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  1. 1. Ancient Greece<br />Start Here!<br />Education, Philosophy, & Influence<br />A World History Module<br /> by<br />Jerson J Malaguit<br />
  2. 2. Who cares about Greece?<br />This is a module to examine Ancient Greek Education, Philosophy, and Influence.<br />Questions for reviewing<br />What is a city-state?<br />What were some differences between Athens & Sparta?<br />How did the Greek Philosophers lead to Alexander the Great?<br />
  3. 3. Athenian School<br />Spartan School<br />Greek Philosophers<br />Alexander the Great<br />Menu<br />
  4. 4. Polis Life in Athens<br />In Athens and many other city-states, the existence of the polis was the center of everyone’s life, and city’s greater good was more important than any individual concern<br />Athens Education<br />education was absolutely critical to become a worthy citizen, meant to develop mental, moral and physical aspects of person<br />all male children were expected to receive the basics of education<br />at eight, the boy had a paedagogus, a slave who made sure boy had proper companions and manners<br />
  5. 5. Boys and Girls in Athens<br />Boys<br />received edu from age 8-18<br />subjects were music, grammar and gymnastics<br />gymnastics included discus, javelin, running, wrestling, diving, etc.<br />music taught to improve moral nature<br />grammar was learning how to write and reading national literature – Homer, Aesop’s fables, etc. <br />at age 18, end of education, man takes Ephebic oath, where he swore to defend city and gods<br />Girls<br />given very little formal education<br />taught how to manage the house & slaves, how to care for children, how to weave<br />girls married between ages 14-16, the man her parents selected<br />after marriage, female life was separate from husband<br />did not leave house except for rare occasions such as special religious festival, and she was always accompanied<br />husband even did the shopping!<br />lived in separate wing of house, did not attend husband’s feasts or entertainments<br />no legal or political rights<br />If she divorced, her husband kept the children<br />Ephebic Oath<br />
  6. 6. We will never bring disgrace on this our City by an act of dishonesty or cowardice.<br />We will fight for the ideals and Sacred Things of the City both alone and with many.<br />We will revere and obey the City's laws, and will do our best to incite a like reverence and respect in those above us who are prone to annul them or set them at naught.<br />We will strive increasingly to quicken the public's sense of civic duty.<br />Thus in all these ways we will transmit this City, not only not less, but greater and more beautiful than it was transmitted to us.<br />The Ephebic Oath<br />
  7. 7. Violence in their blood<br />Sparta had the only standing army in Greece<br />In actuality, Sparta not a city but a military camp of five villages<br />Spartans were so confident in themselves they never surrounded villages with walls<br />
  8. 8. Spartan Education & Life<br />Boys<br />left home at age 7 to be educated<br />lived in barracks, slept on bed of bushes, went barefoot, had only one piece of clothing to his name<br />taught not to whine and complain, fend for himself and steal when hungry or in want. If he was caught, he was whipped, not for stealing, but for being caught<br />taught to express himself with the briefest speech possible<br />at 20, youth became a warrior, but still lived in barracks<br />at 30, man became a full citizen and member of popular assembly<br />obliged to marry to raise children for the state, but still lived in barracks<br />his meals were often a thick black broth, cheese, and vegetables, but rarely meat; his wine was watered down<br />retires at age 60 from public service <br />Girls<br />taught to be faithful and uncomplaining wives and mothers<br />given very little formal education<br />taught gymnastics to be strong and healthy mothers<br />most importantly, they were taught loyalty to the state<br />a mother/wife would not tell her son to come back safely from battle. She would hand him his shield and say “Come back with your shield or on it”<br />in those days, if a solider died he was carried home on his shield. Alternately, if he was a coward and fled, he would drop his shield. <br />
  9. 9. A Spartan lifestyle<br />Spartan society was immobile and discouraged change<br />Foreigners with new ideas was frowned upon<br />Coinage was forbidden!<br />The military life is best facilitated by a simple life, so Spartan life was stern and very rigid<br />“A Spartan’s life is so unpleasant that it is no wonder he throws it away so lightly in battle” – Unknown Athenian<br />
  10. 10. Tough Love<br />Despite its harshness, other Greeks admired Spartan way of life<br />Greeks valued organization and respected systems that succeed in molding and forming the individual<br />Sparta was very good at creating the best soldiers in Greece<br />More importantly, Sparta had created an “ideal” of ultimate achievement to be a Spartan<br />All that hard work and torture created a status of pride<br />Even though it was a harsh lifestyle that most people wouldn’t want to engage in, it created a high standard for human excellence<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. The Hellenic Philosophers<br />(450-350)<br />Socrates, Plato and Aristotle<br />
  13. 13. Socrates (470-399 BC)<br />Left no writings of his own, known only to us through writings of his pupils<br />Taught that 1st step toward virtue and a good life is for a man to know himself as he really is w/o delusion and behave accordingly<br />“The unexamined life is not worth living”<br />encouraged Greeks to question themselves and moral character<br />Socrates attracted young Athenians during moral confusion following Peloponnesian wars<br />“Children today are tyrants. They contradict their parents, gobble their food and tyrannize their teachers.”<br />largely misunderstood by majority of Athenians<br />Charged with neglecting city’s gods and corrupting youth, condemned to die by drinking hemlock<br />In his own defense, said his teachings were good b/c forced people to think about values & actions<br />
  14. 14. Socratic Method<br />Teaching method was continual asking of questions forcing hearers to clarify for themselves the vague terms they were using<br />Teaching method was to get student to realize difference between what they knew as fact and what they knew as opinion<br />Known as “Socratic Method”, popularly used in science<br />
  15. 15. Plato (427-322 BC)<br />Socrates student, 28 when Socrates died<br />Much of knowledge of Socrates based on Plato’s writings<br />Started an Academia, where philosophy, science, math taught to both men & women<br />Justice is central to his philosophy<br />Wrote The Republic where he defined a perfect society<br />All citizens fall naturally into 3 groups; farmers/artisans, warriors, ruling class<br />Person w/ wisest intellect and insight became philosopher-king<br />Plato’s philosophy dominated EUR thought for next 1500 yrs<br />
  16. 16. Aristotle (382-322 BC)<br />son of physician, brightest student in Plato’s Academia, from Macedon <br />eventually opened his Lyceum, which some say was even better than Plato’s school<br />questioned nature of the world and of human belief, thought and knowledge<br />came close to summarizing all logic of his time, and developed method for arguing according to logic<br />
  17. 17. Aristotle’s Influence<br />Aristotle’s most famous student was Alexander the Great, 343 BC<br />Alexander shows Aristotle favor by financing the Lyceum and providing scientific equipment<br />Orders experts in his army to collect and send specimens of plants/animals from conquered countries back to Aristotle for study<br />“Highest human good is life of reason, attained through practice… [of] moderation in everything”<br />Self-Control & Friendship based on Equality and Self-Reliance are marks of virtuous man<br />
  18. 18. Alexander the Great<br />Prophetic Grecian of Destiny<br />
  19. 19. Greece after the Wars<br />in wake of Peloponnesian War, Sparta tries for dominance in GRC<br />allies annoyed, turn on Sparta; Thebians destroy entire Spartan army in 371BC, even though Sparta is helped by Persia<br />Thebes cannot bring peace to GRC<br />Philip II of Macedonia uses this to his advantage<br />Macedon long considered a backward, disunited kingdom<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Hoplites and Phalanx<br />Philip able to unite Macedon and create a powerful army<br />Created the hoplites and phalanx fighting style<br />Close hand to hand fighting and tight formations<br />
  22. 22. A new type of warrior<br /><ul><li>Hoplite fought best in formation with shields fixed on his left to protect his left and his neighbors right
  23. 23. Created feeling of solidarity and closeness
  24. 24. Hoplites were people who could afford their armor and weapons
  25. 25. Armor was breastplate, bronze helmet, shield, primary weapon was a spear 10-20 ft long—broke upon charge, and a small 60 cm thrusting sword
  26. 26. Middle class army</li></li></ul><li>Phalanx Strategy<br />hoplite and phalanx style was shock combat<br />other infantry had lighter army, shorter spears, smaller shields<br />armies would charge directly at each other in hopes of simply breaking the line<br />battles rarely lasted more than 1 hour<br />casualties usually light, but slain often included most influential citizens and generals who led from front<br />16 man ranks, drilled to turn in any direction<br />spears would counter cavalry, swords would counter infantry, shields would counter archery<br />siege warfare not created yet<br />
  27. 27. Unification and Empire<br />Philip realized that he could conquer GRC since it was exhausted and divided<br />338 BC, combined Thebian-Athenian army is defeated at Chaeronea; Philip has conquered GRC b/c it was divided<br />united GRC with Macedonia and formed the League of Corinth<br />
  28. 28. Philip the Great? Almost.<br />attempted to bring unity and harmony between Greeks and Macedons for 1st time in history<br />goal of union was to liberate Greeks of Asia from Persian threat<br />as he was preparing Greeks and Macedons for massive invasion of Persian Empire, he is assassinated in 336 BC<br />has eliminated Greek threat and wants to eliminate Persian threat in east—arch enemies!!!<br />
  29. 29. Finishing Daddy’s Business<br />son Alexander ascends to the throne to carry out father’s mission at age 20<br />334 Alexanders crosses the Hellspont with 40,000 men and defeats Persians at Granicus<br />Darius fights him in northern Syria, loses, flees<br />Fights again at Issus, loses, flees<br />
  30. 30. A Conquerer’s Ego<br />moves through Syria and Palestine in such a way that protects Greece and Macedon from Persian fleets then turns to Egypt<br />two things happen here:<br />he is proclaimed Son of Zeus and Son of Ammon, implying to Egyptians that he was pharaoh and had divine status<br />convinced he must be and live as a god<br />founds Alexandria, largest and most prosperous city of the ancient world<br />
  31. 31. Rounding the Corners of the Empire<br />pursues Darius, fights at Guagamela in Mesopotamia; Darius loses, flees<br />Persian kingdom subdued, he is successor<br />Pursuit of Darius ends when he is found dead on the side of the road murdered by advisors<br />quells Afghanistan etc when he marries Roxane, daughter of a local lord<br />pushes to India, and defeats an elephant army of India, but here his army rebels; Alexander returns to Babylon to rule<br />adopts much of local customs to make his rule tolerable and more favorable than the Persians<br />adopts local soldiers into his army<br />requires his officers to marry Persian women<br />he even marries one of Darius’ daughters<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. An untimely end?<br />has had scientists accompany him the whole campaign, sending back specimens, info to Lyceum—biology and geography<br />sent Persian children to Athens to be educated<br />in 323, dies of a fever after a heavy drinking bout and swimming in a river<br />when asked who to give kingdom to, he says “the strongest”<br />
  34. 34.
  35. 35. Legacy<br />marched for 11 years, 20,000 miles—never lost a battle!<br />United 22 million square miles<br />Established common currency and government for an entire realm<br />Spread Greek culture throughout his empire—arts, architecture, literature, language—1000 years after the fall of Greece<br />Ends the dynamic of powerful city-states, and sets precedent for empire building and monarchies<br />Greece had been suffering from population pressures and rising standard of living<br />Suffering ‘brain-drain’ with Greeks leaving for Persia as soldiers, traders and doctors<br />
  36. 36.<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />!Battle_of_Marathon_Initial_Situation.png<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Annotated Bibliography<br />
  37. 37. Done!<br />Click Here to Exit Module<br />