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Animal farm

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  • 1. Old “Mc” Orwell Had a Farm:
    Manor Farm or
    Animal Farm
  • 2. What Is an Allegory?
    Narrative that serves as an extended metaphor.
    May be fables, parables, poems, stories, any almost any other form of literature.
    Four levels: literal meaning, satirical allegory, political treatise, beast fable.
  • 3. Which Three Forms of Allegory Fit Animal Farm?
    • Satirical Allegory
    • 4. Political Treatise
    • 5. Beast Fable
    Learning to Walk
  • 6. Allegory vs. Symbol
    • Allegory is a complete narrative that conveys abstract ideas to get a point across.
    • 7. Symbol is a representation of an idea or concept that can have different meanings throughout a literary work.
  • A Simple Story Becomes…
    A moral warning against the abuse of power;
    A story of disillusionment with the Russian Revolution of 1917;
    An exposure of Stalin’s evils;
    A fable of human strengths and weaknesses.
  • 8. Why Orwell Wrote the Book
    He was a democratic socialist.
    He was disgusted by Stalin’s betrayal of the ideals of the Russian Revolution.
    He wanted to teach us:
    Power corrupts;
    Revolutions come full circle
    and devour their people;
  • 9. George Orwell
  • 10. Why Orwell Wrote the Book (Con’d)
    Even good people are
    vulnerable to power-
    hungry leaders if they
    do not question what
    they are told.
  • 11. Character: Old Major
    • Represents a mixture of Marx and
    Lenin
    • Marx and Lenin were well-educated “thinkers.”
    • 12. They were revolutionaries, NOT street fighters.
    • 13. Marx was dead before the Revolution started, and Lenin was already an old man.
  • Character: Farmer Jones
    • Represents the Czar Nicholas and his royal family
    Not a bad ruler, but too weak to deal with the revolution and put a stop to it.
  • 14. From One House to Another
    Winter Palace Room Where Czar and
    Family Murdered
  • 15. Character: Old Major (Wise, Old Hog)
  • 16. Famous Sayings
    • “Animals of the world unite.”
    • 17. “No animal in England is free. The life of an animal is misery and slavery: that is the plain truth.”
    • 18. “All men are enemies. All animals are comrades.”
  • Marx/Lenin
    Marx and Lenin were “thinkers” and writers.
    Dream of abolishing class distinctions and redistribution of land and resources
    Philosophical belief in the possibility of an utopian society based on equality and work sharing (think of Early Christians)
  • 19. Marx and Lenin
  • 20. Character: Boxer, Benjamin, et al
    • Boxer (the work horse) represents the Russian working class, especially the peasants.
    • 21. Benjamin (the donkey) stands for the cunning workers who saw the disaster coming with the revolution, but did nothing about it.
  • Boxer and Benjamin
  • 22. Famous Sayings
    • Boxer: “I will work harder.”
    “ If Comrade Napoleon says it, it must be true.”
    • Benjamin: “Donkeys live a long time.”
    “I can read, but there’s nothing worth reading.
  • 23. Character: Boxer, Benjamin, et al (Con’d)
    The hens stand for the Russian farmers who attempted to hold on to their farms.
    The sheep represent the unthinking workers who did not understand what was happening, but wanted the status quo to change.
  • 24. The Hens
    • Refuse to give up their eggs and are severely punished by the hogs until they comply.
  • The Bolsheviks
    Russians: largely peasants with some formal education
    On an intellectual level, this population embraces the Revolution.
    Enthusiastically worked for the Revolution because of the promise of food and work.
  • 25. Bolsheviks
    • Bolsheviks (or "the Majority") were an organization of professional revolutionaries who considered themselves as a vanguard of the revolutionary proletariat.
    • 26. Beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism.
    • 27. Party was founded by Vladimir Lenin, who also led it in the October Revolution
  • Josef Stalin
    • totalitarian ruler of Russia after Lenin
    • 28. expels Leon Trotsky from the Party and then adopts many of Trotsky’s financial and political plans
    • 29. iron-fisted dictator
  • Joseph Stalin (Con’d)
    • Took control from Lenin
    • 30. Cold-blooded killer
    • 31. Far more murders than Hitler
    • 32. Responsible for 10-20 MILLION murders
    • 33. Personally enjoyed killing and watching others kill
    • 34. Murdered at least one wife
  • Joseph Stalin (Con’d)
    Ruled Soviet Russia
    1922-1953
  • 35. Character: Napoleon
    Napoleon represents Stalin
  • 36. Joseph Stalin
    • Real name IosifVissarionovichDzhugashvili
    • 37. “Stalin” means “man of steel” or “hammer of steel.”
    • 38. From a peasant family in the Russian providence of Georgia
  • Stakhanovites
    • The Stakhanovites (Working Class)
    • 39. poor Russian populace with little to no formal education
  • The Russian Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches
    • under Marxism, the “church” has no official role
    • 40. Marx comments that “The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is required for their real happiness.”
  • Russian Church
    Lenin called religion “the opiate of the masses”; He meant that is was used as a painkiller for the unfairness of the workers’ world. The raven Moses represents religion in the book.
  • 41. Leon Trotsky
    an intellectual and Lenin’s “right hand” man
    much more practical than Lenin, more aware of the daily struggles of the population
    conceives of the notion of the Five Year Plan that Stalin later adopts
  • 42. Character: Snowball
    • Snowball represents Leon Trotsky.
    Trotsky was a “thinker,” but also a street fighter for the revolution. Stalin felt that Trotsky had to be eliminated because he was too smart and powerful and “might” pose a threat to Stalin’s rule.
  • 43. White Russians (Belarusian)
    • under the Czar, these Russians were land owners with a certain degree of influence
    • 44. before the Revolution, White Russians own serfs and control distribution of wealth in “the bread basket” of Russia (Ukraine, Belarus)
  • White Russians (Con’d)
    resented by the general population as members of the elitist (class) system that exists before the Revolution
  • 45. Winston Churchill (England)
    close diplomatic ties with Lenin in order to defeat Hitler and the Nazis during World War II
    Churchill had reservations about socialism but overlooked them in order to manage what he saw as a greater threat to England and Western Europe: Fascism
  • 46. Forced Labor
    The Revolt of the Hens and their brutal punishment represents to measures taken by Stalin and his men to force the Russian farmers to give up their land and way of life.
  • 47. Propagandists (Pravda)
    Russian newspaper, state-run
    Pravda was well-known in the West for its pronouncements as the official voice of Soviet Communism
  • 48. Secret Police(Beria)
    NKVD (later the KGB) come to be regarded with great fear by the Russians was responsible for political repression during the Stalinist era
    conducted mass extrajudicial executions, ran the Gulag system of forced labor, conducted mass deportations of nationalities and peasants labeled as “Kulaks" to unpopulated regions of the country, guarded state borders, conducted espionage and political assassinationsabroad, was responsible for subversion of foreign governments, and enforced Stalinist policy within Communist movements in other countries
  • 49. Secret Police (Con’d)
    also known for its Main Directorate for State Security, which eventually became the Committee for State Security (KGB)
  • 50. Characters: Squealer and the Dogs
    The Dogs were taken by Napoleon to train as his protection force. They became his ruthless killers.
  • 51. Plot Parallels
    • October Revolution 1917
    • 52. Kronstadtrebellion
    • 53. Trotsky’s emphasis on heavy industry
    • 54. Civil War 1918 -1919
    • 55. Stalin’s emphasis on agriculture
    • 56. Trotsky’s permanent revolution
    • 57. Stalin’s “socialism in one country”
    • 58. Trotsky’s exile
    • 59. Failure of the first “Five Year Plan”
  • …continued
    • Purge trials 1936 – 1938
    • 60. Nazi-Soviet pact of 1939
    • 61. German invasion 1941
    Tehran conference 1943
  • 62. Plot parallels
    Snowball champions the windmill
    The animals’ rebellion
    Napoleon’s opposition to sending pigeons
    The Battle of the Cowshed led by Snowball
    Snowball is defeated and driven away
    The windmill is demolished
    Deal with Frederick
    Battle with Frederick
    The mutiny of the hens
    Snowball wants to send pigeons to nearby farms
    Pigs and men are indistinguishable
    Starvation
    Confessions and executions of animals
  • 63. Snowball’s Dream and Disaster
    Snowball proposed building a windmill to make life easier for the workers in the future. Napoleon objected because he wanted to sell goods the workers could produce. Napoleon used this windmill idea to label Snowball a traitor and force him off the farm.
  • 64. Finale
    By the end of the book, it is impossible to tell the difference in the actions of the Hogs and Man. The animals are still suffering under the rule of a monster. It may be an “animal” monster, but he is still a monster.
    Created by: Mrs. Cheryl Metz