Plugged in Places (PIP)• Programme Nationally funded by • Install 1300 charging points the Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) • Public & private access, workplace, domestic & Quick charging points• £7.8m over 3 years to March 2013 • With interoperability, comms capability & EV user support • Work with OLEV and other UK PIP projects to : • Advance the development of common standards, • evaluate different technologies, • harmonise local incentives, • understand user-behaviours & impact upon infrastructure
Journey statistics• Average journey length: 8.93 km• Longest journey: 117.3 km• Average journey duration: 33:12 min• Total journey distance: 65,036 km• Total number of journeys: 7,196• Total number of charges: 2,199• Total energy transferred: 11,595 kWhData from Dec 2010 to May 2011
Estimate of journey length before the trial How many miles do you expect to complete per trip? • People were30.0% asked in the pre-25.0%20.0% trip questionnaire:15.0% “How many miles10.0% do you expect to5.0% complete per trip?”0.0% • Compared to usage is expected… I cannot predict / my 0-5 miles 6-10 miles 16-20 miles 21-25 miles 26-50 miles 11-15 miles 50 miles + actual journey length, people over-estimate their trip length.
Theoretical limits vs real world• The carbon content of electricity for a 6 hour recharge is: • A minimum of 372gCO2/kWh • A maximum of 464gCO2/kWh• Approximately 100gCO2/kWh can be saved for shorter recharging times• Average from trials so far is 457gCO2/kWh• Optimum recharging time would be overnight (12pm – 6am)
Charging behaviour - First month • The data shown here is the average charge transfer per charging event • It can be seen that there is a statistically significant increase in power transfer during the first month of use
Charging behaviour - Second month However, in the second month, although there is a slight downward trend, it can be seen that this is not statistically significant.
How do you expect the top speed of the electric car will be compared to the ICE equivalent? 80 70 The expressions on 60 peoples’ faces as you are overtaking% of responses 50 Before trial After trial 40 30 20 I’ve reduced the 10 speed. I don’t race 0 to places, keep it about the same faster than an slower than an no expectation ICE ICE about 58mph and I’m not using the fuel I used to use.
How do you expect the acceleration of the electric vehicle will be compared to the ICE? 100 It does overtake very 90 nicely actually, on a 80 long straight section between here and% of responsents 70 Bellingham it would 60 out-accelerate other 50 Before trial cars, which is 40 After trial reassuring! 30 20 10 You can 0 overtake, you about the faster than slower than no can whizz by […] same an ICE an ICE expectation
Would you consider buying and EV? Only 13% of AA members SWITCH-EV driver responses said that they “I would50.0% seriously consider buying45.0%40.0% an electric car within the35.0% next two years”30.0%25.0%20.0% Participant 1: […] if money15.0% was no object I’d buy one…10.0% Participant 2: …yeah, me5.0%0.0% too… Yes, as my Yes, but as a No Participant 1: … but it is an primary car second car object. only
Conclusion and recommendations• Drivers enjoy electric vehicles• In order to change people’s attitudes towards EVs, we need them to drive the cars• Vehicle range depends on driving behaviour, topology, congestion• CO2 emissions depend on charging behaviour, energy mix and driving style• Smart metering
Contact and further informationDr. Yvonne HübnerYvonne.firstname.lastname@example.orgTransport Operations Research Group (TORG)http://www.ceg.ncl.ac.uk/transport/index.htmtransportNewcastlehttp://www.ncl.ac.uk/transport/