Week 11: Natural ScienceAIO: EvolutionPP: Charles Darwin, CopernicusSpecial audio notes on:Intelligence Squared Debate:―Religion and Science are incompatible‖Ted Talk: Ben Goldacre, ―Bad Science‖• Readings:1. 153-1572. 158-1643. 165-1704. 171-1765. 177-1826. 183-189
3 Ideas for the Week1. Scientific knowing is an evolving system that limitsuncertainty through observation, experimentation, andinductive/deductive reasoning.2. Science as a language, ethos, and community revealsinnate features of human identity and processing.3. Scientific objectivity and cultural diversity, particularlyreligious knowing, are often at odds for various reasons.Why?
• The most beautiful thing we canexperience is the mysterious. It is thesource of all true art and science.– Who said this?
What is Science?• From the following quotes, what 5 ideas emerge concerningwhat Science actually is? Construct a single sentence def.1. Real science is a revision in progress, always. It proceeds in fits andstarts of ignorance. -Stuart Firestein2. Science does not purvey absolute truth, science is a mechanism. It’sa way of trying to improve your knowledge of nature, it’s a system fortesting your thoughts against the universe and seeing whether theymatch. – Isaac Asimov3. Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body ofknowledge. – Carl Sagan4. One thing I have learned in a long life: that all our science, measuredagainst reality, is primitive and childlike — and yet it is the mostprecious thing we have. –Hans Muhsam5. All of science is uncertain and subject to revision. The glory of scienceis to imagine more than we can prove. - Freeman Dyson6. One never notices what has been done; one can only see whatremains to be done… - Marie Curie7. Science alone of all the subjects contains within itself the lesson of thedanger of belief in the infallibility of the greatest teachers of thepreceding generation. – Richard Feynman
We live in a society exquisitely dependenton science and technology, in whichhardly anyone knows anything aboutscience and technology.-Carl Sagan
―Modern‖ Knowledge• What types of knowingexist in the modern worldwithout science?• How might differentportraits and constraintsof Science change ourviews of the world?• Is all Science ―progress‖?• How much of ourunderstanding of Scienceis a reliance andassumption of workability(pragmatic) rather thantrue ―knowing‖?
―Types‖ of Science?• Natural Sciences:– Space science– Earth Science– Life Science– Chemistry– Physics• List 10 sub-categories inyour notes
Science and TOK Knower• Science is a humanactivity– Involves differentactivies includingthinking, observingand communicating– Reason andEmotion; Senseperception;Language; Reason
Scientific Paradigm(s)• A paradigm is a set ofpractices that definea scientific disciplineat any particularperiod of time• A thought pattern inan area ofknowledge• Underline the numberof different―paradigms‖mentioned today.
Scientific Method• From Aristotle totoday, humans havesought a pattern to ourworld encounters• Developed alonsidearchitecture, philosophy and history• Roger Bacon (13thcentury) and therepeating cycle.• Karl Popper (20th c.)and critical rationalism.
The Bedrock: Observation• Ways of Knowing:– Put order from most toleast importantregarding―observation‖• Senseperception, emotion, reason, and intuition• Historical:– How has ourunderstanding, ourability, and ourlimitations ofobservation in sciencedeveloped over time?
Quite so! You have not observed. Andyet you have seen. That is just my point.Now, I know that there are seventeensteps, because I have both seen andobserved.
Hypothesis• Order the following to tell the ―correct‖story.1. I had made a mistake…2. It seems to me much better…if you admitin print that you were wrong3. The universe could have started out in asmooth and ordered…or lumpy anddisordered state.4. Neither of these possibilities agrees withwhat we observe…5. The universe would…become lumpy anddisordered as time went on6. One has to use a quantum theory ofgravity…7. Some people never admit they arewrong…• How is ―Hypothesizing‖ unique?Consider in relation to other language,such as ―prediction‖, ―Guessing‖,―Intuition‖, ―Knowledge‖.
Experiment• Have you ever donean ―experiment‖?Describe your lastexperiment and whatnew knowledge wasgained.• What are some of thepurposes ofExperiments?• Does all naturalscience require―experiments‖?
Science Aesthetic• How might serendipityand creativity relate tonaturaldiscoveries, researchproblems, or evenexperimental solutions?• Is this ―intuition‖ a validsource of scientificknowing?• How is this similar anddifferent than ―sciencefor science sake‖ weoften hear criticized insociety?
Serendipity as Science?• Hofmann and LSD• Fleming and penicillin• Bequerel andradioactivity• Roentgen and X-rays• Kekule and benzene• Leonardo• Frank Dyson• Archimdedes• Damadian and Carrwith the MRI
It seemed so simple and obvious. Idon’t think it took a lot of insight asmuch as naïveté-Dudley Hershbach,Nobel Prize Winner
Falsification and Repeatability• From previous discussions, Ioffered the followingtheory of Knowledge as―knowledge is just as muchabout learning new thingsas _________‖– How does this interact withthe scientific understandingof ―falsification‖?• What type of certainty canscience afford knowing itsmethodological/naturalconstraints?
Fill in the Blanks• The A model of Sciencedoes not prove anything.One counter-example willB the hypothesis.Thus, scientists shouldmake their theories C.Science should proceedthrough a series of D andE. Scientists should adopta F attitude called G.• Word Bank: conjectures;critical; disprove;falsificationism; inductivist;refutations; testable.
History of Science• What anthropicprinciples are involvedwith the formation ofscience?• What fields of sciencehave persisted sincethe beginning ofhuman thought?– List 5
History• Metallurgy• Medicine• Greeks and Theory• Modern Science• Quantumuncertainty andrelativism
Scientific Revolution (16-18th c.)• How does this timeperiod differ from thegradual evolution ofscientific thought inthe past?• What are somefactors thatcontribute to thescientific revolution.– research 1 to sharenext week.
Scientific Thought Ordering• Put in the right order. What doesthe development of scientificthought over time reveal?• Put these statements in order:1. Robert hook Showed that plantsare made of compartments2. They remind him of monks’ ―cells‖3. Robert Brown observed andnamed the ―nucleus‖4. In the 17th century, most scientistsbelieved that life arose byspontaneous generation fromdead matter.5. Robert Remak first described thedivision of cells to make new ones
The Evolution and Application of Theory• Paradigms shift when:– Too many ―anamolies‖in the old make a newmodel more useful– Can clarify, notremake, the oldparadigm– Can yield greaterclarity, potential andprogress for futureknowing.
―Bad Science‖ Quiz• Eating olive oil reduces skin wrinkles• Eating fresh, leafy greens will helpoxygenate the blood because of thechlorophyll.• Associations have been shown betweenAutism and vaccination dosages.• Geneticists have identified the gay gene.• Diet coke causes obesity and cancer• Cell phones have been shown to causecancer in certain trials• All newer developed drugs are better thanthe older ones.• Eating Fish makes you smarter• 90% of patients receiving chemotherapy forcancer die within months of starting treatment• 65% of those with autism are left handed• You don’t sneeze when you sleep
Pseudo-Science• Discussion: Whatare some reasonsfor fake science?How does it interactwith KnowledgeIssues from TOK?
Science as Community• What ―external pressures‖exist in modern science?How does this affectresearch and knowing?• What types of ScientificMisconduct might therebe?• ―Publish or perish‖ is agrowing phenomena inacademia. What are someadvantages anddisadvantages?• What types of scientificcareers are there? Howmight it change the―community‖?