Animal farm


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Mr. Jones the farmer is a drunk and cruel tyrant, and one day the animals on his farm have had enough of him, so they take over the farm and kick him out. They set up a government of their own. It starts out as an egalitarian government, where all animals are equal, but as time progresses it turns into a regime as repressive and totalitarian as that of Mr. Jones. Their new motto is "All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others." In the end they become a drunk tyrant just like Mr. Jones, so the revolution was not revolution at all.

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Animal farm

  1. 1. AnimalBy Farm George OrwellAllegory - Satire - Fable Presented by : Mohammed Sabri Bamerni ( Prime_Metin) “All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others.”
  2. 2. Animal Farm in brief It was written in 1940s. Its an allegory of the Russian revolution, on how communism doesnt work. In the story, a bunch of farm animals overthrow the farmer who treated them badly. They set up an ideal society in which all the animals are equal, and all work for the benefit of each other (basically a communist society). The pigs take a leadership position, even though technically all the animals are equal. One pig, Napoleon, who is power hungry, kicks out his co- leader, Snowball, and then becomes a tyrant. He mistreats the other animals in a similar way as the farmer mistreated them. The animals are back to square one, and no improvement has been made.
  3. 3. Why Animals? In explaining how he came to write Animal Farm, Orwell says he once saw a little boy whipping(beating horse by whip) a horse and later he wrote,  “It struck me that if only such animals became aware of their strength we should have no power over them, and that men exploit(use) animals in much the same way as the rich exploit the [worker].”
  4. 4. What is Animal Farm? A masterpiece of political satire, Animal Farm is a tale of oppressed individuals who long for freedom but ultimately are corrupted by assuming(arrogant) the very power that had originally oppressed(tyrannized) them. The story traces(sketches, describes) the deplorable(miserable) conditions of mistreated animals who can speak and who exhibit(present) many human characteristics(features). After extreme negligence(carelessness) by their owner, the animals revolt and expel(drive out) Mr. Jones and his wife from the farm. The tale of the society the animals form into a totalitarian(tyranny) regime is generally viewed as Orwells critique(critic review) of the communist system in the former Soviet Union. Interesting Fact: Orwell initially struggled to find a publisher for Animal Farm .
  5. 5. Significance(importance) Today But why – now that Soviet Communism has fallen and the Cold War is over –does Animal Farm deserve our attention? The answer lies in the power of allegory. Allegorical fables, because they require us to make comparisons and connections, can be meaningful to any reader in any historical period. The story of Animal Farm will always have lessons to teach us about the ways that people abuse power and manipulate others. Orwells chilling(bitter) story of the betrayal of idealism(utopian) through tyranny and corruption is as fresh and relevant today as when it was first published in 1945.
  6. 6. When History and Literature Merge Critics often consider Animal Farm to be an allegory of the Russian Revolution. In the early 1900s, Russia’s Czar Nicholas II faced an increasingly discontented populace(offended people). Freed from feudal serfdom(slavery) in 1861, many Russian peasants(farmers) were struggling to survive under an oppressive(unfair, tyrannical) government. By 1917, amidst(among) the tremendous(terrible) suffering of World War I, a revolution began. In Czar Nicholas II two major battles, the Czar’s government was Vladimir Lenin overthrown and replaced by the Bolshevik leadership of Vladimir Lenin. When Lenin died in 1924, his former colleagues Leon Trotsky, hero of the early Revolution, and Joseph Stalin, head of the Communist Party, struggled for power. Stalin won the battle, and he deported(banished) Trotsky into permanent exile(banishment). Joseph Stalin Leon Trotsky
  7. 7. Animalism = Communism Animalism  Communism  Taught by Old Major  Invented by Karl Marx  No rich, but no poor  All people are equal  Better life for workers  Government owns  All animals are equal everything  Everyone owns the  People own the farm government
  8. 8. Animal Farm Revolution = Russian Revolution Animal Farm Revolution  Russian Revolution  Was supposed to make life  Was supposed to fix the better for all, but . . . problems created by the  Life was worse at the end. Czar, but . . .  The leaders became the  Life was even worse after same as, or worse than the the revolution. other farmers (humans) they  Stalin made the Czar look rebelled against. like a nice guy.
  9. 9. George Orwell British Author & Journalist  1903-1950  Born in India  At that time India was a part of the British Empire, and Blairs father, Richard, held a post as an agent in the Opium(kind of drugs) Department of the Indian Civil Service.  The Blair family was not very wealthy - Orwell later described them ironically as "lower-upper-middle class". They owned no property, had no extensive investments; they were like many middle-class English families of the time, totally dependent on the British Empire for their livelihood(living) and prospects.  Noted as a novelist and critic, as well as a political and cultural commentator  One of the most widely admired English-language essayists of the 20th century  Best known for two novels critical of totalitarianism in general, and Stalinism in particular:  Animal Farm  Nineteen Eighty-Four“Liberty is telling people what they do not want to hear.”
  10. 10. 1984  The novel, published in 1949, takes place in 1984 and presents an imaginary future where a totalitarian state controls every aspect of life, even peoples thoughts. The state is called Oceania and is ruled by a group known as the Party; its leader and dictator is Big Brother.
  11. 11. George Orwell and His Beliefs Orwell was a person who had a reputation for standing apart and even making a virtue of his detachment(independence in opinion). This “outsider” position often led him to oppose the crowd(people whom work with). Orwell’s beliefs about politics were affected by his experiences fighting in the Spanish Civil War. He viewed socialists, communists, and fascists as repressive and self- serving. He was skeptical(doubt) of governments and their willingness to forsake(leave) ideas in favor of power. Interesting Fact: George Orwell’s real name was Eric Blair.
  12. 12. George Orwell in India He was born in India and spent his early years there since his father held a post there.  He was a lonely boy who liked to make up stories and talk with imaginary companions. As an adult, he worked for the Imperial Police in British occupied India.
  13. 13. Work Orwell joined the police in Burma, where he had family connections. In 1924 he was promoted. In 1927 he contracted Dengue fever: in light of this he was allowed to return to England. It was at this time that he resigned from the police force with the intention of focusing on writing. It was this time in Burma that provided the inspiration for Orwell’s first novel, Burmese Days, published in 1934. Orwell took a job as a teacher in England, after living in Paris for a short time. It was a small school and allowed Orwell to focus on his writing. He was contributing on a regular basis to the magazine New Adelphi, where his essay "A Hanging" first appeared. Orwell, after suffering with pneumonia, would take a part- time job working in a book shop in Hampstead.
  14. 14. War When the Spanish Civil war began, Orwell volunteered to fight for the republicans against the uprising. He was injured after being shot in the neck by a snipers bullet; following this he and his new wife, Eileen O’Shaughnessy, left Spain to return to England. Death Orwell became seriously ill around this time, suffering with tuberculosis. Orwell had been courting Sonia Brownell and married her while in hospital in October 1949. By Christmas Orwell was very weak and in January of 1950, aged 46, he died. In accordance with his wishes, Orwell was buried. He lies in All Saint’s Churchyard in Oxford, as it was impossible for him to be buried in London.
  15. 15. Characters Old Major  Karl Marx  An old boar whose speech about  The inventor of communism the evils perpetrated(have done)  Wants to unite the working by humans rouses(awakes)the class to overthrow the animals into rebelling. government.  His philosophy concerning the  Dies before the Russian tyranny of Man is named Revolution Animalism.  He teaches the animals the song “Beasts of England”  Dies before revolution
  16. 16. Who is Karl Marx? Many of the ideals behind the Soviet revolution were based on the writings and teachings of Karl Marx. A German intellectual who lived in the mid-1800s, Marx believed that societies are divided into two segments, a working class and an owner class. The working class creates all the products, while the owner class enjoys all the benefits of these products. This class division leads to inequality and oppression (tyranny , injustice) of the working class. Marx’s objective was to create a classless society in which the work is shared by all for the benefit of all, and he believed revolution was the way to achieve this goal.
  17. 17. Napoleon = Joseph Stalin Napoleon  Joseph Stain  Boar who leads the rebellion  The communist dictator of the against Farmer Jones Soviet Union from 1922-1953 who killed all who opposed  After the rebellion’s success, him. he systematically begins to control all aspects of the farm  He loved power and used the until he is an undisputed(no KGB (secret police) to enforce one stand against him) tyrant. his ruthless(unmerciful), corrupt antics.
  18. 18. Joseph Stalin Once in power, Stalin began, with despotic(tyranny) urgency and exalted(glorified) nationalism, to move the Soviet Union into the modern industrial age. His government seized(captured) land in order to create collective(group) farms. Stalin’s Five Year Plan was an attempt(try, effort) to modernize Soviet industry. Many peasants(farmers) refused to give up their land, so to counter resistance Stalin used vicious(evil) military tactics. Rigged trials led to executions of an estimated 20 million government officials and ordinary citizens. The government controlled the flow and Joseph Stalin content of information to the people, and all but outlawed churches.
  19. 19. Snowball = Leon Trotsky Snowball  Boar who becomes one of the  Leon Trotsky rebellion’s most valuable leaders.  A pure communist leader who was influenced by the  After drawing complicated teachings of Karl Marx. plans for the construction of a  He wanted to improve life windmill, he is chased off of for people in Russia, but the farm forever by was driven away by Lenin’s Napoleon’s dogs and KGB. thereafter used as a scapegoat for the animals’ troubles.
  20. 20. Farmer Jones = Czar Nicholas II Farmer Jones  Czar Nicholas II  The irresponsible owner of  Weak Russian leader the farm during the early 1900s  Lets his animals starve(feel  Often cruel and hungry) and beats them brutal(harsh) to his with a whip subjects  Sometimes shows random  Displays kindness isolated(seperated) kindness
  21. 21. Squealer & Boxer Squealer       A big mouth pig who becomes Napoleon’s mouthpiece. Throughout the novel, he displays his ability to manipulate(treat in proficiency) the animals’ thoughts through the use of hollow(tell lies), yet convincing rhetoric.  Represents the propaganda department that worked to support Stalin’s image; the members of the department would use lies to convince the people to follow Stalin. Squealer Boxer       A dedicated but dim-witted(stupid) horse who aids(assists) in the building of the windmill but is sold to a glue-boiler after collapsing(crash down) from exhaustion.  Represents the dedicated, but tricked(cheated) communist supporters of Stalin. Many stayed loyal even after it was obvious(clear) Stalin was a tyrant. Eventually(finaly) they were betrayed, ignored, and even killed by him. Boxer
  22. 22. Jessie & Moses Jessie  The farms sheepdog, she keeps tabs on the pigs and is among the first to suspect that something is wrong at Animal Farm. Jessie Moses       A tame(domesticated) raven and sometimes- pet of Jones who tells the animals stories about a paradise called Sugar-candy Mountain.  Moses represents religion. Stalin used religious principles to influence(affect on) people to work and to avoid revolt. Moses
  23. 23. More Characters PilkingtonJones neighbor, The easygoing gentleman farmer who runs Foxwood, a neighboring farm. Mr. Frederick’s bitter enemy, Mr. Pilkington represents the capitalist governments of England and the United States. Mr. Frederick   The tough, shrewd operator of Pinchfield, a neighboring farm. Based on Adolf Hitler, the ruler of Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, Mr. Frederick proves an untrustworthy neighbor. Mollie A vain horse who resists the animal rebellion because she doesnt want to give up the petting and treats she receives from humans. Mollie represents vain, selfish people in Russia and throughout the world who ignored the revolution and sought residence in more inviting countries. BenjaminThe most cynical(ironical) of all the animals, the farms donkey doubts the leadership of the pigs but is faithfully devoted to Boxer. Benjamin represents all the skepticalpeople in Russia and elsewhere who weren’t sure revolution would change anything. The SheepNot tremendously clever, the sheep remind themselves of the principles of animalism by chanting "four legs good, two legs bad." The DogsNapoleon’s private army that used fear to force the animals to work; they killed any opponent of Napoleon. The dogs represent Stalin’s loyal KGB (secret police). The KGB were not really police, but mercenaries used to force support for Stalin.
  24. 24. Plot Summary The story is set on the Manor Farm, owned and operated by Mr. Jones. One night the prize(something deserves to struggle for it) boar(male pig), Old Major, tells all the other farm animals he has realized that the misery of their daily lives is all due to the tyranny of human beings, and that if they work to overthrow(defeat) the humans their lives will become easy and comfortable.
  25. 25. Plot Summary After Old Major dies, the pigs (led by the two boars Snowball and Napoleon) start teaching his ideas (which they develop into a system of thought called Animalism) to the other animals. A few months later, Mr. Jones gets drunk and forgets to feed the animals, who become so hungry that they rebel and drive the human beings off the farm. They rename the farm Animal Farm and write the Seven Commandments of Animalism up on the wall of the barn(fold, store for animals food). Jones comes back with a group of armed men and tries to recapture the farm, but the animals, led by Snowball, defeat the men.
  26. 26. Plot Summary Snowball and Napoleon argue constantly(never stopping) over plans for the future of the farm, never able to agree - especially over a windmill which Snowball wants to build to provide the farm with electric power, and which Napoleon ridicules. Napoleon calls in nine dogs whom he has specially trained and they chase Snowball off the farm. Squealer, the very persuasive pig(able to persuade other) who relays(broadcasts) most of Napoleons decisions to the other animals, tells them that Snowball was a traitor in league(union, alliance) with Jones, and that the windmill was really Napoleons idea anyway and will go ahead.
  27. 27. Plot Summary The animals work hard - work on the windmill is slow and they rely(depend) heavily on Boxer the cart- horse(strong horse suitable for heavy work), who is very strong and hard- working. Napoleon begins trading with nearby farms, and the pigs move into the farmhouse(Mr.Joness house) and sleep in the beds there - even though sleeping in beds like humans was forbidden by the original principles(rules) of Animalism.
  28. 28. Plot Summary The winter is difficult - the animals have little food. Napoleon and Squealer blame Snowball for everything that goes wrong on the farm, from bad crops(harvest, product) to blocked drains(consumes). Then Napoleons dogs attack four pigs, who then confess to plotting(conspiracy) with Snowball and start a series of confessions of various crimes from other animals - all of those who confess are slaughtered(was slaying) by the dogs, leaving the survivors shaken(trembled) and miserable(hopeless).
  29. 29. Plot Summary The windmill is finally completed and to get money to buy the machinery for it, Napoleon decides to sell a pile(pack, heap) of timber(wood of trees) - after wavering(hesitation) between the two neighboring farmers Pilkington and Frederick, he sells it to Frederick only to discover that he has been paid with worthless(silly, valueless) forged(fake) banknotes(currency). Frederick and his men then come on to the farm and blow(blast) the windmill to pieces with explosives, although the animals manage to drive them off the farm again after a bloody battle. A few days later the pigs find a case of whisky(alcohol) in the farmhouse cellar(underground store) and get drunk.
  30. 30. Plot Summary Boxer is injured while working on repairs to the windmill, and Benjamin notices that the van(the great leader) Napoleon calls to send him to the vet(veterinary doctor), has Horse Slaughterer painted on the side. After Boxer has died in hospital under care of the vet, the pigs mysteriously(secretly) find money to buy another case of whiskey. After many years, life is just as hard as it ever was. The pigs start walking on two legs. None of the old Commandments(rules) are left on the barn wall. A group of human farmers come to see the farm, they quarrel(fight) with the pigs over a game of cards - and the animals discover they can no longer tell which is human and which is pig.
  31. 31. Themes Conflict and resolution :   There are many conflicts in Animal Farm and I will write about the two that I look at as the most important. The first is in the beginning of the book – the rebellion. The animals on the farm chase Mr. Jones away and after they have done that, the problem is solved. The second isn’t solved at all: In the end of the book the animals see the pigs have a fight with the humans and they can’t see any difference between them. I think a new conflict is created at this moment and you, as the reader, must guess what happens next.
  32. 32. Themes Utopia/Dystopia – Animal Farm was intended to be a Utopia  but it became a dystopia when the pigs changed  it into a communist society. Old Majors ideas  for the perfect society were well placed but  did not work. Not one animal was really equal  and most were not cared for as should be. 
  33. 33. Themes False Allegiance(loyalty) A final noteworthy (and again, satiric) theme is the way in which people proclaim their allegiance to each other, only to betray their true intentions at a later time. Directly related to the idea that the rulers of the rebellion (the pigs) eventually betray the ideals for which they presumably fought, this theme is dramatized in a number of relationships involving the novels human characters. Pilkington and Jones;Frederick, for example, only listen to Jones in the Red Lion because they secretly hope to gain something from their neighbors misery. Similarly, Fredericks buying the firewood from Napoleon seems to form an alliance that is shattered when the pig learns of Fredericks forged banknotes. The novels final scene demonstrates that, despite all the.
  34. 34. Allegory (cont’d) Yet there is no reason that allegory must be limited to two levels. It is possible to argue that Animal Farm also has a third and more general level of meaning. For instance, the pigs need not only represent specific tyrannical soviet leaders. They could also be symbols for tyranny more broadly: their qualities are therefore not simply the historical characteristics of a set of Squealer, Snowball, & Napoleon actual men but are the qualities of all leaders who rely on repression and manipulation.
  35. 35. Propaganda  The pigs began to spread propaganda to the animals when they told them that they were doing well. The animals, being naive, believed every word of it. Propaganda was spread to other farms, telling them about how Animal Farm was more prosperous. They were urged to rebel.  The animals also could beBoxer indoctrinated using propaganda. Ex: The sheep bleating.
  36. 36. Satire In a satire , the writer attacks a serious issue by presenting it in a ridiculous light or otherwise poking fun at it. Orwell uses satire to expose what he saw as the myth of Soviet socialism. Thus, the novel tells a story Soviet Coat of Arms that people of all ages can understand, but it also tells us a second story— that of the real-life revolution.
  37. 37. Irony Irony results when there is a disparity between what an audience would expect and what really happens. Orwell uses a particular type of irony – dramatic irony. He relies on the difference between what the animals understand and what we, the audience, can conclude about the Snowball below the commandments. situation at Animal Farm. We know just what the animals know, but we can see so much more of its significance than they can. The conclusions we reach that the animals never quite get to – that the pigs are decadent, corrupt, and immoral – are all the more powerful because we arrive at them ourselves, without the narrator pointing these things out directly. Napoleon overindulging himself.
  38. 38. Irony (cont’d) Orwell uses dramatic irony to create a particularly subtle satire. Satire stages a critique of an individual, group, or idea by exaggerating faults and revealing hypocrisies. The dramatic irony of Animal Farm achieves this aim indirectly. We see the hypocrisy that the animals dont and therefore understand in this backward fashion that the book is deeply critical of the pigs.
  39. 39. Themes Religion and Tyranny Another theme of Orwells novel that also strikes a satiric note is the idea of religion being the "opium of the people" (as Karl Marx famously wrote). Moses the ravens talk of Sugar-candy Mountain originally annoys many of the animals, since Moses, known as a "teller of tales," seems an unreliable(untruthful) source. At this point, the animals are still hopeful for a better future and therefore dismiss Moses stories of a paradise elsewhere. As their lives worsen, however, the animals begin to believe him, because "Their lives now, they reasoned, were hungry and laborious(exhausting); Was it not right and just that a better world should exist somewhere else?" Here, Orwell mocks(ridicules) the futile(useless) dreaming of a better place that clearly does not exist. The pigs allow Moses to stay on the farm — and even encourage his presence by rewarding him with beer — because they know that his stories of Sugar-candy Mountain will keep the animals docile(obedient). Thus Orwell implies that religious devotion( — viewed by many as a noble character trait — can actually distort the ways in which one thinks of his or her life on earth.
  40. 40. Some definitions Definition of allegory : Extending a metaphor through an entire speech or passage so that objects, persons, and actions in the text are equated with meanings that lie outside the text.
  41. 41. Thank you for share our miserable 