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Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
Occlusal max
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Occlusal max

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  • 1. Occlusal techniquesMaxillary techniques Islam Kassem ikassem@dr.com
  • 2. OutlinesDefinitionPatient managementClassifications : Mand MaxClinical indications & techniques ikassem@dr.com
  • 3. Dental radiographI – Extra oralII- Intraoral : Periapical Bite wing Occlusal ikassem@dr.com
  • 4. Occlusal radiography is defined as those intraoral radiographic techniques taken using a dental X-ray set where the film packet (5.7 x 7.6 cm) or a small intraoral cassette is placed in the occlusal plane. ikassem@dr.com
  • 5. Patient management in dental radiology
  • 6. Before exposures• Obtain informed consent• Explain procedures to the patient• Be confident• Be compassionate as patients may have had a bad experience before
  • 7. Before exposure- some “DOs”• Make settings on machine before placing film in patient’s mouth• Ask patient to remove all intraoral objects and eyeglasses
  • 8. Before exposure-some “Do not”s for intraoral radiographs• Don’t use the word ”Hurt”• Don’t say “Ooops” if you make a mistake• Don’t pickup anything you drop on floor• Don’t start the exposures in the molar area• Don’t position the film on a torus
  • 9. Cont’d• Follow a definite order or sequence in placing and exposing films• Align the BID with the aiming ring of the film holder• Ask the patient not to move
  • 10. What can you do to reduce gagging• Start with films in the anterior region• Tell the patient that the gagging may occur and that everything will be OK• Remedies for gagging: - Topical on tongue or palate - Put some salt on tongue - Distract the patient
  • 11. Patient refuses x-rays due to fear of radiation• Explain to patient that the doses of radiation are small compared to the BENEFIT of diagnosing problems• Explain that the doctor cannot give a full exam without the x-rays• Postpone x-rays during pregnancy
  • 12. ClassificationMaxillary occlusal projections• Upper standard occlusal (standard occlusal)• Upper oblique occlusal (oblique occlusal)• Vertex occlusal (vertex occlusal).Mandibular occlusal projections• Lower 90° occlusal (true occlusal)• Lower 45 ° occlusal (standard occlusal)• Lower oblique occlusal (oblique occlusal). ikassem@dr.com
  • 13. Maxillary occlusal projections• Upper standard occlusal (standard occlusal)• Upper oblique occlusal (oblique occlusal)• Vertex occlusal (vertex occlusal).Mandibular occlusal projections• Lower 90° occlusal (true occlusal)• Lower 45 ° occlusal (standard occlusal)• Lower oblique occlusal (oblique occlusal). ikassem@dr.com
  • 14. Upper standard occlusal• This projection shows the anterior part of the• maxilla and the upper anterior teeth. ikassem@dr.com
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  • 17. Main clinical indications• Periapical assessment of the upper anterior teeth, especially in children but also in adults unable to tolerate periapical films• Detecting the presence of unerupted canines,supernumeraries and odontomes• As the midline view, when using the parallax method for determining the bucco/palatal position of unerupted canines• Evaluation of the size and extent of lesions such as cysts or tumors in the anterior maxilla• Assessment of fractures of the anterior teeth and alveolar bone. It is especially useful in children following trauma because filmplacement is straightforward. ikassem@dr.com
  • 18. Technique and positioning1. The patient is seated with the head supported and with the occlusal plane horizontal and parallel to the floor and is asked to support a protectivethyroid shield.2. The film packet, with the white (pebbly) surface facing uppermost, is placed flat into the mouth on to the occlusal surfaces of the lowerteeth. The patient is asked to bite together gently. The film packet is placed centrally in the mouth with its long axis crossways in adults and anteroposteriorly in children.3. The X-ray tubehead is positioned above the patient in the midline, aiming downwards through the bridge of the nose at an angle of 65°-70° to the film packet ikassem@dr.com
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  • 21. Normal Maxillary OcclusalImpacted canine Supernumerary tooth Pedo anterior
  • 22. Maxillary occlusal projections• Upper standard occlusal (standard occlusal)• Upper oblique occlusal (oblique occlusal)• Vertex occlusal (vertex occlusal).Mandibular occlusal projections• Lower 90° occlusal (true occlusal)• Lower 45 ° occlusal (standard occlusal)• Lower oblique occlusal (oblique occlusal). ikassem@dr.com
  • 23. Upper oblique occlusalThis projection shows the posterior part of themaxilla and the upper posterior teeth on one side. ikassem@dr.com
  • 24. Main clinical indicationsPeriapical assessment of the upper posterior teeth, especially in adults unable to tolerate periapical films• Evaluation of the size and extent of lesions such as cysts, tumours or osteodystrophies affecting the posterior maxilla• Assessment of the condition of the antral floor• As an aid to determining the position of roots displaced inadvertently into the antrum during attempted extraction of upper posterior teeth• Assessment of fractures of the posterior teethand associated alveolar bone including the tuberosity. ikassem@dr.com
  • 25. Technique and positioning1. The patient is seated with the head supported and with the occlusal plane horizontal and parallel to the floor.2. The film packet, with the white (pebbly) surface facing uppermost, is inserted into the mouth on to the occlusal surfaces of the lower teeth, with its long axis anteroposteriorly. It is placed to the side of the mouth under investigation, and the patient is asked to bite together gently.3. The X-ray tubehead is positioned to the side of the patients face, aiming downwards through the cheek at an angle of 65°-70° to the film,centring on the region of interest ikassem@dr.com
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  • 27. Note: If the X-ray tubehead is positioned too farposteriorly, the shadow cast by the body of thezygoma will obscure the posterior teeth. ikassem@dr.com
  • 28. Maxillary occlusal projections• Upper standard occlusal (standard occlusal)• Upper oblique occlusal (oblique occlusal)• Vertex occlusal (vertex occlusal).Mandibular occlusal projections• Lower 90° occlusal (true occlusal)• Lower 45 ° occlusal (standard occlusal)• Lower oblique occlusal (oblique occlusal). ikassem@dr.com
  • 29. Vertex occlusalThis projection shows a plan view of the tooth bearing portion of the maxilla from above. To obtain this view the X-ray beam has to passthrough a considerable amount of tissue, delivering a large dose of radiation to the patient. An intraoral cassette containing intensifying screens isused for this projection to reduce the dose. ikassem@dr.com
  • 30. Main clinical indicationsAssessment of the bucco/palatal position ofunerupted canines. ikassem@dr.com
  • 31. Technique and positioning1. The patient is seated with the head supported and with the occlusal plane horizontal and parallel to the floor.2. The cassette is placed inside a small plastic bag to prevent salivary contamination and cross infection.3. It is then inserted into the mouth on to the occlusal surfaces of the lower teeth, with its long axis anteroposteriorly and the patient is asked to bite on to it.4. The X-ray tube head is positioned above the patient, in the midline, aiming downwards through the vertex of the skull. The main beam is therefore aimed approximately down the long axis of the root canals of the upper incisor teeth. ikassem@dr.com
  • 32. DisadvantagesThere is a lack of detail and contrast on the film because of the intensifying screens, the mass of tissue the X-ray beam has to penetrate and the consequent scatter.• The primary X-ray beam may be in direct line with the reproductive organs.• A relatively long exposure time is needed(about 1 second) despite the use of intensifying screens.• There is direct radiation to the pituitary gland and the lens of the eye.• If the X-ray beam is positioned too far anteriorly, superimposition of the shadow of the frontal bones may obscure the anterior part of the maxilla. ikassem@dr.com
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  • 35. Thank you• You can get the lecture on• http://www.slideshare.net/islamkassem ikassem@dr.com
  • 36. Thank you

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