Modern life Without Science, what is left? Is all Science progress? Do you know how your hard drive works? Can you really explain evolution? What is relativity?Does it matter if we understand it?
Types of Science A constantly changing and disputed listhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_academic_disciplines
Scientists Science is a human activity Goodall; Ibn Rushd; Mendeleev; Attenborough which involves many different activities including thinking, observing and communicating: Reason and Emotion; Sense Perception; Language. Image: scuImage: philosophybasics Image: Scientistsinformation Image: bbcearth
Paradigm the set of practices that deﬁne a scientiﬁc discipline at any particular period of time. More generally, it is a thought pattern in a particular area of knowledge http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigm A LITTLE GAMEAs you read this slideshow, count the number of different paradigms contained within. Solution at the end. Also, spot the Knowledge Issues, useful for presentations and essays.
Scientiﬁc Method A cycle of hypothesis and experiment Observations QuestionsMake new Hypothesishypothesis Experiment Prediction again Experiment Experiment Experimentdoesn’t support supports hypothesis hypothesis
Hypothesis How the Scientiﬁc Method should work I had made a mistake... It seems to me much better ... if you admit in Order the print that you were wrongboxes to tell The universe could have started out in a smooth the story. and ordered ... or lumpy and disordered state. Solution at Neither of these possibilities agrees the end. with what we observe... The universe would ... become lumpy and disordered as time went on Stephen Hawking - One has to use a quantum a Brief History of theory of gravity ... Time updated, Bantam, (1996) Some people never admit they are wrong...
Experiment An experiment is a methodical trial and error procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, falsifying, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experiment Is this really what we do in our IB Science IAs?
Sources of ideasSerendipity means a "happy Creativity refers to theaccident" or "pleasant phenomenon whereby a personsurprise"; speciﬁcally, the creates something new that hasaccident of ﬁnding something some kind of value. Wikipediagood or useful withoutlooking for it. Wikipedia Research one of these interesting examples Hofmann and LSD Kekule and benzene Fleming and penicillin LeonardoBequerel and radioactivity Frank Dyson Roentgen and X-rays Archimedes "In the ﬁelds of observation chance favours only the prepared mind." Louis Pasteur
Falsiﬁcation scientiﬁc knowledge "consists in the search for truth", but it "is not the search for certainty ... All human knowledge is fallible and therefore uncertain." Popper, In Search of a Better World (1984)POPPER’S IDEAS: FILL IN THE BLANKS The A model of Science does not prove anything. One counter-example will B the hypothesis. Thus scientists should make their theories C. Science should proceed through a series of D and E. Scientists should adopt a F attitude called G. THESE WORDS: conjectures; critical; disprove; falsiﬁcationism inductivist; refutations; testable
Scientiﬁc RevolutionRobert Hooke showed Robert Brown observed andthat plants are made of named the “nucleus” compartments. In the seventeenth They remind him century, most scientists of monks’ “cells”. believed that life arose by spontaneous generation van Leeuwenhoek from dead matter. observed red blood cells and sperm Robert Remak ﬁrst described the He still believed division of cells to make new ones. that new cells arose Put them in the right by spontaneous order; see solution later. generation.
According to Kuhn, a paradigm shift will occur when a signiﬁcantnumber of observational anomalies in the old paradigm have madethe new paradigm more useful. That is, the choice of a newparadigm is based on observations, even though those observationsare made against the background of the old paradigm. A newparadigm is chosen because it does a better job of solving scientiﬁcproblems than the old one. Wikipedia Image: stephencollins
Blue skies research"research without a clear goal" and "curiosity-driven science."http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_skies_research “Einstein may have been viewed as an eccentric studying some interesting mathematical equations, with little real world application ... In designing the GPS system, the relativity effects have to be taken into account.”“Another example of research whose downstream applications maynot have been predicted at the time is Tim Berners-Lee’s inventionof the World Wide Web (WWW), dubbed the WWW project.” scienceoxfordonline.com
Error in ScienceAll of the exoplanets observed orbiting other stars arelarge. Does this mean that all exoplanets are large? During the Great Plague in London in 1665, they noticed that wherever there was plague there were cats. They killed the cats. The plague got worse.Conﬁrmation bias is a tendency of people to favorinformation that conﬁrms their beliefs or hypotheses.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conﬁrmation_bias The speed of light in vacuum, usually denoted by c, is auniversal physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its value is 299,792,458 metres per second, a ﬁgure that isexact since the length of the metre is deﬁned from this constant
Peer reviewWhat is the meaning of the highlighted words and how do they make Scientiﬁc knowledge more certain?Peer review is a process of self-regulation by aprofession or a process of evaluation involvingqualiﬁed individuals within the relevant ﬁeld.Peer review methods are employed to maintainstandards, improve performance and providecredibility. In academia peer review is often usedto determine an academic papers suitability forpublication.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer_review
Scientiﬁc Ethics From the IB Subject Guide, IBO (2006)Should scientists be held morallyresponsible for the applications of theirdiscoveries? Is there any area of scientiﬁcknowledge the pursuit of which is morallyunacceptable or morally required?Is science, or ought it to be, value-free?What implications does your answer havefor the regulation of science? For example:Who should decide whether particulardirections in research are pursued? Whoshould determine priorities in the fundingof research?
Science and Reason “It is said that science will dehumanise people and turn them into numbers. That is false, tragically false. Look for yourself. This is the concentration camp and crematorium at Auschwitz. This is where people were turned into numbers. Into this pond were flushed the ashes of some four million people. And that was not done by gas. It was done by arrogance. It was done by dogma. It was done by ignorance. When people believe that they have absolute knowledge, with no test in reality, this is how they behave. This is what men do when they aspire to the knowledge of gods.” Jacob Bronowski, The Ascent of Man (1973)
Science Language “So wormholes, like any other form of travel faster than light, would allow one to travel into the past.” Stephen Hawking “Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum, nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare.” Isaac NewtonImage:quantummechanics Image: DNA sequencing service
Culture and Science Can you distinguish myth from reality? China Europe Paper 2nd cent BCE 13th cent CE Gunpowder 9th cent CE 1248 CE Printing 220 CE 1400 CE Magnetic 2nd cent BCE 1300 CE compassDo different cultures do Science in different ways?
International Science What are the advantages for scientiﬁcally literate nations? The National Academy of Sciences says China has moved from 14th place to 2nd place behind the United States in the number of studies published. China has also become one of the leading exporters of high technology and aims to make more advances in environmentally friendly technologies. China has also begun a program to “buy back” native scientists who were trained in other countries, Leshner said. “China’s commitment to science is very clear.” Source: redOrbit (http://s.tt/16bQ2) accessed March 2012
DWEM Science? Is the History of Science really the story of the achievements of some Dead White European Males? Caroline Herschel Image: MPax
Science and Religion They describe the same things in different ways. Many scientists believe in God. Most do not. Lord Shiva dances the CMBR is the light from universe into existence the early universe.Image: Wikipedia Image: Weber
Pseudo-science What’s your evidence?Can your claims be tested? What is an expert? What could prove that you are wrong?
Solutions Paradigm Count: To be honest, Sci Rev I stopped counting at tenVBOYGIR A inductivist B disprove C testable Hypoth D conjectures E refutationsGYOVIRB F critical G falsiﬁcationism
wikipediaMost of my deﬁnitions come from wikipedia because I have found it more reliable than most other sources.If someone tells you it’s not a good source, ask them: What’s your evidence? Any tool can do a bad job in the wrong hands.
a production MUCH MORE AThttp://nothingnerdy.wikispaces.com http://nothingnerdy.wikispaces.com/LINK 28