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PATHOLOGY /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078


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  • 1. Pathology An Introduction…. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. Man is the Architect of his life… www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 4. Epidemiology Etiology - Causes Pathogenesis - Evolution Morphology - Structural Changes Clinical Significance – Functional Changes Management Complications Prevention www.indiandentalacademy.com Pathology Study of Disease:
  • 5. Pathology Study of what is abnormal or wrong or disease…! “Scientific Study of Disease” Normal  Abnormal  Treat www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6. Pathology “Is the foundation of medical science and practice. Without pathology, the practice of medicine would be reduced to myths and folklore” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 7. Diagnosis What is “Diagnosis”? – The formal name(s) used to describe a patient’s disease – The process of identifying a disease based on the patient’s symptoms, the doctor’s findings, and the results of investigations and laboratory tests What do you need to make a diagnosis? – A system of classification that supplies the necessary names, definitions, and criteria – The means to ascertain the defining characteristics of a disease in the individual patient www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8. History of Pathology “animism” – Philosophies of Plato – God/devil Magic – Primitive thoughts Humors – Phlegm – excess/deficiency – c300 Abiogenesis – Spontaneous – upto c1800 Environmental – Modern – 1850 to present Genetic – Molecular pathology – 20th century www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9. Past and Present….! In the past, .. people mistook magic for medicine…! Now people mistake medicine for magic….! www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10. Scope of Pathology Experimental Pathology Clinical Pathology www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11. Subdivisions of clinical Pathology: Histopathology Cytopathology Haematology Microbiology Immunology Chemical Pathology Genetics Toxicology Forensic Pathology Histopathologist Cytologist Haematologist Microbiologist Biochemist Geneticist Toxicologist Forensic Pathologist Molecular Biologist www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 13. Learning Pathology: General Pathology –Common changes in all tissues. E.g.. Inflammation, cancer, ageing. Systemic Pathology –Specific changes in organs. E.g.. Goiter, pneumonia, breast cancer. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 14. Study of Disease: (Pathology) Epidemiology Etiology - Causes Pathogenesis - Evolution Morphology - Structural Changes Clinical Significance – Functional Changes Management Complications Prevention www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15. Etiology: Environmental agents: – Physical – Chemical – Nutritional – Infections – Immunological – Psychological Genetic Factors: – Age – Genes www.indiandentalacademy.com Multifactorial:
  • 16. Multifactorial Etiology: Diseases are “caused” due to internal or external factors. Multifactorial: No more “one cause to one disease” Genetic factors affect acquired diseases and environment has profound effect on genetic diseases. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17. Classification of Diseases: Developmental – genetic, congenital. Inflammatory – Trauma, infections, immune, etc. Neoplastic – tumors cancers Degenerative – ageing. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18. Pathogenesis: “Sequence of events in the response of cells & tissues to a stimulus/pathogen” starting from the initial stimulus to the ultimate expression of disease.” Gross and microscopic Structure, Function, Chemistry & molecular mechanisms. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 19. Morphology: Structural and associated functional changes in cells, tissues and organs that are characteristic of the disease or condition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20. Clinical Significance: Functional derangements and its clinical manifestations resulting from the morphologic changes. Signs and symptoms, course and prognosis of disease depend on the morphology. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21. Techniques in Pathology: Gross Pathology: Light Microscopy Histochemistry, Biochemical Immunohistochemistry Electron Microscopy Cell Cultures, Medical Microbiology Molecular Pathology www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 22. Sample Case: www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23. Clinical Details: 34 year Fijian male Neck swelling, 2-3 months, Fever, weight loss, no other lymphadenopathy Lymphnode biopsy done www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24. Right neck mass www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 25. Lymphnode Biopsy •Diffuse tumour •Capsule www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 26. Lymphnode Biopsy •Large cells •Mitotic figures www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 27. Histiocytic/Tcell NHL Diffuse pattern – no follicles. Large cells with moderate cytoplasm Plenty of mitotic figures, Nuclei are vesicular prominent nucleoli Features suggest T-cell NHL – malignant lymphoma. Needs further marker studies for typing & management. cancer Chemotherapy. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 28. Pathology Summary: Etiology: – Carcinogenesis. DNA Damage, Mutation. Pathogenesis: – Uncontrolled cell division, tumor. Morphology: – Enlarged lymphnodes, liver, spleen, microscopically – lymphoma cells. Clinical Features: – Fever, Wt loss, tumor-Ln, Liver, Spleen. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 29. "Never does a man portray his character more vividly than when he is proclaiming the character of another." Winston Churchill 1874-1965, Former British Prime Minister www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 30. www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com