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    • Ancient Greece
      Start Here!
      Education, Philosophy, & Influence
      A World History Module
      Jerson J Malaguit
    • Who cares about Greece?
      This is a module to examine Ancient Greek Education, Philosophy, and Influence.
      Questions for reviewing
      What is a city-state?
      What were some differences between Athens & Sparta?
      How did the Greek Philosophers lead to Alexander the Great?
    • Athenian School
      Spartan School
      Greek Philosophers
      Alexander the Great
    • Polis Life in Athens
      In Athens and many other city-states, the existence of the polis was the center of everyone’s life, and city’s greater good was more important than any individual concern
      Athens Education
      education was absolutely critical to become a worthy citizen, meant to develop mental, moral and physical aspects of person
      all male children were expected to receive the basics of education
      at eight, the boy had a paedagogus, a slave who made sure boy had proper companions and manners
    • Boys and Girls in Athens
      received edu from age 8-18
      subjects were music, grammar and gymnastics
      gymnastics included discus, javelin, running, wrestling, diving, etc.
      music taught to improve moral nature
      grammar was learning how to write and reading national literature – Homer, Aesop’s fables, etc.
      at age 18, end of education, man takes Ephebic oath, where he swore to defend city and gods
      given very little formal education
      taught how to manage the house & slaves, how to care for children, how to weave
      girls married between ages 14-16, the man her parents selected
      after marriage, female life was separate from husband
      did not leave house except for rare occasions such as special religious festival, and she was always accompanied
      husband even did the shopping!
      lived in separate wing of house, did not attend husband’s feasts or entertainments
      no legal or political rights
      If she divorced, her husband kept the children
      Ephebic Oath
    • We will never bring disgrace on this our City by an act of dishonesty or cowardice.
      We will fight for the ideals and Sacred Things of the City both alone and with many.
      We will revere and obey the City's laws, and will do our best to incite a like reverence and respect in those above us who are prone to annul them or set them at naught.
      We will strive increasingly to quicken the public's sense of civic duty.
      Thus in all these ways we will transmit this City, not only not less, but greater and more beautiful than it was transmitted to us.
      The Ephebic Oath
    • Violence in their blood
      Sparta had the only standing army in Greece
      In actuality, Sparta not a city but a military camp of five villages
      Spartans were so confident in themselves they never surrounded villages with walls
    • Spartan Education & Life
      left home at age 7 to be educated
      lived in barracks, slept on bed of bushes, went barefoot, had only one piece of clothing to his name
      taught not to whine and complain, fend for himself and steal when hungry or in want. If he was caught, he was whipped, not for stealing, but for being caught
      taught to express himself with the briefest speech possible
      at 20, youth became a warrior, but still lived in barracks
      at 30, man became a full citizen and member of popular assembly
      obliged to marry to raise children for the state, but still lived in barracks
      his meals were often a thick black broth, cheese, and vegetables, but rarely meat; his wine was watered down
      retires at age 60 from public service
      taught to be faithful and uncomplaining wives and mothers
      given very little formal education
      taught gymnastics to be strong and healthy mothers
      most importantly, they were taught loyalty to the state
      a mother/wife would not tell her son to come back safely from battle. She would hand him his shield and say “Come back with your shield or on it”
      in those days, if a solider died he was carried home on his shield. Alternately, if he was a coward and fled, he would drop his shield.
    • A Spartan lifestyle
      Spartan society was immobile and discouraged change
      Foreigners with new ideas was frowned upon
      Coinage was forbidden!
      The military life is best facilitated by a simple life, so Spartan life was stern and very rigid
      “A Spartan’s life is so unpleasant that it is no wonder he throws it away so lightly in battle” – Unknown Athenian
    • Tough Love
      Despite its harshness, other Greeks admired Spartan way of life
      Greeks valued organization and respected systems that succeed in molding and forming the individual
      Sparta was very good at creating the best soldiers in Greece
      More importantly, Sparta had created an “ideal” of ultimate achievement to be a Spartan
      All that hard work and torture created a status of pride
      Even though it was a harsh lifestyle that most people wouldn’t want to engage in, it created a high standard for human excellence
    • The Hellenic Philosophers
      Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
    • Socrates (470-399 BC)
      Left no writings of his own, known only to us through writings of his pupils
      Taught that 1st step toward virtue and a good life is for a man to know himself as he really is w/o delusion and behave accordingly
      “The unexamined life is not worth living”
      encouraged Greeks to question themselves and moral character
      Socrates attracted young Athenians during moral confusion following Peloponnesian wars
      “Children today are tyrants. They contradict their parents, gobble their food and tyrannize their teachers.”
      largely misunderstood by majority of Athenians
      Charged with neglecting city’s gods and corrupting youth, condemned to die by drinking hemlock
      In his own defense, said his teachings were good b/c forced people to think about values & actions
    • Socratic Method
      Teaching method was continual asking of questions forcing hearers to clarify for themselves the vague terms they were using
      Teaching method was to get student to realize difference between what they knew as fact and what they knew as opinion
      Known as “Socratic Method”, popularly used in science
    • Plato (427-322 BC)
      Socrates student, 28 when Socrates died
      Much of knowledge of Socrates based on Plato’s writings
      Started an Academia, where philosophy, science, math taught to both men & women
      Justice is central to his philosophy
      Wrote The Republic where he defined a perfect society
      All citizens fall naturally into 3 groups; farmers/artisans, warriors, ruling class
      Person w/ wisest intellect and insight became philosopher-king
      Plato’s philosophy dominated EUR thought for next 1500 yrs
    • Aristotle (382-322 BC)
      son of physician, brightest student in Plato’s Academia, from Macedon
      eventually opened his Lyceum, which some say was even better than Plato’s school
      questioned nature of the world and of human belief, thought and knowledge
      came close to summarizing all logic of his time, and developed method for arguing according to logic
    • Aristotle’s Influence
      Aristotle’s most famous student was Alexander the Great, 343 BC
      Alexander shows Aristotle favor by financing the Lyceum and providing scientific equipment
      Orders experts in his army to collect and send specimens of plants/animals from conquered countries back to Aristotle for study
      “Highest human good is life of reason, attained through practice… [of] moderation in everything”
      Self-Control & Friendship based on Equality and Self-Reliance are marks of virtuous man
    • Alexander the Great
      Prophetic Grecian of Destiny
    • Greece after the Wars
      in wake of Peloponnesian War, Sparta tries for dominance in GRC
      allies annoyed, turn on Sparta; Thebians destroy entire Spartan army in 371BC, even though Sparta is helped by Persia
      Thebes cannot bring peace to GRC
      Philip II of Macedonia uses this to his advantage
      Macedon long considered a backward, disunited kingdom
    • Hoplites and Phalanx
      Philip able to unite Macedon and create a powerful army
      Created the hoplites and phalanx fighting style
      Close hand to hand fighting and tight formations
    • A new type of warrior
      • Hoplite fought best in formation with shields fixed on his left to protect his left and his neighbors right
      • Created feeling of solidarity and closeness
      • Hoplites were people who could afford their armor and weapons
      • Armor was breastplate, bronze helmet, shield, primary weapon was a spear 10-20 ft long—broke upon charge, and a small 60 cm thrusting sword
      • Middle class army
    • Phalanx Strategy
      hoplite and phalanx style was shock combat
      other infantry had lighter army, shorter spears, smaller shields
      armies would charge directly at each other in hopes of simply breaking the line
      battles rarely lasted more than 1 hour
      casualties usually light, but slain often included most influential citizens and generals who led from front
      16 man ranks, drilled to turn in any direction
      spears would counter cavalry, swords would counter infantry, shields would counter archery
      siege warfare not created yet
    • Unification and Empire
      Philip realized that he could conquer GRC since it was exhausted and divided
      338 BC, combined Thebian-Athenian army is defeated at Chaeronea; Philip has conquered GRC b/c it was divided
      united GRC with Macedonia and formed the League of Corinth
    • Philip the Great? Almost.
      attempted to bring unity and harmony between Greeks and Macedons for 1st time in history
      goal of union was to liberate Greeks of Asia from Persian threat
      as he was preparing Greeks and Macedons for massive invasion of Persian Empire, he is assassinated in 336 BC
      has eliminated Greek threat and wants to eliminate Persian threat in east—arch enemies!!!
    • Finishing Daddy’s Business
      son Alexander ascends to the throne to carry out father’s mission at age 20
      334 Alexanders crosses the Hellspont with 40,000 men and defeats Persians at Granicus
      Darius fights him in northern Syria, loses, flees
      Fights again at Issus, loses, flees
    • A Conquerer’s Ego
      moves through Syria and Palestine in such a way that protects Greece and Macedon from Persian fleets then turns to Egypt
      two things happen here:
      he is proclaimed Son of Zeus and Son of Ammon, implying to Egyptians that he was pharaoh and had divine status
      convinced he must be and live as a god
      founds Alexandria, largest and most prosperous city of the ancient world
    • Rounding the Corners of the Empire
      pursues Darius, fights at Guagamela in Mesopotamia; Darius loses, flees
      Persian kingdom subdued, he is successor
      Pursuit of Darius ends when he is found dead on the side of the road murdered by advisors
      quells Afghanistan etc when he marries Roxane, daughter of a local lord
      pushes to India, and defeats an elephant army of India, but here his army rebels; Alexander returns to Babylon to rule
      adopts much of local customs to make his rule tolerable and more favorable than the Persians
      adopts local soldiers into his army
      requires his officers to marry Persian women
      he even marries one of Darius’ daughters
    • An untimely end?
      has had scientists accompany him the whole campaign, sending back specimens, info to Lyceum—biology and geography
      sent Persian children to Athens to be educated
      in 323, dies of a fever after a heavy drinking bout and swimming in a river
      when asked who to give kingdom to, he says “the strongest”
    • Legacy
      marched for 11 years, 20,000 miles—never lost a battle!
      United 22 million square miles
      Established common currency and government for an entire realm
      Spread Greek culture throughout his empire—arts, architecture, literature, language—1000 years after the fall of Greece
      Ends the dynamic of powerful city-states, and sets precedent for empire building and monarchies
      Greece had been suffering from population pressures and rising standard of living
      Suffering ‘brain-drain’ with Greeks leaving for Persia as soldiers, traders and doctors
      Annotated Bibliography
    • Done!
      Click Here to Exit Module