1.8 levels of government_website
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1.8 levels of government_website 1.8 levels of government_website Presentation Transcript

  • British Columbia’s Provincial Government, Structure and Function: Levels of Government • There are three levels of Government in Canada: Federal, Provincial and municipal • Our provincial Government is very similar in structure and operation to the federal level of Government. The provincial government has 3 branches: legislative, executive and judicial
  • British Columbia’s Legislative Branch • The Legislative Assembly of British Columbia (aka the legislature or the house) is similar to the HOC. It is presided over by a speaker, who is elected by the legislature from among the members at the first session of each Assembly. The speaker overseas the proceedings and makes sure the parliamentary rules are followed. • Members of the Legislative Assembly are almost always members of a political party (however they could be independently elected in their riding) We are the first of all of the Provinces to institute a fixed election date. It is the second Tuesday in May every 4 years.
  • British Columbia’s Legislative Branch • After an election the Lieutenant Governor calls the leader of the political party with the most seats in the Legislature to form a government and so become Premier. • The elected members of the largest nongovernment party becomes the official opposition BC Premier Gordon Campbell
  • British Columbia’s Legislative Branch • A new session of the Legislature must be held at least once a year. The opening of the Legislature begins with the Speech from the Throne. This is written by members of the Government party and read by the LG, it outlines in general terms to programs that will be introduced during that session of the legislature. • On the first day of a new session, a five person Select Committee is formed to determine the Membership of the 8 Standing Committees.
  • BC’s Legislative Branch: Passing Legislation/ Bill to Law • • • • • • • • Cabinet reviews proposed law (often suggested by a ministry) Once Cabinet has reviewed the law it chooses one of 3 options. 1.They might adopt the proposal as a government policy. This would affect only day to day internal government operations. 2. Cabinet can pass an order-in-council, usually made as a result of powers granted in specific statutes, they have the force of law. 3. The third option is to try to make a proposal law by introducing a bill in the Legislature. A provincial bill, must go through the same stages as a Federal bill to become a law. At the first reading a bill is introduced by the minister responsible. If it is accepted it is put forward to another day for consideration. The MLA’s are ready to debate the bill at the second reading. If the bill is approved at this stage all the MLA’s meet as the Committee of the Whole House and vote. There is no Senate at the provincial level of legislature If the Lieutenant Governor signs the bill it becomes a provincial law.
  • BC’s Legislative Branch • At the Committee of the Whole House, the MLA’s consider each section in detail, passing, amending or rejecting each one separately. • Changes are incorporated in a reprinting of the bill before it is read and voted on during third reading. • Finally if it is passed, the bill goes to the Lieutenant Governor for Royal Assent. Thus, the bill has become either a new provincial law, or an amendment to an existing law.
  • Powers • When Canada was founded in 1867, it was designed as a federal system with shared powers between the central federal power and the provinces • The federal government has residual powers, powers that were not spelled out in the Constitution however, this power are necessary in order
  • The Provinces are responsible for: • • • • • • property and civil rights, administration of justice, natural resources and the environment, education, health, and welfare.
  • Municipal Government Mayor: elected heads municipal council: made up of Aldermen: who are elected The municipal government controls things like daily water supply and garbage disposal This is regulated under two statutes the Municipal Act of British Columbia Which sets out the powers of municipal councils and regional districts (CRD is an example of one regional district) and the Vancouver Act which sets out the powers of the Vancouver City Council.
  • Other Acts Include The Police Act, The Highway Act, The Schools Act, and the Fire Services Act. Generally Municipal governments do not have authority to take any measures except what the provincial legislation allows. If there is a conflict, Provincial law prevails.
  • Mayors and Aldermen • Mayors and Aldermen are elected for a fixed term, unlike MP’s and MLA’s whose terms in office depend on election dates. • Municipal council members are usually not affiliated with a traditional political party, they usually promote two or three campaign themes. • Some municipalities have community groups which run groups of candidates with a certain political programs. • These groups are called civic parties.
  • Municipal Governments • Like other law making bodies the by-laws passed by municipal governments usually go through a committee stage and then through three readings. • These readings usually take place in the same sitting of a municipal council
  • REGIONAL DISTRICTS •Some areas of BC have low population density and some have high population density. •Therefore without management local services could be duplicated in areas of high density and under-funded in low-density areas. •To stop that from happening 28 regional districts were created in the 1960’s
  • OTHER LOCAL ATHORITIES •School Districts: Boards are responsible for running the schools with the use of a provincially approved budget •Improvement Districts: Supply such services as water supply, fire protection, or garbage collection and disposal Improvement. districts: are administered by boards of trustees, consisting of locally elected people who are serving three-year terms. •Library Boards: either local or regional libraries, funded by the provincial government and by the member boards.
  • • • • • • • • • • Municipal Governments are responsible for: water sewage, waste collection, public transit, land use planning, libraries, emergency services, animal control, and economic development.