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Indian government central government

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Its about Indian Government for IGCSE/CBSE, Grade 8 students.
Reach me at http://brinsmith.blogspot.in

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Indian government central government

  1. 1. The Central Government- Organisation and Working
  2. 2. Indian Government • India is a largest country which is divided into number of states. • The constitution of India provides for government in two levels they are:  The state government  The central (union) government • Constitution separates the government into three branches.
  3. 3. The Three branches of the government Executive Branch Which implements the laws Judicial Branch Which interprets laws and applies the laws, and administers justice Legislative Branch Which makes laws
  4. 4. PARLIAMENT OF INDIA
  5. 5. The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body in India. The Parliament comprises the President of India and the two Houses— Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The Lok Sabha Consists of members who are directly elected representatives of the people, while the Rajya Sabha is composed mainly of representatives of the states, Legislative Assemblies.
  6. 6. LOK SABHA
  7. 7. The Lok Sabha or House of the People is the lower house of the Parliament of India. The members of lok Sabha are directly elected by the people. The Lok Sabha meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers, Sansad Bhavan, Sansad Marg, New Delhi.
  8. 8. • The lok Sabha is the centre of political activity in India because it is a chamber consisting of members elected by Indian citizens, on the basis of universal adult franchise.
  9. 9. • Universal Adult Franchise means that all Indian Citizens above the age of 18 have the right to elect their representatives. • Popular opinion is reflected in, and expressed by, the members of the Lok Sabha.
  10. 10. Central Government Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha Prime Minister and Council of Civil Service Ministers
  11. 11. LOK SABHA • When the Constitution was framed, it was laid down that the Lok Sabha cannot consist of more than 500 members, the number being based on Population figures. • The strength of Lok Sabha was increased, with the rise in population of the country. • The present strength of the Lok Sabha is 545 members. • They include Anglo-Indian members nominated by the President to represent the community.
  12. 12. DURATION OF LOK SABHA A five year term has been fixed for the Lok Sabha, Unless it is dissolved earlier by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.
  13. 13. Qualification for the Lok Sabha Members • To be a member of Lok Sabha, a person must be an Indian citizen, must be mentally sound and must have completed 25 year old of Age. • A candidate may stand for election from any part of the country • No person can be a member of both houses of a Parliament or of the Parliament and the state legislature at the same time. • No member of Parliament can hold a office of profit under the state and central governments or local authority.
  14. 14. The Speaker of Lok Sabha • The presiding officer of the Lok Sabha is called as the speaker. • The Lok Sabha elects it’s Speaker and it’s deputy speaker from amongst it’s members. • They are both removable by a resolution passed by a majority of the members. • The speaker is expected to be utterly impartial, regardless of his or her party affiliations in conducting the business of the house. • He or She enforces discipline, protects the rights and privileges of the member and also the dignity of the house.
  15. 15. The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India. Membership is limited to 250 members, 12 of whom are nominated by the President of India for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services.
  16. 16. Rajya Sabha • The representatives of the states are elected by elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies. • Uttar Pradesh has the highest number of representatives,31 • States like Goa, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh have one representative
  17. 17. Term of Rajya Sabha Members • The Rajya Sabha is a permanent house and is not subject to dissolution. • One-third of the members of Rajya Sabha retire after every two years in accordance with the provisions made by the Parliament by law. • Thus, the members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a term of six years. • This arrangement ensures continuity as well as representation of the changing public opinion.
  18. 18. Advantages • Politically, it remains more stable than the Lok Sabha. • After every election is a new house. • A periodic influx of fresh talent occurs.
  19. 19. Qualifications for Rajya Sabha Members  A person seeking membership of Rajya Sabha must possess the following qualifications:  He must be a citizen of India.  He must not be less than 30 years of age.  He must be Parliamentary elector in the state from which he is seeking election.  He must make and subscribe before some person authorized in that behalf by the Election Commission an oath or affirmation asserting his allegiance to the constitution of India  He must possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed by the Parliament for that purpose from time to time.
  20. 20. Powers of the Rajya Sabha • The legislative powers of the Rajya Sabha are coordinated with the Lok Sabha, except financial bills. • Other bills can be introduced in either house but need to be passed by both houses. • But the Lok Sabha is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha because it is the popularly elected house.
  21. 21. The functioning of Parliament • Both houses of Parliament make their own rules of procedures for the proper functioning of business. • Some rules are constitutional • Every member has to take an oath before assuming their seat. • For transacting the business on the agenda, a quorum or minimum attendance is required
  22. 22. The Question Hour • The first hour of each sitting of Parliament is called the Question Hour. • When the speaker admits a question, it has to be answered by the minister concerned • This is to draw the attention of the people. • Generally the questions have to be sent a week in advance. • Under special conditions they can ask questions at short notice. • After this the rest of the agenda like the introduction of bills and discussions on them is dealt with
  23. 23. Legislation or the making of laws The main function of Parliament is legislation, which means the making of laws.
  24. 24. The Introduction of the Bill • Lawmaking involves several steps. • First, a bill is introduced in the Parliament. • Second the bill is passed by the Parliament. • Third, the bill, after getting passed by the Parliament is sent to the President for his assent. • When the bill is adopted in the Parliament, it be an Act. • When an Act gets the assent of the Parliament, it becomes the law of the land. • A Bill is a technical name given to the draft of the proposal which is moved in Parliament. • Non-Money Bills can be introduced either in the Lok Sabha or in the Rajya Sabha. • But the Money Bills can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha. • A Money Bill, before it is introduced in the Lower House, has to receive the approval of the President
  25. 25. The Reading of the Bill • Every bill goes through three stages of reading in each houses. STAGES FIRST READING SECOND READING THIRD READING The aims and purposes of the bill are discussed. If these find favour with the house the bill goes to the next stage. It is more of a formality. Once adopted by one house it goes to the other house for a similar procedure Here, it is discussed clause by clause and amendments are moved, voted and debated upon.
  26. 26. Seeking the President’s Approval • After the bill is approved by both houses of Parliament, it is sent to the President for approval • If the president agrees with the bill, he or she signs it and the bill becomes a law or an act. • It is called the President’s assent. • If not he or she sends it back for changes to the house. • The bill then goes to the president for approval again. • This time the president has to pass it. • If one of the houses rejects a bill, the president calls for a joint session of both houses. • In this session the bill is accepted or rejected by a simple majority of votes.
  27. 27. Procedure Regarding the Budget BUDGET • It is the balance sheet of a country which shows its income and expenditure for the current year. • It is also the statement of the estimated income and expenditure for the following year.
  28. 28. Presenting the Budget • The budget is presented to the Parliament by the Finance Minister on the last working day of February every year. • Copies of the budget are then circulated among the members of Parliament for discussion. • Every item of the budget is discussed in the Lok Sabha.
  29. 29. Presenting the Budget • Each minister then presents an estimated expenditure for his or her own ministry. • Then the members raise objections and demand cuts in expenditure. • This is called a token out. • The minister has then to justify their demands and satisfy the member’s questions before the token out is removed and the grant is sanctioned.
  30. 30. Presenting the Budget • The proposal of new taxes for the coming year is also discussed. • After this the budget is sent to the Rajya Sabha which has no powers to amend or reject it. • It can only discuss the budget and suggest changes.
  31. 31. Presenting the Budget • Great care is exercised in financial matters because finance is of vital importance to a country’s economy. • Two special committees are set up to ensure that public money is spent properly.
  32. 32. Presenting the Budget SPECIAL COMMITTEES These two committees ensure that public funds are spent in a manner which brings the greatest good to the greatest number of people. ESTIMATES COMMITTEE PUBLIC ACCOUNTS COMMITTEE It consists of members from both houses but with a majority from the Lok Sabha It consists of members only from the Lok Sabha.
  33. 33. The Executive • The union executive carries out or ensures the laws made by Parliament. • It handles most of the day to day work of the country. • It consists of The President The Vice – President The Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister
  34. 34. The President • The President is not the real head of the executive • The president is only the nominal head of the state. • But the President holds the most exalted office in the country • The President is in a position of great authority and dignity
  35. 35. Qualifications of the President To become the president of India, a person has to fulfill the following conditions: He or she must be an Indian citizen of age 35 years and over. He or she must be qualified to be a member of the Lok Sabha. He or she cannot hold an office of profit under the union or state governments or any local body
  36. 36. Election of the President • The president is elected for a term of five years by an electoral college. • The electoral college consists of members of both houses of Parliament and the members of the Legislative Assemblies. • The members cast their votes by secret ballot • Secret ballot is a process by which a voter’s choice is kept secret from others.
  37. 37. Powers of the President • The President has a wide range of powers. POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT EMERGENCY POWERS LEGISLATIVE POWERS EXECUTIVE POWERS
  38. 38. Powers of the President Executive Powers • The President is the supreme commander of the armed forces, although its exercise is governed by law. • The President makes senior appointments. The Prime Minister and Other ministers The Chief Justice and judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts The Chairman and members of the Union Public Service Commission Ambassadors and Diplomatic representatives The Auditor – General The Attorney – General And other such positions
  39. 39. Powers of the President Executive Powers • The President also has the powers to pardon an offender and reduce or annul a court sentence • The Prime Minister has to keep him or her informed of all decisions of the Council of Ministers.
  40. 40. Powers of the President Legislative Powers • The President is an integral part of the legislative process • His or her assent is required for the passing of a law • The president is not a member of Parliament but enjoys numerous powers
  41. 41. Powers of the President Legislative Powers The Legislative powers of the President are as follows: He or she has a right to address either house or both houses assembled together during joint session He or she may summon and prorogue the two houses and can dissolve the Lok Sabha, though this can be done on the advice of the Council of Ministers
  42. 42. Powers of the President Legislative Powers The Legislative powers of the President are as follows: When a bill is sent to the President for assent, he or she is allowed to withhold it or return the bill to Parliament for consideration. Certain bills such as those for the formation of new states can be introduced only with the President’s permission
  43. 43. Powers of the President Legislative Powers The Legislative powers of the President are as follows: The President nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha and two members of the Anglo – Indian community to the Lok Sabha. During the recess of Parliament, the President can issue ordinances, which have the same power as an act The ordinance must be presented in Parliament within six weeks of its reassembling If both houses do not pass it, the ordinance is withdrawn.
  44. 44. Powers of the President Emergency Powers The President can declare an emergency if: A war or internal aggression threatens the security of the country There is a break down of constitutional machinery in any state Financial instability threatens the country In all his or her work, the President is aided by the advice of the Prime Minister, the Council of Ministers, Parliament and senior Government Officials.
  45. 45. VICE PRESIDENT The vice president takes the place of the president when the office of the president falls vacant temporarily on account of any of the following: If the president is unwell If the president has resigned If the president is away from the country If the president dies and a new president is yet to be elected
  46. 46. VICE PRESIDENT The vice president is elected by the members of both houses of Parliament. He or she must be an Indian citizen He or she should have completed 35 years of age The vice president holds office for a period of five years The Vice President is the chairperson of the Rajya Sabha
  47. 47. The Prime Minister • The prime minister is the key person both in the executive and the legislature • He or she is the head of the executive • He or she has a position of great power and importance • The Prime minister’s position is the most important position in the country
  48. 48. The Prime Minister • The Lok Sabha is freshly elected for every five years • It consists of members belonging to different political parties • The leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha is called by the President to become the Prime Minister and form the Council of Ministers.
  49. 49. The Prime Minister • The Prime Minister has the exclusive right to select the team of Ministers that will form the Council of Ministers • The list of ministers is submitted to the President who approves it. • All ministers must be members of either house of Parliament • If an outsider is appointed as minister, he or she should be elected to either house of Parliament within six months of the appointment
  50. 50. The Prime Minister • The prime minister has a pivotal role • The Council of Ministers, with the prime minister at the head, is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha • The council’s advice to the president is conveyed only by the prime minister • The prime minister is the link between the ministry and president, on one hand, and the ministry and Parliament, on the other.
  51. 51. The Council of Ministers • The Council of Ministers is the most powerful organ of the union executive • It is headed by the Prime Minister and includes: Ministers with Cabinet rank ( the Senior Ministers) Ministers of state Deputy Ministers
  52. 52. The Council of Ministers • The ministers are appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister • Each minister is allotted one or more departments, like finance, railways, defence, health, communication, etc. • This is called allotment of portfolios. • The prime minister decides what portfolio should be given to which minister • The Council is collectively responsible to Parliament • They can continue to hold office as long as they enjoy the confidence of Parliament
  53. 53. Function of the Council • The Council of Ministers formulate concrete proposals for legislation • Together with the Prime Minister, the Council aids and advices the President in his or her functions • Within the Council the senior ministers with cabinet rank form the Cabinet • The Cabinet is the nucleus of the Council.
  54. 54. Important powers of the Council It concerns about The impeachment of the President Removal of the vice President Removal of a judge of the Supreme Court or the High Courts Amendments of the Constitution The empowering parliament to create an all – India service
  55. 55. The Judiciary • The judiciary is the third branch of government • Its functions are: To interpret and explain the laws made by the legislature To punish those who violate law To protect the rights of the citizens
  56. 56. The Supreme Court • The Supreme Court is the highest court of the judiciary in India • The high Courts form a part • The responsibility for the interpretation of the law lies with the Supreme Court whose judgments are binding
  57. 57. The Supreme Court Composition and Structure • It has one chief justice and upto 17 judges • The judges are appointed by the President of India on the advice of the Council of Ministers and in consultation with the chief justice of India • The president appoints the chief justice on the advice of the Council of Ministers.
  58. 58. Qualification of the Supreme Court Judge • He or she must be an Indian citizen • He or she has either been a judge in a High Court for at least five years • Or he or she has served as an advocate in a High Court for at least 10 years • Or he or she is a distinguished jurist in the opinion of the president.
  59. 59. The Supreme Court Composition and Structure • The chief justice and judges of the Supreme Court serve until they complete 65 years of age. • They cannot be terminated by the president • A supreme Court judge can only be removed on grounds of proven misbehaviour, misuse of power and incapacity • Even then, two-thirds majority voting in both houses of Parliament is required for a Supreme Court judge to be impeached
  60. 60. The Supreme Court Jurisdiction The Supreme Court has three kinds of jurisdiction. They are Original Appellate Advisory
  61. 61. The Supreme Court Jurisdiction • Original jurisdiction means hearing and deciding on the disputes between states or between states and the union government. • It includes cases brought to the court by ordinary people regarding issues of importance to society at large • Under special circumstances the supreme court deals with cases already disposed of by a High Court • This is called the appellate jurisdiction • Advisory jurisdiction means to advise the President, or interpret laws for him or her. • A bill passed by Parliament or a state legislature may be referred to the Supreme Court by the President before signing
  62. 62. The Supreme Court Jurisdiction • The law decision of the Supreme Court is final and binding on all courts in India. • It is the most authoritative guide on the interpretation of laws. • It helps to secure uniform judicial practice throughout the country • The only exception to this all embracing power is any law relating to the armed forces

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