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  • 1. Ancient Greece<br />Start Here!<br />Education, Philosophy, & Influence<br />A World History Module<br /> by<br />Jerson J Malaguit<br />
  • 2. Who cares about Greece?<br />This is a module to examine Ancient Greek Education, Philosophy, and Influence.<br />Questions for reviewing<br />What is a city-state?<br />What were some differences between Athens & Sparta?<br />How did the Greek Philosophers lead to Alexander the Great?<br />
  • 3. Athenian School<br />Spartan School<br />Greek Philosophers<br />Alexander the Great<br />Menu<br />
  • 4. Polis Life in Athens<br />In Athens and many other city-states, the existence of the polis was the center of everyone’s life, and city’s greater good was more important than any individual concern<br />Athens Education<br />education was absolutely critical to become a worthy citizen, meant to develop mental, moral and physical aspects of person<br />all male children were expected to receive the basics of education<br />at eight, the boy had a paedagogus, a slave who made sure boy had proper companions and manners<br />
  • 5. Boys and Girls in Athens<br />Boys<br />received edu from age 8-18<br />subjects were music, grammar and gymnastics<br />gymnastics included discus, javelin, running, wrestling, diving, etc.<br />music taught to improve moral nature<br />grammar was learning how to write and reading national literature – Homer, Aesop’s fables, etc. <br />at age 18, end of education, man takes Ephebic oath, where he swore to defend city and gods<br />Girls<br />given very little formal education<br />taught how to manage the house & slaves, how to care for children, how to weave<br />girls married between ages 14-16, the man her parents selected<br />after marriage, female life was separate from husband<br />did not leave house except for rare occasions such as special religious festival, and she was always accompanied<br />husband even did the shopping!<br />lived in separate wing of house, did not attend husband’s feasts or entertainments<br />no legal or political rights<br />If she divorced, her husband kept the children<br />Ephebic Oath<br />
  • 6. We will never bring disgrace on this our City by an act of dishonesty or cowardice.<br />We will fight for the ideals and Sacred Things of the City both alone and with many.<br />We will revere and obey the City's laws, and will do our best to incite a like reverence and respect in those above us who are prone to annul them or set them at naught.<br />We will strive increasingly to quicken the public's sense of civic duty.<br />Thus in all these ways we will transmit this City, not only not less, but greater and more beautiful than it was transmitted to us.<br />The Ephebic Oath<br />
  • 7. Violence in their blood<br />Sparta had the only standing army in Greece<br />In actuality, Sparta not a city but a military camp of five villages<br />Spartans were so confident in themselves they never surrounded villages with walls<br />
  • 8. Spartan Education & Life<br />Boys<br />left home at age 7 to be educated<br />lived in barracks, slept on bed of bushes, went barefoot, had only one piece of clothing to his name<br />taught not to whine and complain, fend for himself and steal when hungry or in want. If he was caught, he was whipped, not for stealing, but for being caught<br />taught to express himself with the briefest speech possible<br />at 20, youth became a warrior, but still lived in barracks<br />at 30, man became a full citizen and member of popular assembly<br />obliged to marry to raise children for the state, but still lived in barracks<br />his meals were often a thick black broth, cheese, and vegetables, but rarely meat; his wine was watered down<br />retires at age 60 from public service <br />Girls<br />taught to be faithful and uncomplaining wives and mothers<br />given very little formal education<br />taught gymnastics to be strong and healthy mothers<br />most importantly, they were taught loyalty to the state<br />a mother/wife would not tell her son to come back safely from battle. She would hand him his shield and say “Come back with your shield or on it”<br />in those days, if a solider died he was carried home on his shield. Alternately, if he was a coward and fled, he would drop his shield. <br />
  • 9. A Spartan lifestyle<br />Spartan society was immobile and discouraged change<br />Foreigners with new ideas was frowned upon<br />Coinage was forbidden!<br />The military life is best facilitated by a simple life, so Spartan life was stern and very rigid<br />“A Spartan’s life is so unpleasant that it is no wonder he throws it away so lightly in battle” – Unknown Athenian<br />
  • 10. Tough Love<br />Despite its harshness, other Greeks admired Spartan way of life<br />Greeks valued organization and respected systems that succeed in molding and forming the individual<br />Sparta was very good at creating the best soldiers in Greece<br />More importantly, Sparta had created an “ideal” of ultimate achievement to be a Spartan<br />All that hard work and torture created a status of pride<br />Even though it was a harsh lifestyle that most people wouldn’t want to engage in, it created a high standard for human excellence<br />
  • 11.
  • 12. The Hellenic Philosophers<br />(450-350)<br />Socrates, Plato and Aristotle<br />
  • 13. Socrates (470-399 BC)<br />Left no writings of his own, known only to us through writings of his pupils<br />Taught that 1st step toward virtue and a good life is for a man to know himself as he really is w/o delusion and behave accordingly<br />“The unexamined life is not worth living”<br />encouraged Greeks to question themselves and moral character<br />Socrates attracted young Athenians during moral confusion following Peloponnesian wars<br />“Children today are tyrants. They contradict their parents, gobble their food and tyrannize their teachers.”<br />largely misunderstood by majority of Athenians<br />Charged with neglecting city’s gods and corrupting youth, condemned to die by drinking hemlock<br />In his own defense, said his teachings were good b/c forced people to think about values & actions<br />
  • 14. Socratic Method<br />Teaching method was continual asking of questions forcing hearers to clarify for themselves the vague terms they were using<br />Teaching method was to get student to realize difference between what they knew as fact and what they knew as opinion<br />Known as “Socratic Method”, popularly used in science<br />
  • 15. Plato (427-322 BC)<br />Socrates student, 28 when Socrates died<br />Much of knowledge of Socrates based on Plato’s writings<br />Started an Academia, where philosophy, science, math taught to both men & women<br />Justice is central to his philosophy<br />Wrote The Republic where he defined a perfect society<br />All citizens fall naturally into 3 groups; farmers/artisans, warriors, ruling class<br />Person w/ wisest intellect and insight became philosopher-king<br />Plato’s philosophy dominated EUR thought for next 1500 yrs<br />
  • 16. Aristotle (382-322 BC)<br />son of physician, brightest student in Plato’s Academia, from Macedon <br />eventually opened his Lyceum, which some say was even better than Plato’s school<br />questioned nature of the world and of human belief, thought and knowledge<br />came close to summarizing all logic of his time, and developed method for arguing according to logic<br />
  • 17. Aristotle’s Influence<br />Aristotle’s most famous student was Alexander the Great, 343 BC<br />Alexander shows Aristotle favor by financing the Lyceum and providing scientific equipment<br />Orders experts in his army to collect and send specimens of plants/animals from conquered countries back to Aristotle for study<br />“Highest human good is life of reason, attained through practice… [of] moderation in everything”<br />Self-Control & Friendship based on Equality and Self-Reliance are marks of virtuous man<br />
  • 18. Alexander the Great<br />Prophetic Grecian of Destiny<br />
  • 19. Greece after the Wars<br />in wake of Peloponnesian War, Sparta tries for dominance in GRC<br />allies annoyed, turn on Sparta; Thebians destroy entire Spartan army in 371BC, even though Sparta is helped by Persia<br />Thebes cannot bring peace to GRC<br />Philip II of Macedonia uses this to his advantage<br />Macedon long considered a backward, disunited kingdom<br />
  • 20.
  • 21. Hoplites and Phalanx<br />Philip able to unite Macedon and create a powerful army<br />Created the hoplites and phalanx fighting style<br />Close hand to hand fighting and tight formations<br />
  • 22. A new type of warrior<br /><ul><li>Hoplite fought best in formation with shields fixed on his left to protect his left and his neighbors right
  • 23. Created feeling of solidarity and closeness
  • 24. Hoplites were people who could afford their armor and weapons
  • 25. Armor was breastplate, bronze helmet, shield, primary weapon was a spear 10-20 ft long—broke upon charge, and a small 60 cm thrusting sword
  • 26. Middle class army</li></li></ul><li>Phalanx Strategy<br />hoplite and phalanx style was shock combat<br />other infantry had lighter army, shorter spears, smaller shields<br />armies would charge directly at each other in hopes of simply breaking the line<br />battles rarely lasted more than 1 hour<br />casualties usually light, but slain often included most influential citizens and generals who led from front<br />16 man ranks, drilled to turn in any direction<br />spears would counter cavalry, swords would counter infantry, shields would counter archery<br />siege warfare not created yet<br />
  • 27. Unification and Empire<br />Philip realized that he could conquer GRC since it was exhausted and divided<br />338 BC, combined Thebian-Athenian army is defeated at Chaeronea; Philip has conquered GRC b/c it was divided<br />united GRC with Macedonia and formed the League of Corinth<br />
  • 28. Philip the Great? Almost.<br />attempted to bring unity and harmony between Greeks and Macedons for 1st time in history<br />goal of union was to liberate Greeks of Asia from Persian threat<br />as he was preparing Greeks and Macedons for massive invasion of Persian Empire, he is assassinated in 336 BC<br />has eliminated Greek threat and wants to eliminate Persian threat in east—arch enemies!!!<br />
  • 29. Finishing Daddy’s Business<br />son Alexander ascends to the throne to carry out father’s mission at age 20<br />334 Alexanders crosses the Hellspont with 40,000 men and defeats Persians at Granicus<br />Darius fights him in northern Syria, loses, flees<br />Fights again at Issus, loses, flees<br />
  • 30. A Conquerer’s Ego<br />moves through Syria and Palestine in such a way that protects Greece and Macedon from Persian fleets then turns to Egypt<br />two things happen here:<br />he is proclaimed Son of Zeus and Son of Ammon, implying to Egyptians that he was pharaoh and had divine status<br />convinced he must be and live as a god<br />founds Alexandria, largest and most prosperous city of the ancient world<br />
  • 31. Rounding the Corners of the Empire<br />pursues Darius, fights at Guagamela in Mesopotamia; Darius loses, flees<br />Persian kingdom subdued, he is successor<br />Pursuit of Darius ends when he is found dead on the side of the road murdered by advisors<br />quells Afghanistan etc when he marries Roxane, daughter of a local lord<br />pushes to India, and defeats an elephant army of India, but here his army rebels; Alexander returns to Babylon to rule<br />adopts much of local customs to make his rule tolerable and more favorable than the Persians<br />adopts local soldiers into his army<br />requires his officers to marry Persian women<br />he even marries one of Darius’ daughters<br />
  • 32.
  • 33. An untimely end?<br />has had scientists accompany him the whole campaign, sending back specimens, info to Lyceum—biology and geography<br />sent Persian children to Athens to be educated<br />in 323, dies of a fever after a heavy drinking bout and swimming in a river<br />when asked who to give kingdom to, he says “the strongest”<br />
  • 34.
  • 35. Legacy<br />marched for 11 years, 20,000 miles—never lost a battle!<br />United 22 million square miles<br />Established common currency and government for an entire realm<br />Spread Greek culture throughout his empire—arts, architecture, literature, language—1000 years after the fall of Greece<br />Ends the dynamic of powerful city-states, and sets precedent for empire building and monarchies<br />Greece had been suffering from population pressures and rising standard of living<br />Suffering ‘brain-drain’ with Greeks leaving for Persia as soldiers, traders and doctors<br />
  • 36. http://www.stmaryschoolei.org/school/file.php/1/math_8A/Ancient_Greece_Map_Cartoon.gif<br />http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/graphics/greecepersiamaplarge.jpg<br />http://z.about.com/d/ancienthistory/1/0/u/P/Thermopyla.jpg<br />http://www.sikyon.com/athens/images/athens-recons.jpghttp://edsitement.neh.gov/PersiaGreeceWars01.asp<br />http://www.emersonkent.com/images/maps/battle_of_thermopylae.jpg<br />http://cd7.e2bn.net/e2bn/leas/c99/schools/cd7/website/images/Greek-battle-of-marathon-1.jpg<br />http://www.travelblog.org/pix/maps/europe.jpg<br />http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/archive/4/42/20050713132352!Battle_of_Marathon_Initial_Situation.png<br />http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Bios/LeonidasMonument2.jpg<br />http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/historians/maps/peloponnesianwar1.jpg<br />http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Live/Education/Education2.jpg<br />http://z.about.com/d/atheism/1/0/Y/S/DemeterCeresHarvestFeast-l.jpg<br />http://encarta.msn.com/media_461530053_761571223_-1_1/Pisistratus.html<br />Annotated Bibliography<br />
  • 37. Done!<br />Click Here to Exit Module<br />

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