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Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and               Applications (IJERA) IS...
Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and                Applications (IJERA) I...
Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and                Applications (IJERA) I...
Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and               Applications (IJERA) IS...
Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and                 Applications (IJERA) ...
Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and                      Applications (IJ...
Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and               Applications (IJERA) IS...
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  1. 1. Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.613-620 Maximum Coverage Probability based Query Registration and Processing in Unstructured P2P Network Md Hussain Khusro1 , Yasmeen Begum2 1 Pursuing (CSE) from Khaja Banda Nawaz College of Engineering, Gulbarga. Affiliated to VTU Belgaum, Karnataka, India. 2 Prof. Yasmeen Begum, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Khaja Banda Nawaz College of Engineering, Gulbarga. Affiliated to VTU Belgaum, Karnataka, India.Abstract: systems are invariably unstructured. However, most Large amount of data are available in unstructured P2P content distribution systems onlylarge-scale networks of autonomous data sources support a very simple model for data sharing anddispersed over a wide area. P2P is a system of discovery called the ad hoc query model. A peer thatacquiring data directly from the clients using a is interested in discovering data items initiates adiscovery process monitored by the server. As query with a set of search parameters, which is thensuch, in such a system only information about the circulated among the peers according to the specificdata and the nodes are maintained at the server query forwarding mechanism employed by theand the communication is in Peer to peer manner network. A peer receiving a query responds to thebetween the clients. query initiator, if it has any content satisfying theIf we assume a network where data is search criterion. Once a query has been processed atconsistently being changed or new data are a node, it is removed from the local buffers (somereleased and that the client is continuously systems cache recently received queries, but for agenerating query than, unavailability of the data very short duration and in an ad hoc fashion).at the instance of query generation leads to Therefore, a query exists within the P2P networkinformation loss. In order to overcome this only until it is propagated to various nodes andproblem, we propose a unique query processing processed by them (or for a short duration thereafter,based P2P system where query for which no data if the network employs caching). Once a queryis available are stored in special nodes called completes its circulation, the system essentiallyBeacons. Once the data is available by some forgets it.client, the beacon announces the same to the While the ad hoc query model for dataquerying client. discovery is essential for P2P content distributionTo transfer the data by utilizing minimum networks, it suffers from two serious limitations.bandwidth and maximum coverage, split and First, due to its very nature, an ad hoc query is onlymerge algorithm is proposed. For each capable of retrieving content that exists in the P2Pdownloading, a file is chunked in equal parts network during the time period when it is activelyequivalent to number of clients. Clients start propagated and processed in the network. Further,downloading the parts in parallel. Once each an ad hoc query can never reach a peer that joins theclient has different chunks, they download the network after the query has completed itsmissing chunks from each other thus balancing circulation, and hence cannot discover matchingthe load at the seeder. Result show improved data-items on the new peer. In this scenario, the onlysearch time and throughput utilization for this way for a peer to discover newly added data-itemsmethod. would be to repeatedly issue the same query, thereby imposing unnecessary overheads on theKeywords: P2P Network, Query Registration, network. Second, the ad hoc query model providesQuery Processing, Searching in P2P, Maximum no support for peers to advertise or announce theCoverage. data-items they own to other interested peers. Such capabilities are important for P2P communitiesI. Introduction: where peers trade content. In recent years unstructured peer-to-peer These shortcomings limit the utility of the(P2P) systems have evolved as a popular paradigm ad hoc query model for several advancedfor content/resource distribution and sharing [1, 6]. collaborative applications, such as a community ofOwing to the simplicity of design and flexibility researchers sharing their recent research results or atowards transient node population, the real-world community of amateur musicians and their patronsP2P who are interested in buying the music produced by 613 | P a g e
  2. 2. Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.613-620the musicians. In applications such as these, constructing P2P-based pub-sub systems, namely (a)participating peers would not only be interested in adopting a structured P2P network like Chord [15]searching for existing content, but would also want or CAN [13] as the underlying substrate, andto be pro-actively informed when content matching utilizing its indexing schemes for mappingtheir interests is added to the network. Further, some subscriptions and events to nodes of the P2Pcommunities also need a mechanism through which systems [10, 16]; (b) organizing the nodes of thepeers can advertise their content to other interested P2P system into specialized topologies and/orpeers. Blind broadcast of advertisement would not embedding application specific distributed indexonly result in high overheads, but could also annoy structures within nodes of the P2P network [7, 17,participants who would be receiving large numbers 19]. The Sub-2-Sub system [17] organizes the peersof advertisement about data-items that they are not into clusters using an epidemic-style algorithm suchinterested in. that nodes with similar subscriptions are put into the An approach that can partially mitigate same cluster. The publisher of an event joins thethese limitations would be to implement a publish- corresponding cluster and disseminates the event tosubscribe (pub-sub) system on top of the the cluster members.unstructured overlay network. A generic pub-sub The proposed system differs from thesystem enables its users to register subscriptions above works in terms of motivation, goals andexpressing their interests and to announce the approach. The goal of the above systems is tooccurrence of certain events by publishing them. improve the various performance parameters of pub-The pub-sub system matches incoming sub systems and they use P2P-based techniques as aannouncements to the existing subscriptions means towards this end. In contrast, our goal is toand notifies the users that have registered the enhance the P2P data sharing systems, andmatching subscriptions. An important point to note continuous queries (that bear similarity to pub-subis that the pub-sub systems attempt to provide model) is a means towards that end. Second, theguaranteed notification service (although it might above pub-sub systems cannot be implemented onnot be possible always due to system failures). top of generic P2P networks; they need specialized Researchers have studied the problem of overlays (specific topologies and/or indexingimplementingP2P-based pub-sub systems on mechanisms). Contrastingly, our system does notunstructured overlay networks[7, 17]. However, need any complex distributed indexing structures,most of these systems require the underlying P2P nor does it impose any topological constraints on thenetworks to be organized according to specific overlay network. Finally, the above systems arearchitectures, and hence they cannot be used in essentially pub-sub systems, and hence guaranteedgeneric overlays. Many of these systems also notification is one of their design goals. Our systemrequire the peers to maintain intricate index provides best-effort notification, which is in tunestructures which add significant complexity to the with design principles of unstructured P2Pdesign of the P2P network. This additional networks. P2P-DIET [11] supports both ad-hoc andcomplexity can adversely affect the flexibility, continuous queries, however, it assumes a superefficiency, and scalability of the unstructured P2P peer-based overlay.system. Furthermore, it also makes the design,implementation, and management of P2P content In short, the work presented in this paperdistribution networks harder. has several unique aspects, and it addresses an important problem in the area of P2P data sharingII. Related Works: systems. The work presented in this paper isprimarily related to two fields, namely P2P III. Our Approachnetworks [6, 9, 14] and publish subscribe systems 3.1 Problem Formation(event-delivery systems) [3,5], both of which have Peer to peer networks uses differentbeen very active areas of research in the past few computers or peers to share the files amongstyears. themselves rather than keeping the files in a single Pub-sub systems can be classified into two server. Hence same file may be downloaded frombroad categories: different nodes in a peer. But due to non-central(1) topic-based – wherein users join specific topic nature of the communication, such network loosesgroups in which all the messages related to the topic control and finding out group of nodes relevant toare broadcast; and (2) content-based – wherein data sharing is low. Therefore here we propose ausers specify their interests through predicates. With system tothe aim of enhancing scalability, efficiency and 1) Index the files at the serverscalability several distributed pub-sub systems have 2) A search engine to respond to the queries.been proposed [3, 5]. Recently, P2P computing 3) Maximum neighborhood based beacon selectionmodels have been utilized for this purpose. for registering queriesResearchers have explored two strategies for 614 | P a g e
  3. 3. Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.613-6204) Chunking based parallel file download for load The source ID uniquely identies the peer issuing thebalancing query. The query predicate is the matching5) Achieve scalability for new information condition of the query, and is used by the source peer to specify its interests. In general, the predicate3.2 Proposed System can be of any form such as range predicates or even a regular expression. We assume that the predicate is a list of keywords describing the content the source peer is interested in. Validity time (V Time) represents the time until which the source node is interested in receiving notifications. Peers announce their new data items through announcements. An announcement is represented as Ad =(AID;MData). The announcing peer ID (AID) identifies the advertising peer and the metadata (MData) is the metadata of the content being advertised. A data item Dr (and analogously its announcement) is said to match a continuous query Qm, if Drs metadata contains all the keywords in Qms predicate. We use the word query and continuous query[8,12] interchangeably.Figure 1:Pure Decentralized P2P Content-Sharing Architecture 3.3 System Design Algorithm: The proposed system is The above fig1shows decentralized P2P explained as bellow.content sharing system where a user register a query *Generate Random set of peer4 called beacon node at time t. Once the data * Index a set of information-TF-IDF(termis available by some client, the beacon announces frequency–inverse document frequency).the same to the requesting client. * Randomly distribute the information to the Nodes.Further in present system, a client can download * One or more clients query for a specificonly the information that is available at that instance information.of time. But in the proposed system, a client can * Search and locate the clients where thedownload the information after the information is information is available.added at a later time. Further the system proposes a * Request the Seeder for downloadingchunking based technique with maximum coverage. * divide the data into equal pieces equivalent toGenerally in P2P system a client downloads the number of lecher.information from the best possible path, so the * Data is sent to the clients through a route fromcoverage is least. Hence if any intermediate client seeder to lecher. Each lecher than connects withseeks the information in between a session, then each other and downloads the missingwithout having to re-establish a fresh session, nodes chunks.(Maximum Coverage Technique).can join the existing transmission and start * If there is no data available for a query, it isdownloading the needed chunks. registered at a node called a beacon node with maximum reachibility ratio.3.2 Concepts and Notations * Once the data is available, the information is Consider an unstructured P2P system announced to the lechers and the downloadingcomprising of peers (P0,P1,…..PN-1). Let begins as above.(L0,L1……LM-1) represent the logical links * After certain time period the query is expired to(connections) in the network. For simplicity, we maintain the integrity of the freshness of theassume that the links are bidirectional. Two peers Pi information.and Pj are said to be neighbors of each other if there * For query processing, exponential time-maximumexists a link Lv = (Pi; Pj ) connecting them. likelihood estimation query registration andWe assume that each data item Dr in the system has forwarding is used.associated metadata (represented as MData(Dr)) thatdescribes it. In the current context, the metadata is a IV. Diagramslist of keywords describing the data item.Continuous query is the means through which a peercan register its interests with the network. Acontinuous query, represented as Q =(SID;Predicate; V Time), is essentially a tuple of threecomponents, namely, source ID (SID) , querypredicate (Predicate) and validity time (V Time). 615 | P a g e
  4. 4. Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.613-620Figure2: First Level Data Flow Diagram Figure4: Use Case Specification DiagramFigure3: Second Level Data Flow Diagram Figure5: Sequence Diagram 616 | P a g e
  5. 5. Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.613-620V. Experiment and Results5.1 Experiment: Figure9: Now a matching data for registered query is appeared in the network, our system automatically notify a registered query file appeared and its location.Figure6: Here we create a p2p network of 15 nodes.Figure7: Now we perform indexing of files andannounce the data randomly at peers. Figure10: Now we create a route from seeder to leecher(s)(requesting clients) with maximum coverage and divide the file into chunks equivalent to number of leechers and perform transmission.Figure8: Here we show announcement of data files atpeers and perform search that generate a query forwhich data is not available in the network and queryis registered at beacon node indicated with bluerectangle in above figure8. Figure11: Finally we get the data for registered query and measure its latency and chunks and determine the throughput. 617 | P a g e
  6. 6. Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.613-620 5.2 Results grows, availability of the data also increases which is most desirable property of the P2P system. 200 180 Indexing time 160 0.19 140 Latency 0.185 120 for 2 100 clients 0.18 80 latency 0.175 Indexing 60 for 3 time 0.17 40 clients 20 0.165 0 0.16 20 30 40 4 5 6 7 8 Result1: Number of Node v/s Latency Result 3: Number of Data Items v/s the indexing Latency is defined as the end to end delay for a node time. This experiment was conducted by considering to acquire an entire file through collecting of chunks different length of text documents. The indexing is from seeder and through transformed seeders. The considered as TF-IDF score of the documents. graph shows that the latency of the system depends Indexing time increases with increase of number of upon the leechers rather than the network size. for files and is independent of the file size. Therefore as limited leechers, the transmission time is low and for the network grows, indexing the entire set consumes the higher leechers, the same is increased. time. Hence the concept of query processing is used which eliminates the indexing for every query. Once a query is unanswered the query is stored. Hence0.8 only re indexing is needed once a new data is made0.7 available which is relevant to the query.0.60.5 Reindexing time TP for0.4 2clients 0.060.3 TP for 0.05 3clients0.2 0.040.1 0.03 Reindexing 0 0.02 time 20 25 30 0.01 0 Result 2: Number of Nodes v/s Throughput. 4 5 6 7 8 The performance graph shows that the chunking and parallel downloading and maximum coverage routing helps in enhancing the throughput. Generally Result 4: Number of Files v/s Reindexing time throughput decreases significantly in P2P system. But The performance graph clearly explains the utility of in the current process, throughput is increased with the technique. Once a new data is matched with increase of nodes which suggest that as the network query it is reindexed. Numbers of reindexing 618 | P a g e
  7. 7. Md Hussain Khusro, Yasmeen Begum / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.613-620iterations are limited. Hence the system takes lesser publish/subscribe over P2P networks. Intime for announcement of new files. Proceedings of Middleware 2004, 2004. [11] S. Idreos, M. Koubarakis, and C.VI. Conclusion Tryfonopoulos. P2P-DIET: One-Time and Peer-to-peer systems have become a popular Continuous Queries in Super-Peermedia for sharing large amount of information among Networks. In Proceedings of EDBT, 2004.millions of users. While previous research efforts are [12] L. Ramaswamy, J. Chen, P. Parate, and A.focusing on supporting search in P2P systems, Meka. Lightweight Support for Continuousobtaining hidden and valuable knowledge from these Queries in Unstructured Overlays. Technicaldata through data mining techniques is essential for report, The University of Georgia, 2006.scientific findings and many other applications. In [13] S. Ratnasamy, P. Francis, M. Handley, R.this work, we investigate searching and query Karp, and S. Schenker. A Scalable Content-registration for fast information announcement to the Addressable Network. In Proceedings ofnodes. We provide complexity analysis on the ACM SIGCOMM 2001, Aug 2001.transmission incurred by the system. The analytic [14] P. Reynolds and A.Vahdat. Efcient peer-to-result indicates that proposed system can efficiently peer keyword searching. In Proceedings ofmitigate data to the nodes seeking the information. Middleware 2003.The system can be further improved by adopting [15] I. Stoica, R. Morris, D. Karger, M. F.passive replication technique. Kaashoek, and H. Balakrishnan. Chord: A scalable peer-to-peer lookup service forVII. References internet applications. In Proceedings of [1] Gnutella P2P Network. ACM SIGCOMM 2001, Aug 2001. [2] Kazaa P2P Network. [16] P. Triantallou and I. Aekaterinidis. Content- [3] G. Banavar, T. Chandra, B. Mukherjee, J. Based Publish-Subscribe Over Structured Nagarajarao, R. E. Strom, and D. C. P2P Networks. In Proceedings of the Sturman. An Efcient Multicast Protocol for International Workshop on Distributed Content-Based Publish-Subscribe Systems. Event-Based Systems (DEBS), 2004. In Proceedings of ICDCS 1999, 1999. [17] S. Voulgaris, E. Riviere, A.-M. Kermarrec, [4] N. Bisnik and A. Abouzeid. Modeling and and M. van Steen. Sub-2-Sub: Self- analysis of random walk search algorithms Organizing Content-Based Publish in P2P networks. In Proceedings of HOT- Subscribe for Dynamic Large Scale P2P, 2005. Collaborative Networks. In Proceedings of [5] A. Carzaniga, D. S. Rosenblum, and A. the 5th international workshop on peer- L.Wolf. Design and evaluation of a wide- topeer systems, Feb 2006. area event notication service. ACM [18] B. Yang and H. Garcia-Molina. Improving Transactions on Computer Systems, search in peer to peer systems. In 19(3):332– 383, 2001. Proceedings of ICDCS 2002. [6] Y. Chawathe, S. Ratnasamy, L. Breslau, N. [19] C. Zhang, A. Krishnamurthy, and R. Wang. Lanham, and S. Shenker. Making Gnutella- Combining fexibility and scalability in a like P2P Systems Scalable. In Proceedings peer-to-peer publish/subscribe system. In of ACM SIGCOMM 2003, 2003. Middleware 2005. [7] P. Chirita, S. Idreos, M. Koubarakis, and W. Nejdl. Publish/Subscribe for RDF-based Author’s Profile: P2P Networks. In Proceedings of the 1st European Semantic Web Symposium, May Mr. Md Hussain Khusro 2004. pursuing M.Tech in [8] Lakshmish Ramaswamy, Member, IEEE, Computer Science and and Jianxia Chen, Student Member, IEEE. Engineering from Khaja Banda The CoQUOS Approach to Continuous Nawaz(K.B.N) College of Queries in Unstructured Overlays.IEEE Engineering Gulbarga. TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE Affiliated to V. T. U., AND DATA ENGINEERING, VOL.23, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. My research areas of NO. 4, April 2011 interest are data mining and data warehousing. [9] S. Androutsellis-Theotokis and D. Spinellis. A Survey of Peer-to-Peer Content Mrs. Yasmeen Begum, Professor, Department of Distribution Technologies. ACM Comput. Computer Science and Engineering, Khaja Banda Surv., 2004. Nawaz College of Engineering Gulbarga. Affiliated [10] A. Gupta, O. D. Sahin, D. Agrawal, and A. to V. T. U., Belgaum, Karnataka., India. E. Abbadi.Meghdoot: content-based 619 | P a g e