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Ancient Greece Start Here! Education, Philosophy, & Influence A World History Module by Jerson J Malaguit
Who cares about Greece? This is a module to examine Ancient Greek Education, Philosophy, and Influence. Questions for reviewing What is a city-state? What were some differences between Athens & Sparta? How did the Greek Philosophers lead to Alexander the Great?
Athenian School Spartan School Greek Philosophers Alexander the Great Menu
Polis Life in Athens In Athens and many other city-states, the existence of the polis was the center of everyone’s life, and city’s greater good was more important than any individual concern Athens Education education was absolutely critical to become a worthy citizen, meant to develop mental, moral and physical aspects of person all male children were expected to receive the basics of education at eight, the boy had a paedagogus, a slave who made sure boy had proper companions and manners
Boys and Girls in Athens Boys received edu from age 8-18 subjects were music, grammar and gymnastics gymnastics included discus, javelin, running, wrestling, diving, etc. music taught to improve moral nature grammar was learning how to write and reading national literature – Homer, Aesop’s fables, etc. at age 18, end of education, man takes Ephebic oath, where he swore to defend city and gods Girls given very little formal education taught how to manage the house & slaves, how to care for children, how to weave girls married between ages 14-16, the man her parents selected after marriage, female life was separate from husband did not leave house except for rare occasions such as special religious festival, and she was always accompanied husband even did the shopping! lived in separate wing of house, did not attend husband’s feasts or entertainments no legal or political rights If she divorced, her husband kept the children Ephebic Oath
We will never bring disgrace on this our City by an act of dishonesty or cowardice. We will fight for the ideals and Sacred Things of the City both alone and with many. We will revere and obey the City's laws, and will do our best to incite a like reverence and respect in those above us who are prone to annul them or set them at naught. We will strive increasingly to quicken the public's sense of civic duty. Thus in all these ways we will transmit this City, not only not less, but greater and more beautiful than it was transmitted to us. The Ephebic Oath
Violence in their blood Sparta had the only standing army in Greece In actuality, Sparta not a city but a military camp of five villages Spartans were so confident in themselves they never surrounded villages with walls
Spartan Education & Life Boys left home at age 7 to be educated lived in barracks, slept on bed of bushes, went barefoot, had only one piece of clothing to his name taught not to whine and complain, fend for himself and steal when hungry or in want. If he was caught, he was whipped, not for stealing, but for being caught taught to express himself with the briefest speech possible at 20, youth became a warrior, but still lived in barracks at 30, man became a full citizen and member of popular assembly obliged to marry to raise children for the state, but still lived in barracks his meals were often a thick black broth, cheese, and vegetables, but rarely meat; his wine was watered down retires at age 60 from public service Girls taught to be faithful and uncomplaining wives and mothers given very little formal education taught gymnastics to be strong and healthy mothers most importantly, they were taught loyalty to the state a mother/wife would not tell her son to come back safely from battle. She would hand him his shield and say “Come back with your shield or on it” in those days, if a solider died he was carried home on his shield. Alternately, if he was a coward and fled, he would drop his shield.
A Spartan lifestyle Spartan society was immobile and discouraged change Foreigners with new ideas was frowned upon Coinage was forbidden! The military life is best facilitated by a simple life, so Spartan life was stern and very rigid “A Spartan’s life is so unpleasant that it is no wonder he throws it away so lightly in battle” – Unknown Athenian
Tough Love Despite its harshness, other Greeks admired Spartan way of life Greeks valued organization and respected systems that succeed in molding and forming the individual Sparta was very good at creating the best soldiers in Greece More importantly, Sparta had created an “ideal” of ultimate achievement to be a Spartan All that hard work and torture created a status of pride Even though it was a harsh lifestyle that most people wouldn’t want to engage in, it created a high standard for human excellence
The Hellenic Philosophers (450-350) Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
Socrates (470-399 BC) Left no writings of his own, known only to us through writings of his pupils Taught that 1st step toward virtue and a good life is for a man to know himself as he really is w/o delusion and behave accordingly “The unexamined life is not worth living” encouraged Greeks to question themselves and moral character Socrates attracted young Athenians during moral confusion following Peloponnesian wars “Children today are tyrants. They contradict their parents, gobble their food and tyrannize their teachers.” largely misunderstood by majority of Athenians Charged with neglecting city’s gods and corrupting youth, condemned to die by drinking hemlock In his own defense, said his teachings were good b/c forced people to think about values & actions
Socratic Method Teaching method was continual asking of questions forcing hearers to clarify for themselves the vague terms they were using Teaching method was to get student to realize difference between what they knew as fact and what they knew as opinion Known as “Socratic Method”, popularly used in science
Plato (427-322 BC) Socrates student, 28 when Socrates died Much of knowledge of Socrates based on Plato’s writings Started an Academia, where philosophy, science, math taught to both men & women Justice is central to his philosophy Wrote The Republic where he defined a perfect society All citizens fall naturally into 3 groups; farmers/artisans, warriors, ruling class Person w/ wisest intellect and insight became philosopher-king Plato’s philosophy dominated EUR thought for next 1500 yrs
Aristotle (382-322 BC) son of physician, brightest student in Plato’s Academia, from Macedon eventually opened his Lyceum, which some say was even better than Plato’s school questioned nature of the world and of human belief, thought and knowledge came close to summarizing all logic of his time, and developed method for arguing according to logic
Aristotle’s Influence Aristotle’s most famous student was Alexander the Great, 343 BC Alexander shows Aristotle favor by financing the Lyceum and providing scientific equipment Orders experts in his army to collect and send specimens of plants/animals from conquered countries back to Aristotle for study “Highest human good is life of reason, attained through practice… [of] moderation in everything” Self-Control & Friendship based on Equality and Self-Reliance are marks of virtuous man
Alexander the Great Prophetic Grecian of Destiny
Greece after the Wars in wake of Peloponnesian War, Sparta tries for dominance in GRC allies annoyed, turn on Sparta; Thebians destroy entire Spartan army in 371BC, even though Sparta is helped by Persia Thebes cannot bring peace to GRC Philip II of Macedonia uses this to his advantage Macedon long considered a backward, disunited kingdom
Phalanx Strategy hoplite and phalanx style was shock combat other infantry had lighter army, shorter spears, smaller shields armies would charge directly at each other in hopes of simply breaking the line battles rarely lasted more than 1 hour casualties usually light, but slain often included most influential citizens and generals who led from front 16 man ranks, drilled to turn in any direction spears would counter cavalry, swords would counter infantry, shields would counter archery siege warfare not created yet
Unification and Empire Philip realized that he could conquer GRC since it was exhausted and divided 338 BC, combined Thebian-Athenian army is defeated at Chaeronea; Philip has conquered GRC b/c it was divided united GRC with Macedonia and formed the League of Corinth
Philip the Great? Almost. attempted to bring unity and harmony between Greeks and Macedons for 1st time in history goal of union was to liberate Greeks of Asia from Persian threat as he was preparing Greeks and Macedons for massive invasion of Persian Empire, he is assassinated in 336 BC has eliminated Greek threat and wants to eliminate Persian threat in east—arch enemies!!!
Finishing Daddy’s Business son Alexander ascends to the throne to carry out father’s mission at age 20 334 Alexanders crosses the Hellspont with 40,000 men and defeats Persians at Granicus Darius fights him in northern Syria, loses, flees Fights again at Issus, loses, flees
A Conquerer’s Ego moves through Syria and Palestine in such a way that protects Greece and Macedon from Persian fleets then turns to Egypt two things happen here: he is proclaimed Son of Zeus and Son of Ammon, implying to Egyptians that he was pharaoh and had divine status convinced he must be and live as a god founds Alexandria, largest and most prosperous city of the ancient world
Rounding the Corners of the Empire pursues Darius, fights at Guagamela in Mesopotamia; Darius loses, flees Persian kingdom subdued, he is successor Pursuit of Darius ends when he is found dead on the side of the road murdered by advisors quells Afghanistan etc when he marries Roxane, daughter of a local lord pushes to India, and defeats an elephant army of India, but here his army rebels; Alexander returns to Babylon to rule adopts much of local customs to make his rule tolerable and more favorable than the Persians adopts local soldiers into his army requires his officers to marry Persian women he even marries one of Darius’ daughters
An untimely end? has had scientists accompany him the whole campaign, sending back specimens, info to Lyceum—biology and geography sent Persian children to Athens to be educated in 323, dies of a fever after a heavy drinking bout and swimming in a river when asked who to give kingdom to, he says “the strongest”
Legacy marched for 11 years, 20,000 miles—never lost a battle! United 22 million square miles Established common currency and government for an entire realm Spread Greek culture throughout his empire—arts, architecture, literature, language—1000 years after the fall of Greece Ends the dynamic of powerful city-states, and sets precedent for empire building and monarchies Greece had been suffering from population pressures and rising standard of living Suffering ‘brain-drain’ with Greeks leaving for Persia as soldiers, traders and doctors