story behind Mark Rowling, ERCO Lighting, Ltd. Spring 2003the lighting of the Great Court in the British Museum, LondonManagement of Energy Consumption—A Best Practice? Marion F. Mecklenburg, Charles S. Tumosa, Winter 2004 and David ErhardtMembers Reveal Five Practical Applications of Benchmarking Stacey Wittig Spring 2010Members Share Benchmarking Success—How to Use Benchmarking Results Stacey Wittig Summer 2009Microclimate Control in Museums Jerry Shiner Summer 2005More than Just a Pretty Façade: Exterior Cleaning Richard P. Kadlubowski and Coleman H. Bynum Winter 2002Museum and Gallery Air Conditioning Control Systems Howard Hall Fall 2006Museum and Gallery Maintenance Outsourcing—A Journey Richard Harding Summer 2003The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Reopens its Huntington Avenue Entrance David Geldart Summer 2009The National Air and Space Museum Goes to Dulles with its Second Facility Lin Ezell Spring 2002The National Gallery—Casting New Light on Old Masters Steve Vandyke Summer 2010National Museums Liverpool Ian Williams Fall 2008The National Portrait Gallery: A Plant Replacement Strategy Allan Tyrrell and John Crane Fall 2008The National Portrait Gallery in Canberra, Australia Chris Arkins Summer 2009Networking and Sharing of Information: Our True Purpose Vincent Magorrian Spring 2009New Building for the National Library of Greece John de Lucy Spring 2010New Environmental Guidelines at the Smithsonian Institution Marion F. Mecklenburg, Charles S. Tumosa, Winter 2004 and David ErhardtOld Buildings, Old Systems and Older Books: Fighting Mold and Decay in the Michael Dixon Summer 2003Twenty-First CenturyOperations Review Reveals Hidden Maintenance Improvement Resources—Part One Thomas Westerkamp Winter 2010Operations Review Reveals Hidden Maintenance Improvement Resources—Part Two Thomas Westerkamp Spring 2011Optimise Air Filtration and Minimise Energy Costs Chris Ecob Spring 2009Overview: Application of Molecular Filtration for Artefact Preservation Chris Ecob Spring 2008Pandas Up-Close and Personal: A Tour of the Smithsonian National Zoo’s Alana Housholder Fall 2006New Asia TrailPeriodic Electrical Inspection and Testing—A Different Approach Jack Plumb Winter 2010Preservation Of A National Treasure: The Australian War Memorial Mark Dawes and Risden Knightley Spring 2002Proposals for the Labelling of Buildings Jack Plumb Summer 2007Proposals for the Labelling of Buildings Jack Plumb Spring 2008Recent Activities in Indoor Air Quality and Climate in Cultural and William A. Esposito Winter 2002Heritage InstitutionsRecord Attendance at Best Practices Workshop—Benchmarking Stacey Wittig Winter 2009Continues to be an Indispensable ToolReflections on Papyrus Pierre Lepage Summer 2010Renaissance at the Royal Ontario Museum—Daniel Libeskind’s Crystal Design Royal Ontario Museum Winter 2003Restoring a Landmark: Conservation Projects at Tudor Place Alana Housholder and Jana Shafagoj Fall 2006Te Wao Nui at Auckland Zoo Natalie Hansby Winter 2010The Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne Kim Reason Winter 2004Safeguarding Cultural Heritage: Partnerships and Resources Jane S. Long Spring 2003The Security Challenge Keeping Museums and Similar Facilities Secure Bill McQuirter Spring 2002in Challenging TimesThe Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Fernando Pascal Fall 2006The Smithsonian’s Approach To Condition Assessment—Deferred Maintenance Larry Grauberger Summer 2008Parametric EstimatingTales from the British Library—A Year of Energy Opportunities Paddy Hastings Spring 2010Transformation at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Donald Battjes Summer 2008Transforming a Globally Unique Cultural Institution Shaun Woodhouse Winter 2009United States Library of Congress—Archival Storage Facility, Fort Meade Jon W. Netherton and Neal Graham Spring 2008Protecting the Past, Present and FutureThe United States Library of Congress Archival Storage Facility—Protecting the Past, Jon Netherton Winter 2009Present and FutureUrban Bird Control: A Green Alternative Stacey Wittig Fall 2008Using Thermal Imaging to Diagnose Water Penetration and Condensation of the Marion F. Mecklenburg and Alan Pride Summer 2005Walls at the Hirshhorn MuseumThe Visitor Experience Project at the British Museum Sara Carroll Spring 2009Work Management Center Communication John L. Standish, Sr. Fall 2006 PAPYRUS FALL 2011 51
  • 53. Puzzle PageSolve these Sudoku puzzles by filling each blank space with the numbers 1 to 9. Every row must contain all nine digits, asmust every column and every 3x3 square. Each Sudoku—popularized by the Japanese puzzle company Nikola in 1986—has a unique solution.Easy Medium 9 5 1 6 9 5 7 7 1 4 2 5 6 1 7 8 4 3 7 7 4 3 6 4 3 8 1 6 5 4 3 8 5 1 5 3 6 8 7 5 2 9 8 2 7 4 8 5 4 9 5 4 9 1 3 7 5 3 4 8 3 2 4 4 7 5Difficult Very Difficult 1 5 6 4 8 6 4 5 7 2 3 6 1 6 1 9 5 4 8 5 9 4 3 4 8 7 9 9 3 2 6 1 5 2 1 3 8 4 9 7 8 4 6 8 6 3 2 7 SOLUTIONS ON PAGE 4352 PAPYRUS FALL 2011
  • 54. McGuire Engineers has been aproud subscribing member ofIAMFA since 2001.
  • 55. HAERE MAIAuckland, New Zealand13–16 November 2011