Brendan Finn - Using ITS to achieve the potential for public transport


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Brendan Finn - Using ITS to achieve the potential for public transport

  1. 1. Using ITS to Achieve thePotential of Public Transport BRENDAN FINN ETTS LTD., IRELAND
  2. 2. Overview ITS for public transport Practice in ITS support to Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Capacity constraints for high-volume BRT systems  Vehicle throughput at stations  Vehicle throughput at junctions  Passenger throughput at stations Dynamic operations management could increase capacity  Management of access  Slot management along the route
  3. 3. ITS for Public Transport Hardware, software, data exchange tools & services Higher-level objectives:  Effectiveness  Efficiency  Usability Cluster in three strands:  ITS for Transport Operations  ITS for Customer-Facing Services  ITS for platform and back-office Solve problems and/or exploit opportunities
  4. 4. ITS systems for Public Transport Operations Management  Automatic Vehicle Location and Management  Traffic Signal Priority  Service and System planning and support  Collision avoidance/warning  Precision docking Customer-facing and support services  Automatic fare collection  Real-time passenger information  Journey planning  Security and passenger management systems
  5. 5. Context of this presentation Bus Rapid Transit High volume contexts  Large numbers of buses  Multiple routes using the infrastructure  Large numbers of passengers Operating Strategies to maximise throughput  Efficiently  Reliably  Safely Technologies to support the Operating Strategies
  6. 6. Running Way – Guanghzhou, China Source : Paul Barter
  7. 7. BRT Station - Istanbul Source: EMBARQ
  8. 8. BRT Bus Station - Bogota Source : Peter Danielsson, Volvo Bus Corporation
  9. 9. BRT Station, Sao Paulo Source : Toni Lindau
  10. 10. BRT in Johannesburg (Soweto)
  11. 11. Key elements of the BRT system Operating infrastructure  Running way  Junctions  Stations Network Vehicles Operations management  Operations control, incident management, supporting ITS Customer-facing services  Fare collection, information, customer support
  12. 12. Operations Management activities Resource deployment Service control and regulation  Operate the core service to plan  Adjust the planned service to meet demand and events Monitoring Incident management  At stations and adjacent areas  Along running way, at junctions  Vehicles and operational staff Data capture and analyis  Review of plan and of procedures  Cost optimisation
  13. 13. Technologies for Operations Management Monitoring systems  Vehicle location  CCTV  Sensors - roadside, platform, in-vehicle Communications  Network for fixed locations – control centre, stations, depot  Wireless, from vehicles and mobile units Applications  Functional  Analytic Integration with traffic signal system Information display and diffusion
  14. 14. Control Centre – Bogota, Columbia Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank
  15. 15. BRT in Johannesburg
  16. 16. In-vehicle headway management - Seoul
  17. 17. Capacity is an issue in high-volume systems Buses at intervals of 10-20 seconds at peak 10+ routes and route variants Multiple operators Hard to avoid some intersections with general traffic Stations handling >5,000 passengers in the peak period  Unpredictable arrival pattern by day, by time interval
  18. 18. Where do the limits arise? Three critical areas:  Throughput of vehicles at the bus stations  Getting vehicles through the junctions  Passenger throughput at the stations Potential problems :  Basic capacity to handle the demand  Instability - risk of drastic loss of performance, capacity  Queues and delays for passengers  Crush conditions at stations Running way itself is not the problem
  19. 19. Strategic Operations Options Constrain volume to what can easily be managed  Single end-to-end route  Limit number of routes, fixed boarding areas  (Bi-) articulated buses to minimise number of vehicles Plan to capacity, accept occasional degradation  Standard intervention techniques Maximise throughput by dynamic management  Manage access by available slots – ramp metering  Manage precise movement and timing - ATC style What is the maximum possible throughput?
  20. 20. Is Dynamic Management possible? Dynamic Access Management (Ramp Metering)  Continuous system state monitoring, available capacity  Vehicle held at BRT access point until capacity available  Enters BRT running way under standard operations mgt. Dynamic Slot Management  Continuous system state monitoring  Slot assigned to each vehicle based on plan and current state  Vehicle held at access point until slot available  Enters BRT running way at allocated slot  Dynamic operations mgt. for entire journey along BRT  Must stay +/- X seconds of allocated slot  Slot can be adjusted dynamically by the application software Requires precise station and junction operations
  21. 21. Enablers Conceptual  Dynamic management concepts  Operations management methods and procedures Technology platform  Location system(standard AVL)  Communications (standard AVL) Information  Vehicle location,  Passenger loading, station status Intelligent software  Slot development and assignment  Slot adjustment and management  Dynamic platform management Operations  Field management, training, monitoring, incentives
  22. 22. Conclusions At the high-capacity end, three key challenge areas  Vehicle throughput at stations  Vehicle throughput at junctions  Passenger throughput at stations If we cannot handle these better, capacity is limited  Lower productivity, lower benefits, lower transport impact Current generation of Ops. Mgt. Tools not enough  Technical platform is NOT the issue Focus needs to shift to delivering capacity  Paradigm shift in approach to operations management  Intelligent strategies and management procedures
  24. 24. Vehicle Throughput at Stations Length of platform, arrangement of boarding areas  Number of slots  Fixed allocation or dynamic allocation  If dynamic, how to advise and organise customers?  Precise docking – clinical, but lose flexibility  Can we handle buses of different lengths, door arrangements Passenger processing, dwell times  Separate fare collection/validation from boarding  Level boarding, demarcation/protection of boarding area Management of the bus flows  Passing lanes, (semi-) express services, queuing rules  Strict operations control, departure management  Rapid response to disruptions Station management, activity oversight
  25. 25. Vehicle Throughput at Junctions As frequency increases, problem escalates  High-volume systems can have up to 6 buses per minute Need adequate time to clear queue of buses  Random arrivals? If so, can have Q lengths of up to 10 vehicles  How much green time possible?  Turning movements by buses  Requirement for cross-turning movements by general traffic Cycle time at the junctions  If long cycle time, wave of buses hits next stations  Queuing problems downstream Can partially overcome by using larger vehicles  Less vehicles needed, but longer for each unit to clear
  26. 26. Passenger Throughput at Stations Passenger volume  Total movement of people, boarding and alighting  Transferring passengers Dynamics of movement  Conflict of boarding and alighting passengers  Internal movement within the station area  May constrain dynamic allocation of buses to boarding areas  Movement to/from transfer areas  Limited area and width for median stations  Fare collection and verification For median stations  Safe passage to main pavement  Storage while waiting to cross, conflict with new arrivals  Number of opportunities and impact on general traffic Minimise conflict between passengers and vehicles