PATHOLOGY /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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PATHOLOGY /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Pathology An Introduction….
  2. 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
  3. 3. Man is the Architect of his life…
  4. 4. Epidemiology Etiology - Causes Pathogenesis - Evolution Morphology - Structural Changes Clinical Significance – Functional Changes Management Complications Prevention Pathology Study of Disease:
  5. 5. Pathology Study of what is abnormal or wrong or disease…! “Scientific Study of Disease” Normal  Abnormal  Treat
  6. 6. Pathology “Is the foundation of medical science and practice. Without pathology, the practice of medicine would be reduced to myths and folklore”
  7. 7. Diagnosis What is “Diagnosis”? – The formal name(s) used to describe a patient’s disease – The process of identifying a disease based on the patient’s symptoms, the doctor’s findings, and the results of investigations and laboratory tests What do you need to make a diagnosis? – A system of classification that supplies the necessary names, definitions, and criteria – The means to ascertain the defining characteristics of a disease in the individual patient
  8. 8. History of Pathology “animism” – Philosophies of Plato – God/devil Magic – Primitive thoughts Humors – Phlegm – excess/deficiency – c300 Abiogenesis – Spontaneous – upto c1800 Environmental – Modern – 1850 to present Genetic – Molecular pathology – 20th century
  9. 9. Past and Present….! In the past, .. people mistook magic for medicine…! Now people mistake medicine for magic….!
  10. 10. Scope of Pathology Experimental Pathology Clinical Pathology
  11. 11. Subdivisions of clinical Pathology: Histopathology Cytopathology Haematology Microbiology Immunology Chemical Pathology Genetics Toxicology Forensic Pathology Histopathologist Cytologist Haematologist Microbiologist Biochemist Geneticist Toxicologist Forensic Pathologist Molecular Biologist
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Learning Pathology: General Pathology –Common changes in all tissues. E.g.. Inflammation, cancer, ageing. Systemic Pathology –Specific changes in organs. E.g.. Goiter, pneumonia, breast cancer.
  14. 14. Study of Disease: (Pathology) Epidemiology Etiology - Causes Pathogenesis - Evolution Morphology - Structural Changes Clinical Significance – Functional Changes Management Complications Prevention
  15. 15. Etiology: Environmental agents: – Physical – Chemical – Nutritional – Infections – Immunological – Psychological Genetic Factors: – Age – Genes Multifactorial:
  16. 16. Multifactorial Etiology: Diseases are “caused” due to internal or external factors. Multifactorial: No more “one cause to one disease” Genetic factors affect acquired diseases and environment has profound effect on genetic diseases.
  17. 17. Classification of Diseases: Developmental – genetic, congenital. Inflammatory – Trauma, infections, immune, etc. Neoplastic – tumors cancers Degenerative – ageing.
  18. 18. Pathogenesis: “Sequence of events in the response of cells & tissues to a stimulus/pathogen” starting from the initial stimulus to the ultimate expression of disease.” Gross and microscopic Structure, Function, Chemistry & molecular mechanisms.
  19. 19. Morphology: Structural and associated functional changes in cells, tissues and organs that are characteristic of the disease or condition.
  20. 20. Clinical Significance: Functional derangements and its clinical manifestations resulting from the morphologic changes. Signs and symptoms, course and prognosis of disease depend on the morphology.
  21. 21. Techniques in Pathology: Gross Pathology: Light Microscopy Histochemistry, Biochemical Immunohistochemistry Electron Microscopy Cell Cultures, Medical Microbiology Molecular Pathology
  22. 22. Sample Case:
  23. 23. Clinical Details: 34 year Fijian male Neck swelling, 2-3 months, Fever, weight loss, no other lymphadenopathy Lymphnode biopsy done
  24. 24. Right neck mass
  25. 25. Lymphnode Biopsy •Diffuse tumour •Capsule
  26. 26. Lymphnode Biopsy •Large cells •Mitotic figures
  27. 27. Histiocytic/Tcell NHL Diffuse pattern – no follicles. Large cells with moderate cytoplasm Plenty of mitotic figures, Nuclei are vesicular prominent nucleoli Features suggest T-cell NHL – malignant lymphoma. Needs further marker studies for typing & management. cancer Chemotherapy.
  28. 28. Pathology Summary: Etiology: – Carcinogenesis. DNA Damage, Mutation. Pathogenesis: – Uncontrolled cell division, tumor. Morphology: – Enlarged lymphnodes, liver, spleen, microscopically – lymphoma cells. Clinical Features: – Fever, Wt loss, tumor-Ln, Liver, Spleen.
  29. 29. "Never does a man portray his character more vividly than when he is proclaiming the character of another." Winston Churchill 1874-1965, Former British Prime Minister
  30. 30. Leader in continuing dental education