Grading and student evaluation
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Grading and student evaluation Document Transcript

  • 1. TABLE OF CONTENTCHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. ..1CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FOUNDATION ................................................... 3 2.1 Definition of grading ........................................................... 3 2.2 Philosophy of Grading ..........................................................3 2.3 Institutional Expectations and Constraint ............................4 2.4 Alternatives to Letter Grading .............................................6 2.5 Some Principles and Guidelines for Grading and Evaluation ................................................10CHAPTER III DISCUSSIONS ................................................................... ......... 14 3.1 What is the purpose do grades serve? ...................... ......... 14 3.2 What is the trouble with evaluation of students? ..... ......... 17 3.3 How to make grading more effecient? .................... ......... 21CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS ................................................................ ......... 25REFERENCE .........................................................................................................26 0
  • 2. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the justification and rationale of the present topic. Itcover background of the study, purpose of the study and critical questions.1.1 Background of The Study For teachers, grading is often the old ball and chain. Teachers, giveassignments and grade the results so as to have something to mark down on reportcards or to truly explore what our students understand and how they are best ableto present their knowledge to us? If our goal is the former than the standardregime of tests and quizzes should suffice but, if (as is hopefully the case) we areaiming for the latter, we need to think carefully about how to assess in ways thataccurately measure student learning not just at the end of a cycle of teaching butthroughout; we need to make sure our assessments have real world applications,and perhaps most importantly we need to ensure that we offer a variety ofassessments to ensure that every student has the opportunity to demonstrate whatthey know.1.2 Purpose of The Study The purpose of this paper are: 1
  • 3. 1. To find out what the purposes do grades serve? 2. To find out how to make grading more efficient? 3. To find out what is the trouble with evaluation of students?1.3 Critical Questions 1. What purposes do grades serve? 2. How to make grading more efficient? 3. What is the trouble with evaluation of students? 2
  • 4. CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FOUNDATION This chapter presents theories related to the topic. It covers Definition ofgrading, Philosophy of Grading, Institutional Expectations and Constraint,Alternatives to Letter Grading, Some Principles and Guidelines for Grading andEvaluation.2.1 Definition of Grading Grades in the realm of education are standardized measurements ofvarying levels of comprehension within a subject area. Grades can be assigned inletters (for example, A, B, C, D, or E, or F), as a range (for example 4.0–1.0), as anumber out of a possible total (for example out of 20 or 100), as descriptors(excellent, great, satisfactory, needs improvement), in percentages, or, as iscommon in some post-secondary institutions in some countries, as a Grade PointAverage (GPA). When we think about grading we tend to focus on tests, quizzes,homework etc. But in fact you should be examining a wide range of studentperformances when you grade. For example, a student who freezes up on testsmight be able to create an excellent model of the science concept you are trying toteach. Try to grade in ways that reflect the way students would use concepts in thereal world. This is known as Alternative Assessment and can include portfolios ofwriting samples, creating a book explaining a math concept for children etc.2.2 Philosophy of Grading Gronlund (1998), a widely respected educational assessment specialist,gave the following advice: 3
  • 5. Grades should represent the extent to which the intended learning outcomes were achieved by students. They should not be contaminated by student effort, tardiness, misbehaviour, and other extraneous factors.... if they are permitted to become part of the garde, the meaning of the grade as an indicator of achievement is lost. (pp.174-175) Earlier in the same chapter, Gronlund specifically discouraged theinclusion of improvement in final grades, as it ―distrorts‖ the meaning of thegrades as the indicators of achievement. Gronlund’s point is well worth considering as a strongly empiricalphilosophy of grading. But, not everyone agree with Gronlund. For example,Grove (1998), Power (1998) and Progosh (1998)all recomended considering otherfactor in assessing and grading. The importance of triangulation, for one, tells us that all abilities of astudent may not be apparent on achievement tests and measured performances.One of arguments fo considering alternatives in assessment is that we may not beable to capture the totality of students’ competence through formal test; otherobservations are also significant indicators of ability. Nor should wediscount mostteachers intuition, which enables them to form impressions of students that cannoteasily be verified empirically. These arguments tell us that improvement,behavior, effort, motivation, and attendance might justifiably belong to a set ofcomponents that add up to a final grade.2.3 Institutional Expectations and Constraint A consideration of philosophies of grading and of procedures forcalculating grades is not complete without a focus on the role of the instituation indetermining grades. The insights gained by the ALI teachers described above, forexample, were spurred to some extent by an examination of institutionalexpectations. In this case, an external factor was at play: all the teachers were 4
  • 6. students in, or had recently graduated from, the Master of Arts in TESOL programat San Francisco State University. Typical of many graduate programs in America universities, this programmanifests a distribution of grades in which As (from A+ to A-) are awarded to anestimated 60 percent to 70 percent of students, with Bs (from B+ to B-) going toalmost all of the remainder. In the ALI context, it had become commonplace forthe graduate grading expectations to ―rub off‖ onto ALI courses in ESL. Thestatistics bore that out. Transcript evaluators at colleges and universities are faced with variationacross institutions on what is deemand to be the threshold level for entry from ahigh school or another university. For many institutions around the around theworld, the concept of letter grades is foreign. Point systems (usually 100 points orpercentages) are more common globally than the letter grades used almostuniversally in the United States. Either way, we are bond by an established,accepted system. Some institutions refuse to employ either a letter grade or a numericalsystem of evaluation and instead offer narrative evaluations of students (see thediscussion on this topic below). This preference for more individualizedevaluations is often a reaction to the overgeneralization of letter and numericalgrading. Being cognizant of an institutional philosophy of grading is an importantstep toward a consistent and fair evaluation of your students. If you are a newteacher in your instituation, try to determine what its grading philosophy is.Sometimes it is not explicit; the assumption is simply made that teachers willgrade students using a system that conforms to an unwritten philosophy. This haspotentially harmful washback for students. A teacher in an organization whoapplies a markedly ―tougher‖ grading policy than other teachers is likely to beviewed by srundents as being out of touch with the rest of the faculty. Thr resultcould be avoidance of the class and even mistrust on the part students.Conversely, an ―easy‖ teacher may become a favorite or popular teacher not 5
  • 7. because of what students learn, but because students know they will get a goodgrade.2.4 Alternatives to Letter Grading Few artifacts of formal learning are as iconic as the letter grade. What can I do to get an A? She’s a C student. He’s always gotten As and Bs in all of his classes. Then we turn the letters into numbers–letter grades become averages ofletter grades, which, when calculated, determined whether or not a learnerqualifies to play sports, get into college, or thinks of him or herself as ―smart.‖ She has a 4.0 GPA. You’re not getting into Stanford with that GPA. It is an incredibly powerful symbol that isn’t going to be erased by long-winded rhetoric. Learners and families–far and away the most vested stakeholdersin education–understand them. They ―get‖ what a B means, and what an F means.The issue is, in all honesty they probably don’t. A. The Failure of the Letter Grade The letter grade fails because its job–to communicate learning results tolearners and families—cannot possibly be performed a single symbol. Further, the letter grade ―pauses‖ learning–basically says that at this point,if I had to average all of your understanding, progress, success, and performanceinto a single alphanumeric character, it’d be this, but really this is over- 6
  • 8. simplifying things because learning is messy and understanding is highlydynamic. While standards-based grading is one attempt to reduce how subjectiveletter grades are–measure and report proficiency based on standards as ―grades.‖This is a step in the right direction–at least parents know what a grade is based on,but they still don’t know any more about their son or daughter. The ideal ―response‖ here isn’t a single change, but a total merging of schools and communities. But until that happens, there are options. B. 12 Alternatives to Letter Grades 1. Gamification A comprehensive systems of badges, trophies, points, XP, achievements. This uncovers nuance and is capable of far more resolution and precision than a letter. 2. Live Feedback Here, students are given verbal and written feedback immediately–as work is being completed. Live scoring without the scoring and iteration. No letters or numbers, just feedback. 3. Grade–>Iterate–>Replace In this process, work is graded as it traditionally has been, then, through revision and iteration, is gradually improved and curated. Eventually ―lesser‖ performance (as determined by students, peers, families, and teachers) is replaced by better work, but without the grades. Grades jump-start the revision process, and that’s it. 4. Always-on Proving Grounds (Continuous Climate of Assessment) 7
  • 9. In this model, assessment never stops–the result of one assessment isanother. Not tests, but demonstrations. It doesn’t stop, so rather thanhalting the process to assign a letter, the process continues on.5. Standards-Based Reporting This one replaces letters with numbers, so it’s really not much better,but it can reduce the subjectivity of grading.6. ―So? So What? What Now?‖ Here, students are asked–and ask themselves–at the end of everyassignment–So, So What? What Now? This is similar to #4 above, butleaves the next step up to the student. Okay, you’re ―finished‖ with thiswork. Now: So: What did you ―do‖? Summarize details and big picture So What? Why was this work important? What now? What is the logical next step with this assignment, idea, ortopic?7. Metacognitive Action/Reflection/Narrative/Anecdotal This approach dovetails behind #6. Rather than halting the learningprocess with a letter-as-performance-indicator, instead learners are taskedwith reflecting on their thinking process–not as a patronizing ―tell theteacher what they want to hear‖ activity on an exit slip walking out thedoor, but as a measure of their understanding and intellectual growth. Thiscan be based on metacognition, reflective on the progression through thecontent, or more anecdotal about the learning process itself.8. Curating the Highlights 8
  • 10. A variation of the reflective and anecdotal approach, curating thehighlights amounts to the student and teach getting together to extract thehighlights of an assignment, or the process of project-based learning.9. Pass/Fail No letter grade–you either pass or fail. Not a great solution to anythingother than the shades of grey between an A and a D, but an alternativenonetheless.10. P2P, S2S, or Mentor Celebration Gather with peers within and across schools to celebrate academic andlearning success. No grades necessary–just planned visibility from the startof the project with a diverse groups of peers. Peer response can also beembedded throughout a lesson or unit by design, rather than only at theend as a summative evaluation.11. Non-points-based Rubrics This is much like the current systems–student performance is stillevaluated against a rubric, but not grade or points are ever assigned. It isup to the student and their family to determine ―how they did.‖ The goal ofthe teacher is not to grade students, but rather to support learners. Studentswill wiggle and writhe trying to turn the rubric’s assessment into a lettergrade, and that’s fine. As a teacher, you’ve moved on to taking data fromthat performance to plan the next steps.12. Publishing Make all learning public. Publish it. It can by anonymous if necessary,but it’s visible to families, peers, and communities. Peers can collaborate 9
  • 11. on revisions, families can respond, communities can celebrate or scoff, but the process has been decentralized and, in a way, democratized. This approach won’t work for every student every time, but the idea is sound–return the stakeholding to the stakeholders.2.5 Some Principles and Guidelines for Grading and Evaluation To sum up, we hope you have become a little better informed about the widelyaccepted practice of grading students, whether on a separate test or on a summativeevaluation of performance in a course. We should now understand that ; Grading is not necessarily based on a universally accepted scale, Grading is sometimes subjective and context-dependent, Grading of tests is often done on the ―curve‖, Grading reflect a teacher’s philosophy of grading, Grading reflect an institutional philosophy of grading, Cross-cultural variation in grading philosophies needs to be understood, Grades often conform, by design to a teacher’s expected distribution of students across a continuum, Tests do not always yield an expected level of difficulty, Letter grades may not ―mean‖ the same thing to allpeople, and Alteernatives to letter grades or numerical scores are highly desirable as additional indicators of achievement. With those characteristics of grading and evaluation in mind, the followingprincipled guidelines should help you be an effective grader and evaluator ofstudent performance. There the interconnection of assessment and teaching was firsthighlighted; in contemplating grading and evaluating our students, that co- 10
  • 12. dependency is underscored. When you assign a letter grade to a student, that lettershould be symbolic of your approach to teaching. If you believe that a gradeshould recognize only objectively scored performance on a final exam, it mayindicate that your approach to teaching reward end product only, not process. Ifyou base some portion of a final grade on improvement, behavior, effort,motivation, and/or punctuality, it may say that your philosophy of teaching valuesthose affective elements. You migh be one of those teachers who feel that gradesare necessary nuisance and that substantive evaluation takes place through thedaily work of optimizing washback in your classroom. If you habitually givemostly As, a few Bs, and virtually no Cs or below, it could mean, among otherthings, that your standards (and expectations) for your students are low. It couldalso mean that your standards are very high and that you put monumental effortinto seeing to it that student are consistently coached throughout the term so thatthey are brought to their fullest possible potential. As we develop our own philosophy of grading, make some attempt toconform that philosophy to our approach to teaching. In a communicativelanguage classroom, that approach usually implies meaningful learning,authenticity, building of student autonomy, student-teacher collaboration, acommunity of learners, and the perception that our role is that of a facilitator orcoach rather than a director or dictator. Just as there is no simple system for evaluating the quality of facultyresearch, there is no simple system for evaluating the quality of faculty teaching.However, by thinking carefully about the purposes of evaluation, and by craftingmultiple methods of evaluation that suit those purposes, one can devise evaluationsystems that are reliable, valid, and fair. Equally important, the process ofdiscussing and crafting evaluation systems focuses attention on the practice ofgood teaching and helps to create a culture in which teaching is highly valued.Some Principles of Teaching Evaluation 1. Multiple methods. 11
  • 13. The most important consideration in teaching evaluation, both for improvement purposes and for personnel decisions, is the use of multiple methods of teaching evaluation involving multiple sources of data.2. Faculty, departmental and school responsibilities. To ensure that the evaluation system adopted is credible and acceptable, faculty members must have a strong hand in its development. Before departments and schools adopt teaching evaluation systems, the faculty members should determine their criteria for effective teaching. Departments and schools can then take responsibility for developing their own evaluation methods and evaluation criteria. Since different disciplines require different methods and settings for instruction, they require different methods and criteria for evaluation. This is also true for interdisciplinary instruction. Teaching evaluation systems can be flexible to accommodate diversity in instructional methods (e.g., lecture, discussion, lab, case study, small group interaction, practicum, studio, field work, clinical work, etc.). To promote compatibility within the university, standards should be reviewed, understood, and accepted by all groups involved in the promotion and tenure review process.3. Individualizing teaching evaluation. Effective teaching evaluation must be individualized. A uniform system discriminates against some individuals, so a plan sensitive to individual variation should be developed. A faculty member should provide information about his/her contributions and accomplishments as a teacher on a longitudinal basis over his/her teaching career. Consideration can then be given to changes in emphasis and interest that will naturally occur in an academic career. 12
  • 14. 4. What may be assessed. Teaching evaluation has as its central element the assessment of the quality of classroom instruction. Since teaching includes activities broader than classroom instruction, evaluation of teaching must assess more than classroom performance. While departments and schools may identify additional items, among the teaching activities that may be assessed are the following: a. Quality, amount, and level of classroom instruction (including shared instruction) b. Development of curricula, new courses, and classroom materials; c. Supervision and mentoring of graduate students, including chairing of dissertations; d. Service on graduate examination and dissertation committees; e. One-on-one consultation with students, including supervision of independent study and readings courses; f. Supervision of teaching assistants in undergraduate courses; g. Conduct and supervision of laboratory instruction; h. Supervision of undergraduate and graduate research; i. Advising students in the major; j. Supervision of field work; and k. Supervision of clinical and practicum experiences. 13
  • 15. CHAPTER III DISCUSSIONS2.5 What is the purpose do grades serve? What is the purpose or function of grades in education? Measurementexperts such as Peter Airasian (1994) explain that educators use grades primarily(1) for administrative purposes, (2) to give students feedback about their progressand achievement, (3) to provide guidance to students about future course work,(4) to provide guidance to teachers for instructional planning, and (5) to motivatestudents. 1. Administrative Purposes For at least several decades, grades have served a variety of administrative functions (Wrinkle, 1947), most dealing with district-level decisions about students, including Student matriculation and retention. Placement when students transfer from one school to another. Student entrance into college. Airasian (1994) further explains that "administratively, schools need grades to determine such things as a pupils rank in class, credits for graduation, and suitability for promotion to the next level" (p. 283). Research indicates that some districts explicitly make note of the administrative function of grades. For example, in a study of school board manuals, district guidelines, and handbooks for teaching, researchers Susan Austin and Richard McCann (1992) found the explicit mention of administration as a basic purpose for grades in 7 percent of school board 14
  • 16. documents, 10 percent of district guidelines, and 4 percent of handbooks forteachers. Finally, in a survey conducted by The College Board (1998), over81 percent of the schools reported using grades for administrative purposes.2. Feedback About Student Achievement One of the more obvious purposes for grades is to provide feedback aboutstudent achievement. Studies have consistently shown support for thispurpose. For example, in 1976, Simon and Bellanca reported that botheducators and noneducators perceived providing information about studentachievement as the primary purpose of grading. In a 1989 study of highschool teachers, Stiggins, Frisbie, and Griswold reported that this gradingfunction—which they refer to as the information function—was highlyvalued by teachers. Finally, the study by Austin and McCann (1992) foundthat 25 percent of school board documents, 45 percent of district documents,and 65 percent of teacher documents mentioned reporting studentachievement as a basic purpose of grades.3. Guidance When used for guidance purposes, grades help counselors providedirection for students (Wrinkle, 1947; Terwilliger, 1971). Specifically,counselors use grades to recommend to individual students courses theyshould or should not take and schools and occupations they might consider(Airasian, 1994). Austin and McCann (1992) found that 82 percent of schoolboard documents, 40 percent of district documents, and 38 percent of teacherdocuments identified guidance as an important purpose of grades.4. Instructional Planning Teachers also use grades to make initial decisions about student strengthsand weaknesses in order to group them for instruction. Grading as a tool forinstructional planning is not commonly mentioned by measurement experts.However, the Austin and McCann (1992) study reported that 44 percent of 15
  • 17. school board documents, 20 percent of district documents, and 10 percent of teacher documents emphasized this purpose. 5. Motivation Those who advocate using grades to motivate students assume that they encourage students to try harder both from negative and positive perspectives. On the negative side, receiving a low grade is believed to motivate students to try harder. On the positive side, it is assumed that receiving a high grade will motivate students to continue or renew their efforts. As discussed later in this chapter, some educators object strongly to using grades as motivators. Rightly or wrongly, however, this purpose is manifested in some U.S. schools. For example, Austin and McCann (1992) found that 7 percent of school board documents, 15 percent of district-level documents, and 10 percent of teacher documents emphasized motivation as a purpose for grades. Then, which is the most important purpose? According to the research citedin the previous sections, each of the five purposes for grading has some supportfrom educators. A useful question is which of the five purposes is the mostimportant or, more generally stated, what is the relative importance of the fivepurposes? depicts the results of the Austin and McCann (1992) study comparedwith an informal survey we undertook in preparing this book. If one uses theaverage rank (the last column) from the two studies as the criterion, indicates thatusing grades to provide feedback about student achievement should be consideredthe primary function of grades. Guidance is ranked second, instructional planningand motivation are tied for third, and administration is last. However, to obtain themost accurate picture of the opinions about the various purpose of grades, it isimportant to notice the variation in responses. In this section weve looked at the basic purpose of and the point of referencefor grades. Out of five potential purposes, feedback was identified as the most 16
  • 18. important. Out of three possible points of reference, specific learning outcomeswas deemed the most compatible with feedback as a purpose.2.6 What is the trouble with evaluation of students? In the world of education, assessment and evaluation would have beendone in the learning process. Assessment and evaluation aimed to determine theability of the learner is to meet the Graduate Competence Standard (SKL) or not.Graduate Competence Standard (SKL) is a classification of graduate capabilitiesthat include attitudes, knowledge and skills. Graduate Competence Standard(SKL) is used as a guideline in determining the graduation of students frompsendidikan unit. Besides the evaluation aims to determine the extent ofabsorption of the product discussion learners that educators apply. There areseveral types of tool evaluation, namely: a test written and unwritten. If we look atthe world of education, we will know that any type or form of education at certaintimes during the period of education is always an evaluation, which means that atcertain times during the period of education has always held an assessment of theresults achieved, either by the educated and the educators. By examining the achievement of objectives of teaching, teachers candetermine if the learning process is done quite effectively give good results andsatisfactory or otherwise. So it is clear that teachers should be able to carry outassessments and skillful, because the assessments teachers can find out theachievements of his students after implementing the learning process.Professionalism became teachers in their work demands. Moreover, the teachingprofession handle the day-to-day life objects such as children or students with thecharacteristics of each are not the same. Teachers job becomes more severe whenon increasing the ability of their students, while her abilities stagnant. And seen ineducation today is the problem is the failure of teachers in teacher evaluation. In its function as assessors of student learning outcomes, teachers shouldcontinue to follow the learning outcomes achieved by students from time to time.The information obtained through this evaluation is feedback (feed back) to the 17
  • 19. teaching and learning process. This feedback will be used as a starting point toimprove and enhance the learning process further. Thus, the learning process willcontinue to be improved to obtain optimal results. In other subjects sometimes held at the end of the lesson, and there is alsoduring the process of teaching and learning takes place. When the time of theevaluation is not a problem for teachers is most important in one session he hasconducted an assessment of the students in the class. But there are also teachers who are reluctant to carry out an evaluation atthe end of the lesson, because of time constraints, they thought better explain allof the subject matter to the bitter end to one meeting, and at the next meeting atthe beginning of the lesson students are given a task or questions related to thematerial . There are also teachers who say that assessment at the end of the lesson isnot absolutely the written test. It could also oral test or question and answer. Feltmore practical activities for teachers, because teachers do not have to take pains tocorrect the results of the evaluation of children. But these activities have thedisadvantage that children who are nervous even though he knew the answer tothat question, he could not answer precisely because of her nervousness was. Andother weaknesses oral tests take too much time, and the teacher must have a lot ofinventory problems. But there are also teachers who represent some of the smartkids, kids who are less and some children who were its ability to answer the fewquestions or problems relating to that subject matter. Every teacher in conducting the evaluation should be familiar with thepurpose and benefits of the evaluation or assessment. But there are also teacherswho do not bother about this activity, which is important he entered theclassroom, teaching, he would carry out an evaluation at the end of the lesson ornot is his business. What is clear at the end of the semester he had reached thetarget curriculum. This is a problem in education today.What causes this happen? There are some things that might cause this to happen,such as: 18
  • 20. 1. Teachers are less mastering the subject matter, so in presenting the subject matter to children often disjointed sentence or convoluted that cause the child to be confused and difficult to digest what was said by the teacher. Of course at the end of the lesson they are overwhelmed or unable to answer questions given task. And finally, the value obtained is far from what was expected.2. Teachers did not master class. Teachers who are less able to control the class challenged in delivering the subject matter, this is because the atmosphere of a class that does not support the child who really want to learn to be disturbed.3. Teachers are reluctant to use visual aids in teaching. Habits of teachers who do not use props to force children to think verbal thus making it difficult to understand the childs learning and automatic evaluation at the end of a lesson in the value of the child to fall.4. Teachers are less able to motivate children to learn, so as to convey the subject matter, children are less concerned about the material presented by the teacher, so that the knowledge contained in the material presented it slip away without any special attention from students.5. Teachers menyamaratkan childs ability in absorbing the lessons. Each of the students has a different ability to absorb the material. Teachers are less caught not knowing that there are children didinya absorbance below average have difficulty in learning.6. Teachers lack of discipline in managing time. Time is written in the timetable, not in accordance with the practice of implementation,. Time to start learning is always late, but the time off and hours of home is always on or never late.7. Teachers are reluctant to make preparations to teach or at least prepare the teaching, which are accompanied by provisions lesson time to start, time to process activities and the provision of time for the end of the lesson. 19
  • 21. 8. Teachers do not have any progress to add or gain knowledge, such as reading a book or exchange ideas with fellow teachers more senior and professional insights to add. 9. In the oral test at the end of the lesson, the teacher asked a question to the less skilled students, so that students do not understand what is meant by the teacher. 10. Teachers always put the achievement of the curriculum. Teachers rarely notice or analyze what percentage absorption of children to the subject matter Another issue in the assessment and evaluation in education, especially inIndonesia, is a matter of national examinations. National Examination is one ofthe governments national assessment to measure student success. In recent years,its presence into the public debate and controversy. On the one hand there whoagree because they can improve the quality of education. With the national examinations, schools and teachers will be encouraged toprovide the best possible care so that the students can take the exam and get yourexam results are the best. Likewise, students are encouraged to study seriously sothat he can pass with the best possible outcome. Meanwhile, on the other hand isalso not a few who feel not agree because it assumes that the NationalExamination as something very contradictory and counterproductive to the spiritof reform that we are learning to develop. However, the development of national examinations is often used for thebenefit of outside education, such as the political interests of the holders ofeducational policy or economic interests of a few people. Therefore, no wonder itsimplementation irregularities are found, such as the case of leakage problems, asystemic and deliberate cheat, manipulate the results of student work and otherforms of cheating. This makes the problem of assessment and evaluation oflearning, because teachers assess and evaluate students final grades based on theresults of the national examinations. 20
  • 22. This is done by government policy to implement the system UNAS (NationalExamination) and NEM (NilaiAkhir Pure) it. So the assessment of the results ofthe tests can not show the ability or competence of each learner, whether theyhave mastered the subject or not. The scoring system adopted affect theimplementation of the learning process in the classroom. Assessment is morefocused on the assessment of learning outcomes led to an assessment of thelearning process is neglected. The learning process should be ongoing no. Finallylearning activities in our schools many issues covered by the low level ofunderstanding of students, including in mathematics learning. In the national exam, with more emphasis on the assessment of learningoutcomes (products) are likely to only assess the cognitive abilities, andsometimes reduced in such a way through a test objective. Meanwhile, theassessment of the affective and psychomotor aspects often overlooked. As aresult, a lot going on complaints from the public and the school itself about thelow quality courtesy and responsibility of our students because the assessment isgenerally focused on activities related to academic achievement and less mnaruhattention to activities related to the behavior and attitudes.2.7 How to make grading more effecient? Grading is tedious, time-consuming, and frustrating. Many of would teachfor free, but we must be paid to grade. A rubric clearly defines what a studentneeds to do in order to receive a specific grade. A rubric will help you to grademore quickly and painlessly while providing students with useful feedback ontheir performance. To create a rubric, you must first spell out an assignments goals. Beexplicit. For example, when you ask your students to write an essay, what skillsdo you want your students to be able to demonstrate? You might, for example,want them to: 1. Construct an argument that is novel, plausible, and sophisticated. 2. Support their argument with compelling lines of reasoning and persuasive examples. 21
  • 23. 3. Demonstrate an ability to analyze complex ideas and counter-arguments. 4. Structure a paper that is focused and logically organized. 5. Vary sentence structure and use words with precision. There are some strategies that we can use to make the grading processmore efficient. Although all of the materials are designed to help you withconsistent, fair, and efficient grading, there are some additional tips on efficiencyas well as tips mentioned elsewhere that are worth emphasizing. At the very beginning Consider the course grading policies. You can save a lot of time by discouraging superfluous regrade requests and late work. Consider the assignment design. Clearly worded assignments and clear learning objectives will greatly improve grading efficiency. Make sure that exam questions are vetted thoroughly prior to the exam. Before you grade Spell out the criteria you will be using as specifically as possible, and come to an agreement with your instructor or fellow GSIs about how grades will be determined. Try creating a rubric, or grading scale, and test it out on a sampling of papers. It may also be helpful to look at a representative sampling of student work to get a sense of the common errors prior to creating your rubric. Always use the minimum number of gradations consistent with the learning objectives. Why grade on a six-point scale when pass/not pass would be sufficient (and significantly more efficient)? Ask yourself: Is this rubric fair? Does it appropriately weight the understanding the students exhibit? Does it reflect the assignment’s learning objectives and the assignment prompt? 22
  • 24. Making your grading criteria more explicit both enhances student learningand reduces the time you spend determining and justifying grades.While you are gradingGrade while you are in a good mood.Grade with company! In addition to being more fun, the other GSIs are aresource for grading questions. Also, if you are grading a large lecturecourse, it can streamline the grading consistency checks. To ensureconsistency, exchange a few papers in each score range with the otherGSIs, and grade them independently. Compare the scores and takecorrective action if necessary.Time yourself. Try to limit how long you spend grading each assignment(e.g., I want to grade on average 20 problems per hour). If you findyourself puzzling over a particular paper, set the paper aside to grade last,when your sense of all of the students’ work has been fully developed.If you are blind grading, keep your grades in a file organized by student IDnumber (SID), separate from the file that matches the SIDs to names. Thisensures objectivity. Or, less formally, you can just make it a practice not tolook at student names while grading.If the assignment has disjoint parts, grade each part separately (e.g., if anassignment consists of three problems, grade the first problem for theentire class before you proceed to grading the second problem, etc.). Thiswill help you grade consistently as well as efficiently.When you are finished grading, look again at the first few assignments yougraded to see if you still agree with yourself.Commenting on Student WorkIdentify common problems students had with an assignment and prepare ahandout addressing those problems. This helps you to avoid having towrite the same comments multiple times. It also enables you to address the 23
  • 25. problem in more detail and helps students realize that others share thesame problems.Type your comments. This has a number of advantages. It allows you tokeep a computer record of each student’s progress over the semester;comments can be more detailed; longer comments on common problemscan be cut and pasted from one assignment to another; and it is easier forthe students to read what you have written.Do not comment on every problem or point. Focus on a couple of majorpoints. This not only helps you to grade more efficiently, it also avoidsoverwhelming the students. It enables them to focus more effectively onthe areas of their work that most need improvement.Consider asking students to turn in a cover page with their own evaluationof their work’s strongest and weakest points as well as the students’thoughts on how they could improve the work.After You’ve GradedIf appropriate for your course or section, use a spreadsheet or the SpaceGrading feature to calculate grades. It may take a little time to learn howto use these if you are not familiar with them, but the savings in time canbe considerable if you are working with grade points or differentlyweighted letter grades. Back up all electronic records!If a student consistently turns in unsatisfactory work, meet with him or herto figure out why and develop a plan of action. Often a student just needs amore efficient study strategy. 24
  • 26. CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS4.1 Conclusions Finally we can concluded that there the interconnection of assessment andteaching was first highlighted, in contemplating grading and evaluating ourstudents, that co-dependency is underscored. When you assign a letter grade to astudent, that letter should be symbolic of your approach to teaching. If you believethat a grade should recognize only objectively scored performance on a finalexam, it may indicate that your approach to teaching rewards end products only,not process. If you base some portion of a final grade on improvement, behavior,effort, motivation, and punctuality, it may say that your philosophy of teachingvalues those affective elements. As you develope your own philosophy of grading, make some attempt toconform that philosophy to your approach to teachin. In communicative languagecalssroom, that approach usualy implies meaningful learning, authenticity,building of students autonomy, student-teachers collaboration, a community ofleraner, and the perception that your role is that of a facilitator or coach readerthan a director or dictator. Let your grading philosophy be consonant with yourteaching philosophy. 25
  • 27. REFERENCEBrown, H. Douglas. Long man (2003). Language Assessment; Principles And Classroom Practice. San Francisco : State University.Walvoord, B. & V. Anderson (1998). Effective Grading: A Tool for Learning and Assessment . San Francisco : Jossey-Bass. 26