Greek literature


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Greek literature

  2. 2. The cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, theestablished religion of Greece.According to Ancient and Heraldic traditions muchsymbolism is associated with colors. The colors on theGreek flag represent the following:White - peace and honesty and the Whitecolour of the Greek wavesBlue - vigilance, truth and loyalty, perseverance& justice and the blue of the Greek Sea
  3. 3. Location:Southern Europe, borderingthe Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea,and the Mediterranean Sea,between Albania and Turkey
  4. 4. Land Size of Greece: 130,800 sq kmClimate / Weather of Greece: temperate; mild, wet winters;hot, dry summersGreek Population: 11,304,000Greek Capital City: Athens
  5. 5. Men if they were not training in military,or discussing politics went to the Theatrefor entertainment. To watch dramas thatthey could relate to, including tragediesand comedies.Lives of Women in Ancient Greecewere closely tied to domestic work,spinning, weaving and other domesticduties. They were not involved in publiclife or in politics.
  6. 6. In Ancient Rome, there were 3 divided groups:UPPER CLASS A member of the upper class must be free fromeconomic tasks such as trading. He must get slaves orothers to attend to his material concerns such as hisproperty and fortune. To be a member ofthe upper class in Athenyou must be a citizen,and you can not have ajob.
  7. 7. MIDDLE CLASS They were mostly professional men:merchants, contractors, manufacturers, manager,craftsmen and artists. The middle class in Athenshad a large number of noncitizens. The non citizens wereforbidden to own land, ormarry into a family of a citizen.
  8. 8. LOWER CLASS The lower class was partly made up of freedmen,Who at one time in their lives had been slaves. The slave may be freed by his or her ransombeing paid off by a relative or friend. If a slave fights in a war there is a chance that hewill be released. Or if a slave was bought in order totutor a child through school, upon the child’sgraduation, it’s more likely that the slave will be setfree.
  9. 9. WEDDINGSWeddings in ancient Greece were a major part of apersons life, especially for the bride-to-be.Their marriage symbolized: LOVE, MUTUAL, RESPECT,EQUALITY and SACRIFICE.•mutual respect•equality•and sacrifice•mutual respect•equality•and sacrifice•mutual respect•equality•and sacrificeThe wedding consist of three parts:1. PRE-WEDDING CEREMONIESOne of the pre-wedding ceremonies wasthe feast. Feast was held at the bridesfathers home the day before thewedding took place. After the feast, thebride-to-be made childhood sacrifices,since she would be a child no longer.
  10. 10. Another pre-wedding ceremony was the bath. This eventtook place the morning of the wedding day.2. WEDDINGThe actual wedding started off withthe Betrothal, or the Engyésis. This wasan oral petition that literally means thegiving of a pledge into the hand. It is apact between the suitor and the father ofthe bride.3. POST – WEDDING CEREMONIESAnother important part of the wedding ceremonywas the journey home. This departure was verypainful for the bride. According to Powers, thegroom grabbed her wrists while she said herfarewells. This was the time that the father gavehis daughter to the husband.
  11. 11. Other Traditional Festivities: BAPTISMThe baby doesn’t have a nameuntil it is baptized.The baby is undressed and wrapped in a whitetowel. Then the priest blesses the water of thebaptismal font and adds olive oil brought bythe godparents.He then immerses the baby three times in the blessed water, saying thechosen name. Then, the baby is dressed with white clothes and thepriest puts a gold chain with a cross on the baby’s neck and gives thebaby its 1st Holy Communion.
  12. 12.  CARNIVALIn Greece, Carnival is called “Apokries”; it consists of twoweeks of feast, beginning from the Sunday of Meat Fareand ends with the start of Lent, “Clean Monday”.
  13. 13. The most famous Carnival parade takes place in the cityof Parta, where everybody dances and drinks all nightand day. This custom is believed to come frompaganism, and more precisely from the old festivitiesworshipping Dionysus, the god of wine and feast.Everyone is costumed andparties in the streets andbars, throwing colouredconfetti to each other.
  14. 14. GREEK TRADITIONAL SUPERSTITIONS:o BREAD- is considered as a gift of God; oldwomen bless the bread and make the sign of thecross with a knife before slicing it.o KNIVES – Greeks never hand knives tosomeone who asks for it for they consider that ifthey do that they will have a fight with the person.
  15. 15. o SPITTING – Greeks believe that spittingchases the devil and the misfortune way. That iswhy when someone talk about bad news, theothers slightly spit three times.o “ Piase Kokkino” (Touch Red) – Whentwo people say the same thing together theyimmediately say “Piase Kokkino” one another andboth have to touch any red item they can findaround him. Because if they don’t touch a redthing, the two persons will get into fight.
  16. 16.  FOODS• LAMB MEAT - is widely used inthe preparation of Greek foods,especially during the religiousfestivals.• FISH - was the main source of protein in theGreek diet.• PORK AND BEEF MEAT -Beef wasvery expensive, so it was rarelyeaten.
  17. 17.  FOODSThe Greek diet was very healthy.Food in Ancient Greece wasconsisted of wheat, barley, fruits,vegetables and cake.They grew olives, grapes, figs andwheat and kept goats, for milk andcheese. They ate lots of bread, beansand olives.
  18. 18. •WINE - was the main drinkin ancient Greece.Making wine was done bytreading and kept in jars toferment.
  19. 19. .Interesting Fact: The Greeksbelieved the gods and goddesseshad human qualities.Religion was important to theancient Greeks because theybelieved that it would make theirlives better while they were living.They also believed the gods wouldtake care of them when they died.
  20. 20. The Ancient Greeks believed in many different gods andgoddesses.  The Greeks believed that thesegods and goddesses controlledeverything in their lives and theenvironment. There was a god in every aspectof their lives. It was veryimportant to pleased the gods;happy gods helped you, butunhappy gods punished you.
  21. 21. TEMPLES The Greeks, to show the gods how important theywere, built temples in every town for one god orgoddess. The temples were not like modern places ofworship, for ordinary people to pray in. They were homes forstatues of gods, which werecared for by priests.
  22. 22. PRIEST Priests were importantpeople in the community.They were believed to have thepower to talk to the gods and sowere respected and trusted.A priest main job was to look after the templesand the visitors to the temples.
  23. 23. The way children were educated was different in eachcity state.In Sparta, reading and writing was unimportant.Boys learned to be good fighters. In Athens, citizens had to be educated totake part in voting in the Assembly. Athenianboys also went to wrestling school each day,to learn many sports, not just wrestling. Theyhad to be fit, to fight in the army.
  24. 24. SchoolsGreek schools were small. They had only one teacherand about ten or twenty boys. The schools were notfree and so only the rich could really afford to send theirchildren to school.They don’t need much ofschool equipments, as theyhad learn everything off byheart.They used a wooden pen called a stylus with a sharpend for writing and a flat end for rubbing out.
  25. 25. In ancient Athens, the purpose ofeducation was to produce citizensTrained in the arts, and to prepare citizens for bothpeace and war.Until age 6 or so, boys weretaught at home by theirmother or by a male slave.Books were very expensive and rare, so subjectswere read out-loud, and the boys had to memorizeeverything. To help them learn, they used writingtablets and rulers.
  26. 26. TheirIn primary school, they hadto learn two important things– the words of Homer andhow to play lyre.Their teacher, who was always a man, couldchoose what additional subjects he wanted toteach. He might to teach drama, public speaking,government, art, writing, math, and how to playanother ancient Greek instrument – flute.
  27. 27. Following that, boys attended a higher school forfour more years. When they turned 18, theyentered military school for two additional years. Atage 20, they graduated.Girls – were not allowed to go to school. Theywere educated in housekeeping and how tolook after the family.
  28. 28. SPARTA : EDUCATIONIn Ancient Sparta, the purpose ofeducation was to produce a well-drilled, well-disciplined marchingarmy.Spartans believe in a life ofdiscipline, self-denial, andsimplicity. They were very loyalto the state of Sparta. EverySpartan, male or female, wasrequired to have a perfect body.
  29. 29. When babies were born in ancientSparta, Spartan soldiers wouldcome by the house and check thebaby. If the baby did not appearhealthy and strong, the infant wastaken away, and left to die on ahillside, or taken to be trained as aslave (a helot).Spartan Boys : Spartan boys weresent to military school at age 6 or 7.They lived, trained and slept in thebarracks of their brotherhood. Theywere taught survival skills and otherskills necessary to be a great soldier..
  30. 30. These are the five main dialects of ancientGreek that have been found on inscriptions:Attic-Ionic GreekAchaeanAeolicDoricNorthwest Greek
  31. 31. His main work is TheElements which is still usedas a textbook inmathematics.EUCLID
  32. 32. PLATOThe most famousworks The Republicand Symposium.
  33. 33. AristophanesHe was a playwrightwho wrote comedies.His notable plays,The Wasps andLysistrata.
  34. 34. EURIPIDESWas a Greek tragedian.His most known worksare Alcestis, Medea andThe Bacchus.
  35. 35. HOMERHomer is bestknown for the two epicpoems the Iliad andthe Odyssey.