CYBERSAFETY, SECURITY AND
DATA PRIVACY
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to
Report Summary
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
The attitude of online users in...
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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Foreword
In 2012, the Ministr...
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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Despite coming
from a differe...
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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Foreword
Executive Summary
Ta...
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How to read this report
The c...
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•	 MENA households enjoy many...
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70...
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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In terms of where people go o...
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In terms of time spent online...
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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Online media behaviors
When ...
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1
1 = Never 2 = Less than mo...
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When examining usage of Inte...
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1 2 3 4 5
Sign an online pet...
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Attitudes towards
the Intern...
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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In the first instance we ask...
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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1 Poor
Under
18
< 6
months
6...
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b. Attitudes towards the rol...
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
70%
6...
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Levels of concern
•	 MENA In...
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1 Not at all
concerned
Very
...
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0%
5%
10%
20%
25%
15%
1 Tota...
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0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
35%
40...
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1 Not at all
concerned
Very
...
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Trust
•	 Internet users in N...
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Don’t Know2 3 4 5 6
“The per...
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“If I make information publi...
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Internet servi...
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Shops and department stores
...
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Behavior
•	 MENA Internet us...
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1 Totally disagree Totally a...
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MENA Europe
Africa
Latin Ame...
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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MENA Europe
Africa
Latin Ame...
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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Conclusion and final thought...
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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b. Breakdown by country
MENA...
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Figure 24: MENA sample break...
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46%
21%
5%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%...
The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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Appendix 2:
Tools, tips and ...
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Appendix 3: Table of figures...
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Appendix 4: Endnotes
1
Oxfor...
Research Report: The attitudes of Internet users in the Middle East to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy
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Research Report: The attitudes of Internet users in the Middle East to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy

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The Rassed team at the Ministry of Information and Communications Technology published the results to their most recent study into the attitudes of Internet users towards cybersafety issues.

The study looks at 5 key areas:
1. Access to technology
2. Attitudes towards the Internet
3. Levels of concern towards safety and online privacy
4. Trust in various online actors
5. Online behaviors

The study was conducted as part of the Global Internet Values Project, and thus benchmarks the Middle East results across regional and global data.

The Middle East sample contained 2793 respondents from 14 different countries in the region.

Interested in our work? Visit our website:
www.ictqatar.qa/en/rassed

Or contact us:
rassed@ict.gov.qa

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Transcript of "Research Report: The attitudes of Internet users in the Middle East to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy"

  1. 1. CYBERSAFETY, SECURITY AND DATA PRIVACY The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Report Summary
  2. 2. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy The attitude of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy May, 2014 This report was produced by Rassed. The Digital Impact and Emerging Technologies Team at the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (ictQATAR) established Rassed to study the effects of the Internet and Information Communication Technologies (ICT) on society; and the potential of emerging digital technologies. Find out more about our work at: www.ictqatar.qa/en/rassed This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
  3. 3. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 2 Foreword In 2012, the Ministry of Information and Communications Technology sponsored research into the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as part of the Global Internet Values Project. The Ministry’s involvement followed on from a 2011study - published initially in the World Economic Forum’s Global Information Technology Report 2010-2011 - which explored variations across cultures, in areas such as online freedom of expression, privacy, trust and security. In particular we noted the absence of the Arab world from that report and so we undertook our new research project with the aim of bridging this gap. As a result, in consultation with the Ministry, the next iteration of this global study - which was led by the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford, in collaboration with the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University - included 2,793 respondents from across 14 countries in the Middle East. These conclusions have subsequently been analyzed and contextualized by teams within the Ministry in order to provide a valuable evidence base to help shape our work. In particular, it is worth noting that this document addresses several key Internet topics at a regional level for the first time. As a result, it provides us with insights that enable us to understand the MENA Internet user as never before. These five areas of study are: 1. Access to Technology: Building a picture of the Arab Digital Household. 2. Attitudes: Exploring the views of Internet users in MENA towards the web. 3. Level of Concern: Examining the extent to which MENA Internet users are concerned about issues such as the repurposing of their personal online data, or the risk of someone breaking into their Internet account or e-mail. 4. Trust: Discovering the levels of trust Internet users invest in different Internet online players and third parties, from Governments to Banks and Internet Service Providers (ISPs); and whether MENA Internet users feel that their data is kept safe by such entities. 5. Behaviors: Understanding if user attitudes and concerns are reflected in the online activities undertaken by MENA’s Internet population. The data also enables us to map the attitudes and behaviors of MENA’s Internet users against Internet users in other regions; thereby benchmarking for the first time the online experience of users in MENA against other parts of the world. It also shows that although users across the globe have many things in common, MENA Internet users do show distinctive characteristics around issues such as the role of Government in blocking harmful content, and in their behaviors around eCommerce and cybersafety. As a result, our report offers conclusions which we believe will be of particular relevance to Government agencies, regulators - as well as academic, civil society and industry stakeholders - across the region; and globally. Because we also recognize that studies such as these provoke many questions, we have also made comments and recommendations for areas of future study which we – or others - may want to address. Finally, we have also included some links to other interesting reports worth noting, as well as tools and tips to encourage safe Internet usage; building on many of the themes and conclusions which derive from our research. In producing this paper I am very grateful to Professor William H. Dutton and Ginette Law from the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford, and Professor Soumitra Dutta from the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management at Cornell University for all of their help; which included presenting preliminary data findings to Ministry staff. We also benefited from guidance provided by Dr. Kaltham Al Ghanim at Qatar University, who kindly reviewed our research findings. I hope you enjoy this report. Dr. Hessa Al-Jaber Minister of Information and CommunicationsTechnology
  4. 4. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 3 Despite coming from a different cultural context, Internet users in the Middle East share many of the same concerns about online privacy and safety as Internet users in other parts of the world. 10 key findings:Executive Summary 1. The majority of Internet users in MENA access the web from home. 2. They are considerably less likely to make online purchases or do online  banking compared to other regions. 3. MENA Internet users are considerably more likely to agree with the statement that “the Internet is making things better for people like me” – when compared to the world average. 4. They are also more supportive of the idea that Government authorities should block harmful online content than users elsewhere in the world. 5. When compared to the world average, MENA Internet users show similar levels of concern about their online communications being monitored. Nonetheless, a sizeable number are also quite relaxed about this issue. 6. Internet users in North Africa are much more inclined to believe that their personal data is safe online compared to other Internet users in both the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and globally. 7. Amongst different online players; banks and financial institutions in the region enjoy the highest levels of trust, followed by health and medical service providers and  Government authorities. 8. Nearly 50% of MENA’s Internet users say they are “very careful” about  what they say and do on the Internet. 9. Despite this, they are among the most likely to open attachments, documents and emails from senders they do not know; and amongst the least likely to scan their computer or mobile device for viruses and spyware. 10. They are also amongst the most likely to meet people online that they have not met in person, and are more likely to accept to be “friends” with someone online - or to make “connections” with people they do not personally know - than users in any other region. Understanding - and addressing - these concerns is essential if take-up of eGovernment and eCommerce is to be encouraged, and to ensure that outreach activity can be targeted to address the particular needs and anxieties of MENA’s Internet users.
  5. 5. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 4 Foreword Executive Summary Table of Contents 1. Technology and the Internet – the Arab Internet user a. Access to technology b. Internet Usage: Where users go online c. Internet Usage: Time spent online d. Internet Usage: What activities MENA Internet users do online 2. Attitudes towards the Internet a. Attitudes towards the benefits of the Internet b. Attitudes towards the role of Government authorities 3. Levels of concern a. Concerns about monitoring and the collection of personal data b. Concerns about the safety of online accounts c. Online reputation and reputation management 5. Behavior a. Being careful online b. Individual cybersecurity c. Cybersafety 6. Conclusion and Final Thoughts 4. Trust a. Attitudes towards personal data online b. Concerns around the repurposing of personal data in the public domain c. Trust in different online players 8 2 3 4 6 7 33 37 38 39 29 33 30 3 1 32 9 10 14 15 17 19 20 23 22 24 25 26 27 Appendix 1: Methodology Appendix 2: Tools, tips and online learning resources Appendix 3: Table of figures Appendix 4: Endnotes
  6. 6. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 5 How to read this report The charts and tables in this report use data collected through an online survey of 2,793 Internet users in 14 MENA countries between July -September 2012, as well as a further global sample of 8,432 respondents from 44 other countries. For more information on our research methodology see Appendix 1. Bahrain IranIraq YemenJordan OmanQatar UAE Kuwait Saudi Arabia Algeria TunisiaMorocco Egypt Countries we have surveyed
  7. 7. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 6 • MENA households enjoy many forms of domestic technology in line with the world average. Usage of Satellite TV is 37% higher than the global figure. • There are major differences in access to technology between households in the GCC and North Africa. This is particularly true for tablets and gaming machines. Fixed line and webcam ownership enjoys much greater parity. • The majority of Internet users in  MENA access the web from home. • MENA Internet users are considerably less likely to make online purchases, or do online banking, compared to Internet users in other regions. Summary Technology and the Internet – The Arab Internet user 1
  8. 8. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 7 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Satellite TV Fixed Phone Line Web-cam Digital Camera MP3 Player Games Machine Cable TV Tablet Reader 87% 91% 86% 50% 74% 74% 73% 73% 70% 60% 70% 50% 47% 48% 62% 46% 39% 45% 56% 49% 70% 41% 16% 15% 21% 19% 33% 44% 36% 60% 58% 71% 75% 70% 79% 77% Technology in households Figure 1: Technology in households Households in MENA have access to many forms of domestic technology in line with – and on occasion above – the world average (see Figure 1). This is particularly true for Satellite TV which has a very high penetration rate across the region (87%), well above the global average (50%). In other areas of technology usage - such as fixed line phones and e-readers - availability in MENA households is broadly in line with global averages. The most striking element of our data however lies in some of the key differences which can be seen between the GCC and North African Internet users. This contrast can clearly be seen in areas such as access to tablets (70% in the GCC, compared to 33% in North Africa) and gaming machines/consoles (62% in the Gulf Countries versus a total of 36% of households located in North Africa). Differences can also be seen in access to digital cameras and MP3 players. a. Access to technology MENA North Africa GCC World Average
  9. 9. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 8 In terms of where people go online, the majority of Internet usage in MENA – as well as globally – takes place at home (see Figure 2). There is a small variance in the location of Internet usage between North Africa and the GCC. The high levels of smartphone penetration in the GCC are likely to account for such prevalence of access on the move. Data compiled in mid-2013 by Statista reported that three in four people in the UAE own a smartphone; the highest level of smartphone penetration in the world, just ahead of South Korea and Saudi Arabia.3 Although access to this technology does not necessarily translate into usage of smartphone features such as apps and mobile media,4 it does nonetheless make it both easier, and more likely. Conversely, lower levels of smartphone penetration5 are probably a reason behind the higher levels of fixed location usage (e.g. Community Centers and Internet cafes) which can be found amongst North African Internet users. As eMarketer notes: “This is a common trend in the developing world, where people first go online at these locations before access is supplanted by home computers and mobile devices.”6 MENA (n = 2793) North Africa (n = 1136) GCC (n = 1261) World Average (n = 11225) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Home Work/School Other Wi-fi hotspots Someone else’s home On the move Internet cafes Libraries Community centers 93% 92% 96% 96% 72% 65% 74% 63% 57% 61% 60% 51% 44% 52% 50% 42% 36% 37% 31% 36% 39% 22% 34% 35% 58% 49% 62% 64% 53% 55% 72% 66% “Do you use the Internet in the following locations?” Figure 2: Internet use by location b. Internet usage: Where users go online
  10. 10. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 9 In terms of time spent online (see Figure 3), based on participants in this study, the volume of Internet usage across MENA is firmly in line with global averages; with 40% of MENA Internet users saying they use the Internet for over 20 hours a week (compared to 39% globally). At the other end of the scale 13% of MENA Internet users stated that they used the web for between 0-5 hours a week (against a world average of 10%). Within this, there are likely to be some variances, with young people most likely to be amongst the heaviest Internet consumers. Research by Booz and Co into the Arab Digital Generation7 showed that 83% of these Internet users reported using the Internet daily, with 40% using the Internet for at least five hours a day. MENA GCC WORLD AVERAGE NORTH AFRICA 13% 18% 15% 14% 14% 14% 13% 40% 41% (n = 2793) (n = 1261) (n = 11225) (n = 1136) 0 - 5 hrs/week 6 - 10 hrs/week 11 - 15 hrs/week 16 - 20 hrs/week >20 hrs/week 10% 18% 17% 17% 17% 39% 11% 19% 16% 15% 40% Figure 3: Hours of Internet use per week “What is the total number of hours that you spend using the Internet per week?” c. Internet usage: Time spent online
  11. 11. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 10 Online media behaviors When it comes to online media behaviors (see Figure 4) MENA Internet users are more likely to watch videos online than Internet users in any other region. They are also amongst the most frequent downloaders of online content. MENA Internet users are also more likely to meet new people - or make new connections online - than Internet users in more established markets, doing this more frequently than any region apart from mainland Africa (see Figure 4). However, looking at the types of activities undertaken by Internet users (see Figure 5) such as checking email or surfing the web for information, the behavior of MENA Internet user is broadly in line with users in other countries. They are also more inclined to use social media platforms on a regular basis - as well as check the news online, communicate with friends and share pictures of friends, family or colleagues - than Internet users in North America, Oceania and Europe. Interestingly, all four of these activities are undertaken more regularly in emerging markets such as MENA, Africa, Latin American and Asia. d. Internet usage: What activities MENA Internet users do online MENA Europe Africa Oceania/Australia Latin American & Caribbean North America Asia 1 1 = Never 2 = Less than monthly 3 = Monthly 4 = Weekly 5 = Daily 2 3 4 5 Meet new people or make new connections Download online content (music,videos, etc.) Watch videos online Play games online Get music 3.45 3.86 4.18 3.2 3.46 Figure 4: What people use the Internet for – types of media “How often do you use the Internet for the following purposes?”
  12. 12. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 11 1 1 = Never 2 = Less than monthly 3 = Monthly 4 = Weekly 5 = Daily 2 3 4 5 Check the news Surf or browse the Web for information Get updates on things that interest me Communicate with friends or family members Share pictures of friends, family or colleagues Check email Use social media platforms 4.53 4.72 4.69 4.12 4.42 3.76 4.1 Figure 5: What people use the Internet for – types of online activities “How often do you use the Internet for the following purposes?” MENA Europe Africa Latin American & Caribbean North America Asia Oceania/Australia
  13. 13. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 12 When examining usage of Internet services (see Figure 6) there are some major differences between the activities undertaken by Internet users in MENA and other parts of the world. 1 2 3 4 5 Do online banking Make online purchases Communicate with work colleagues or business contacts Work on a work/school project Take an online course/do distance learning Get travel directions or find a location on a map Make a video or audio call 2.42 2.75 2.25 4.08 3.51 2.44 3.45 1 = Never 2 = Less than monthly 3 = Monthly 4 = Weekly 5 = Daily Figure 6: What people use the Internet for – online products and services “How often do you use the Internet for the following purposes?” MENA Europe Africa Latin American & Caribbean North America Asia Most notably MENA Internet users are considerably less likely to make online purchases or do online banking. However, they also make video calls on a more regular basis than in any other region. Usage of online products and services Oceania/Australia
  14. 14. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 13 1 2 3 4 5 Sign an online petition Express an opinion about politics online Post a video Post a podcast Maintain a personal website 2.1 2.84 2.35 2.12 2.69 1 = Never 2 = Less than monthly 3 = Monthly 4 = Weekly 5 = Daily Figure 7: What people use the Internet for – tools for online creative expression Online expression According to our survey, MENA Internet users are the most likely to express an opinion about politics online (see Figure 7). They’re also the second most likely to maintain a personal website - behind users in Latin America and the “How often do you use the Internet for the following purposes?” Caribbean – showing again that this type of personal online expression is more popular in emerging Internet markets, than established ones. MENA Europe Africa Latin American & Caribbean North America Asia Oceania/Australia
  15. 15. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 14 Attitudes towards the Internet • MENA Internet users are much more likely to agree with the statement “the Internet is making things better for people like me” – compared to the world average. • Older online users (those aged 55+), particularly those with lower levels of Internet experience and online skills, tend to have the most negative views about the benefits of the Internet. • There is also a strong correlation between negative views of the Internet and educational qualifications; as well as the amount of time people spend online each week. • MENA Internet users are more supportive of Government authorities blocking online content such as pornography - or material that is ‘discriminatory’ or ‘racist’ - than in other regions. • They are also much more inclined to argue that these bodies should censor Internet content to protect children, with the MENA average sitting 12% higher than the combined world dataset on this subject. Summary 2
  16. 16. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 15 In the first instance we asked respondents for their overall attitude towards the Internet and whether it played a beneficial role in their lives (see Figure 8a). Not surprisingly, given that our report derives from an online survey of existing Internet users, respondents were strongly inclined to agree with the statement that “the Internet is making things better for people like me.” In MENA nearly half of respondents (49%) scored this question with a seven – the highest number which could be recorded for this statement, and considerably higher than the world average. At the same time, it is also noticeable that MENA Internet users are also marginally more likely to say that they “totally disagree” with the view that “the Internet is making things better for people like me” than other regions. When we dived deeper into this data (see Figure 8b) we found that respondents with a more negative view of the Internet tended to be older (30% are aged 55+) and relatively new to the Internet (with 32% having used the web for under a year). Similarly, they are also more likely to rate their online skills as “poor” and they spend little time online – with 13% on the Internet for less than 5 hours a week. This data suggests there may be a value in focussing outreach and training efforts to work with new netizens, in order to ensure that they have the skills, time and confidence they need to become proficient online users. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1 Totally disagree Totally agree 72 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 1211 4949 48 39 16 15 17 21 13 5 9 9 44 4 8 10 7 5 3 3 34 “The Internet is making things better for people like me.” MENA (n = 2727) North Africa (n = 1102) GCC (n = 1227) World Average (n = 10811) Figure 8a: “The Internet is making things better for people like me.” a. Attitudes towards the benefits of the Internet
  17. 17. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 16 1 Poor Under 18 < 6 months 6mo<1yr 2yrs<5yrs 5-7yrs >7yrs2 yrs D id notattend...H igh SchoolH igh School... Post-secondary School Post-secondary... G raduate School G raduate School... 0-5 6-10 11-15 hours/week 16-20 >20 2 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ 3 4 5 6 7 Excellent 36 % 26 % 23 % 13 % 9 % 9 % 6 % 8 % 11 % 11 % 11 % 12 % 12 % 9 % 7 % 4 % 7 % 7 % 7 % 7 % 7 % 7 % 6 % 6 % 5 % 5 % 7 % 8 % 23 % 8 % 8 % 8 % Skills Age Gender Experience Education Time of use Female Male 7% 8% “The Internet is making things better for people like me - disagree.” (MENA region) Figure 8b: Users who disagree with the statement “the Internet is making things better for people like me.”
  18. 18. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 17 b. Attitudes towards the role of Government authorities 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 70% 60% 1 Totally disagree Totally agree 72 3 4 5 6 13 10 10 3 34 4 4 14 59 56 47 57 12 5 5 9 9 98 8 6 6 6 7 “Government authorities should censor Internet content to protect children.” MENA (n = 2691) North Africa (n = 1095) GCC (n = 1199) World Average (n = 10841) Figure 9: Role of Government authorities - censoring content to protect children This was one area where MENA Internet users had overwhelmingly different attitudes from their global counterparts (Figures 9-11), with the majority of respondents expressing the view that they want Government authorities to protect them from content which they view as inappropriate, or out of step with cultural values. This includes pornography, racism and a strong desire for censoring material in order to protect children.
  19. 19. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 18 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 70% 60% 1 Totally disagree Totally agree 72 3 4 5 6 13 12 10 10 11 4 4 58 54 44 57 5 65 9 9 98 8 87 7 “Government authorities should block the distribution of pornography.” MENA (n = 2678) North Africa (n = 1096) GCC (n = 1192) World Average (n = 10765) Figure 11: Role of Government authorities - blocking pornography 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 35% 40% 45% 50% 30% 1 Totally disagree Totally agree 7 Don’t Know2 3 4 5 6 1010 10 1011 11 11 4 38 43 41 33 12 13 13 14 14 14 5 5 5 5 8 5 6 6 6 9 “Government authorities should censor content that is ‘discriminatory’ or ‘racist’.” MENA (n = 2793) North Africa (n = 1136) GCC (n = 1261) World Average (n = 11225) Figure 10: Role of Government authorities – censoring discriminatory and racist content
  20. 20. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 19 Levels of concern • MENA Internet users enjoy similar levels of concern around their online communications being monitored in comparison to their global counterparts (28% versus 29%). • However a sizeable sample – 32% of MENA respondents, compared to 21% as the global average – is also much more relaxed about this issue. They rated their concern at the lowest end of this spectrum (scoring this 1-3). • MENA Internet users have similar levels of concern related to their email or online accounts being hacked. But 10% remain “not at all concerned”. • Broadly speaking MENA’s online population is less concerned about damage to their reputation as a result of what someone posts online, however a third of North Africa based respondents took an opposing view. Summary3
  21. 21. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 20 1 Not at all concerned Very concerned 7 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 2 3 4 5 6 17 18 15 12 10 28 27 29 29 11 15 15 15 18 18 16 14 8 8 8 6 7 7 7 7 9 “How concerned are you personally about your online communications being monitored?” MENA (n = 2654) North Africa (n = 1079) GCC (n = 1181) World Average (n = 10793) Figure 12: Concerns around monitoring of online communication In addressing concerns around their online content being monitored, over a quarter of MENA Internet users reported that they were “very concerned” – which is in line with the global average (see Figure 12). At the other end of the scale many MENA Internet users took the view that they were “not at all concerned” about such monitoring. Across the region 17% of respondents held this view, significantly more than the world average of 8%. Given that our survey took place before the publication of top-secret documents by NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden, it will be interesting to see if these levels of concern have risen as a result of the revelations.8 a. Concerns about monitoring and the collection of personal data
  22. 22. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 21 0% 5% 10% 20% 25% 15% 1 Totally disagree Totally agree 7 Don’t Know2 3 4 5 6 12 12 12 12 10 11 11 16 20 18 13 13 14 1819 16 21 14 15 17 17 7 9 8 7 5 6 9 “There is personal information about me that is collected on the internet by people I do not know.” MENA (n = 2635) North Africa (n = 1136) GCC (n = 1261) World Average (n = 11225) Figure 13: Concerns about personal information being collected by others We also asked respondents to comment on the view that: “there is personal information about me that is collected on the Internet by people I do not know” (see Figure 13).Very similar numbers of people in MENA (18%) “totally disagreed” with this statement; broadly in line with the global numbers saying that they were “not at all concerned” about their online communications being monitored. It is worth noting that at both - world and MENA - levels there is a sizeable online population (10% globally and 12% in MENA) who answered “don’t know” to this question, reflecting the need for digital literacy efforts to address these issues.
  23. 23. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 22 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 35% 40% 45% 50% 30% 2 3 4 5 6 10 12 12 44 43 41 11 11 11 4 4 15 17 13 56 6 6 7 6 9 “How concerned are you personally about someone breaking into your Internet account or email?” MENA (n = 1165) North Africa (n = 1088) GCC (n = 1195) World Average (n = 10854) Figure 14: Concerns about Internet accounts and email being broken into b. Concerns about the safety of online accounts Compared to the global average, MENA Internet users demonstrate a similar range of opinion related to concerns about their email or other Internet accounts being hacked into (see Figure 14), with 41% of all Internet users stating that they are “very concerned” about this issue (the MENA figure is 44%). Nonetheless, some of MENA’s Internet users were not concerned about this issue, with 11% of Internet users in North Africa expressing the lowest level of concern; some 5% above the global figure. 1 Not at all concerned Very concerned 7
  24. 24. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 23 1 Not at all concerned Very concerned 7 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 2 3 4 5 6 15 13 10 28 31 33 29 11 15 15 15 16 17 16 14 14 14 13 14 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 9 9 “How concerned are you personally about your reputation being damaged by what someone posts online?” MENA (n = 2664) North Africa (n = 1080) GCC (n = 1193) World Average (n = 10832) Figure 15 : Level of concern related to personal reputation This is an area where MENA Internet users are amongst the most - and the least - concerned in our global sample. A substantial number of MENA Internet users, 14%, expressed the view that they are “not at all” concerned about their reputation being damaged by what someone posts online (see Figure 15). When expanded to include the lowest three levels of concern (1-3 on the scale), 30% of MENA Internet users share this view. This is compared to a world average of 23%. c. Online reputation and reputation management That said, at the other end of the scale there are a significant number of MENA respondents who stated that they were “very concerned” about their reputation being damaged by what someone posts online. This is particularly true amongst our North African sample, a third of whom expressed this concern.
  25. 25. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 24 Trust • Internet users in North Africa are much more inclined to believe that their personal data is safe online when compared to users in the GCC and globally. • The reuse of their public data is not something MENA Internet users are comfortable with, being more strongly against this than our global sample. • Banks and financial institutions enjoyed the highest levels of trust in the region, followed by health and medical service providers and Government bodies. Summary4
  26. 26. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 25 Don’t Know2 3 4 5 6 “The personal data I put online is kept safe.” MENA (n = 2793) North Africa (n = 1072) GCC (n = 1261) World Average (n = 11225) 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 11 11 14 13 10 10 10 12 18 19 22 19 15 13 13 15 15 17 16 8 8 9 9 9 7 Figure 16: Attitudes towards the safety of personal data online When examining attitudes to personal data (see Figures 16-17), MENA Internet users reflect different opinions to the wider Internet population. Taken in aggregate, MENA Internet users are much more likely to “totally agree” with the statement that the personal data they put online is kept safe (see Figure 16). However, this aggregated figure masks regional differences. Amongst online users in North Africa, 22% of respondents held this view, compared to 15% of users in the GCC, a figure more aligned with the global average. 1 Totally disagree Totally agree 7 These findings are valuable because they offer some interesting insights into the role that different online actors can play in promoting an active, healthy and safe Internet economy. a. Attitudes towards personal data online
  27. 27. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 26 “If I make information public, it is ok for anyone to use that data.” 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 35% 40% 45% 50% 30% 1 Totally disagree Totally agree 72 3 4 5 6 12 10 10 18 17 15 12 12 41 44 37 27 14 6 7 7 78 8 8 8 9 MENA (n = 2709) North Africa (n = 1104) GCC (n = 1205) World Average (n = 10885) Figure 17: Attitudes towards the reuse of public data Following on from this, we asked respondents if “it is okay for anyone to use data” they have made public (see Figure 17). Within MENA, North African users felt more strongly about their issue than their GCC equivalents. Between the two parts of the region we saw a 7% variance – in terms of those who “totally disagree” with the idea that “it is okay for anyone to use that data.” We also saw a 14% variance between the MENA and global figure. b. Concerns around the repurposing of personal data in the public domain
  28. 28. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 27 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Internet service providers (ISPs) Mobile phone operators Telephone companies Do not trust at all Totally trust 4.09 4.29 4.29 Mean scores for trust in different players Figure 18: Trust in online players – Telecom service providers We asked audiences to rate the levels of trust that they had in different online players (see Figures 18 and 19). Compared to other regions, users in MENA gave marginally higher scores for trust in mobile phone operators and telephone companies (see Figure 18). But banks and financial institutions enjoyed the highest levels of trust. Across MENA these bodies ranked top (4.9 out of 7) of the 11 Internet actors we asked people to rate. This was followed by health and medical service providers (4.71) and Government authorities (4.6). These trust levels are typically higher than found in Europe and North America, but not necessarily higher than other regions (see Figure 19). c. Trust in different online players Given the strong desire that we observed / noticed (see Section 3b) for Government authorities to regulate and manage harmful content it is perhaps surprising that the ranking attributed to Government authorities in MENA is not higher. Be that as it may, the high levels of trust amongst banks, Government authorities and financial institutions potentially offers a solid basis on which to deploy new eServices and encourage increased eParticipation. However, the lower trust levels attributed to shops and department stores may impact on the wider adoption of eCommerce. MENA Europe Africa Latin American & Caribbean North America Asia Oceania/Australia
  29. 29. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 28 Shops and department stores Banks and financial institutions Those providing health and medical services Government authorities 4.91 3.64 4.6 4.71 Mean scores for trust in different actors Figure 19: Trust in online players – businesses, offline service providers and Government MENA Europe Africa Latin American & Caribbean North America Asia Oceania/Australia 1 2 3 4 5 6 7Do not trust at all Totally trust
  30. 30. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 29 Behavior • MENA Internet users state that they are amongst the most careful while online, with nearly 50% of consumers saying they are “very careful” about what they say and do on the Internet. • Yet compared to other regions, MENA’s Internet users are among the most likely to open attachments, documents and emails from senders they do not know. • MENA’s online population is also among the least likely to scan their computer or mobile for viruses or spyware. Only users in Asia do this less often. • But they are also amongst the most likely to check their privacy settings. • They are amongst the most likely to meet people online that they have not met in person and are more likely to accept to be “friends” or make “connections” with someone online that they do not know in person. Summary 5
  31. 31. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 30 1 Totally disagree Totally agree 72 3 4 5 6 12 1211 45 46 43 38 15 19 13 13 13 14 5 5 8 10 7 6 4 4 “I am very careful about what I do or say on the Internet.” MENA (n = 2733) North Africa (n = 1109) GCC (n = 1223) World Average (n = 10882) 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 35% 40% 45% 50% 30% Figure 20: Extent to which Internet users are careful online a. Being careful online MENA Internet users admit to being amongst the most careful while online, with 45% saying that they “totally agree” with the statement “I am very careful about what I do or say on the Internet,” compared to a world average of 38% (see Figure 20).
  32. 32. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 31 MENA Europe Africa Latin American & Caribbean North America Asia 1 2 3 4 5 Open an attachment, document or email if you do not know the sender Scan your computer or mobile gadgets for viruses or spyware Read privacy policies before using a website or service Check your privacy and security settings online 3.73 2.59 3.62 3.13 “Do you ever..?” (mean) 1 = Never 2 = Seldom 3 = Sometimes 4 = Often 5 = Always Figure 21: Attitudes towards individual cybersecurity b. Individual cybersecurity In comparison to other regions, MENA’s Internet users are among the most likely to open attachments, documents and emails from senders they do not know. On the positive side, MENA Internet users do check their privacy and security settings more frequently than in most other regions (see Figure 21). Oceania/Australia
  33. 33. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 32 MENA Europe Africa Latin American & Caribbean North America Asia 1 2 3 4 5 Personally meet someone you first met through the Internet Accept to be “friends” or make “connections” online with someone you do not personally know Meet people online whom you have not met in person 2.49 2.86 2.87 “Do you ever..?” (mean) Figure 22 : Attitudes towards individual cybersafety When it comes to cybersafety – notably meeting people offline they first met online – MENA Internet users are surprisingly relaxed about this (see Figure 22). They are also amongst the most likely to meet people online that they have not met in person and are more likely to accept to be “friends” with someone online – or to make “connections” with them - that they do not personally know. These conclusions may be surprising given the concerns previously expressed by users about being careful about what they say and do online. But perhaps it also shows that in certain situations MENA Internet users are keen to use the web as a means to broaden their social – or professional - circle. What this also shows is that attitudes and behaviors do not always correlate.9 This is an area where a more detailed analysis – particularly one mapping these findings against age and years of online experience – may be worth exploring. c. Cybersafety 1 = Never 2 = Seldom 3 = Sometimes 4 = Often 5 = Always Oceania/Australia
  34. 34. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 33 Conclusion and final thoughts This report provides an initial insight into the views of Internet users in the MENA region to questions around online behaviors and attitudes; as well as allowing us to build up a picture of the Arab digital household. What the data shows us is that the MENA region is not an outlier. Substantial numbers of MENA Internet users display attitudes and behaviors in line with other Internet users across the globe. In fact MENA’s online population overwhelmingly sees the Internet as a positive force in their lives. Nonetheless, differences in attitudes and behaviors do exist, particularly around the role that online users feel that their Government’s should play to protect them from harmful content; and in their trust of other Internet players. MENA’s Internet population also claims to typically be more cautious about what it says and does online, yet at the same time they are also amongst the most likely to go online to meet new people and make new connections with people they may not know in person. Appendix 1: Methodology a. Data collection In consultation with the Ministry, this research was conducted by the Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, in collaboration with the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University. The survey was conducted in collaboration with the World Economic Forum (WEF) and the digital analytics company comScore, as part of a wider global survey into the attitudes and media behaviors of Internet users. Survey Samples Panel Size Toluna Sample (MENA only) 2,039 respondents comScore Sample (Global - inlcuding MENA) 9,166 respondents Total MENA sample: 2,793 respondents, from 14 countries Total Global sample: 11,225 respondents, from 58 countries Total non-MENA sample: 8,432 respondents, from 44 countries An online survey of Internet users in selected nations of the Middle East and North Africa was conducted in two phases, from July through September 2012, fielded by the market research company Toluna (with a break during Ramadan). This data was then merged with an online survey of Internet users fielded by comScore in selected nations world- wide from July through September 2012. These potential contradictions reflect the challenges of understanding Internet diffusion; challenges which will become more pronounced as young and populous regions such as MENA, Asia-Pacific and Latin America find themselves at the forefront of the next billion going online. MENA’s role in this space will be an interesting one. According to some sources, the MENA region will see the largest percentage growth of Internet users over the next couple of years.10 We do not know if new users of the Internet will share the same views as existing users, or indeed if the views of existing users will evolve over time. This report – and the dataset behind it – potentially provides a starting point for us to be able to track that evolution. It is going to be an interesting journey.
  35. 35. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 34 b. Breakdown by country MENA figures in our report are a combination of the GCC and North Africa samples, as well as data from other countries in the region which do not sit clearly under the “GCC” and “North Africa” labels (See Figure 23). MENA Region Number of Respondents Percentage of Sample Algeria 229 8.1% Bahrain 11 0.39% Egypt 529 18.8% Iran 3 0.1% Iraq 1 0.03% Jordan 243 8.6% Kuwait 197 7% Morocco 270 9.6% Oman 141 5% Qatar 156 5.5% Saudi Arabia 511 18% Tunisia 108 3.8% UAE 245 8.7% Yemen 149 5.3% GCC 1,261 45.1% North Africa 1,136 40.5% Additional MENA Countries 396 14.1% Total 2,793 100% Figure 23: MENA sample breakdown by country MENA Region Under 25 25 - 34 35 - 44 45 + # % # % # % # % Algeria 56 2.00% 104 3.71% 44 1.57% 25 0.89% Bahrain 1 0.04% 5 0.18% 2 0.07% 3 0.11% Egypt 229 8.17% 188 6.71% 76 2.71% 36 1.28% Iran 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 3 0.11% 0 0.00% c. Breakdown by age group and country From our MENA sample of 2,793, a total of 396 respondents (14%) come from these additional countries. Of these only the samples for Jordan and Yemen feature more than 10 respondents, (with 392 of the additional 396 respondents).
  36. 36. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 35 Figure 24: MENA sample breakdown by age Country Male Female Total # % # % # Algeria 176 77% 53 23% 229 Bahrain 7 64% 4 36% 11 Egypt 435 82% 94 18% 529 Iran 3 100% 0 0% 1 Iraq 1 100% 0 0 1 Jordan 181 74% 62 26% 243 Kuwait 154 78% 43 22% 197 Morocco 195 72% 75 28% 270 Oman 107 76% 34 24% 141 Qatar 116 74% 40 26% 156 Saudi Arabia 396 77% 115 23% 511 Tunisia 80 74% 28 26% 108 UAE 162 66% 83 34% 245 Yemen 126 85% 23 15% 149 Total 2,139 77% 654 23% 2,793 d. Breakdown by gender and country Figure 25: MENA sample breakdown by gender Iraq 0 0.00% 1 0.04% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% Jordan 35 1.25% 90 3.21% 60 2.14% 58 2.07% Kuwait 15 0.54% 74 2.64% 72 2.57% 36 1.28% Morocco 69 2.46% 115 4.10% 49 1.75% 37 1.32% Oman 25 0.89% 58 2.07% 40 1.43% 18 0.64% Qatar 23 0.82% 47 1.68% 54 1.93% 32 1.14% Saudi Arabia 218 7.78% 188 6.71% 81 2.89% 24 0.86% Tunisia 13 0.46% 29 1.03% 35 1.25% 31 1.11% UAE 33 1.18% 118 4.21% 70 2.50% 24 0.86% Yemen 23 0.82% 80 2.85% 30 1.07% 16 0.57% Total for age group 740 26.40% 1,097 39.14% 616 21.97% 340 12.13% MENA Region Under 25 25 - 34 35 - 44 45 + # % # % # % # %
  37. 37. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 36 46% 21% 5% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 11% e. Breakdown of responses by language English Arabic LatAm Span. Chinese French German Spanish Japanese Italian Korean Survey languages - MENA region Survey languages - Global sample English Arabic French 3% 84% 14% Figure 26: Sample breakdown by language used to complete online survey
  38. 38. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 37 Appendix 2: Tools, tips and online learning resources 1. The Ministry’s Safe Space website dedicated to providing parents and teachers with tools, tips and information on how to keep children safe online. www.Safespace.qa 2. Get Safe Online is a UK-based organization dedicated to cybersafety promotion. Their website is filled with articles, how- to’s and free expert advice about cybersafety. The areas they cover include protecting your online identity and devices like computers, tablets and smartphones, protecting children, and safe eCommerce. https://www.getsafeonline.org/ 3. Article by Saudi bank SAAB on how to stay safe online using 10 pieces of advice. http://www.sabb.com/1/2/sabb-ar/about-us/online-security/what-you-can-do 4. The Saudi Arabia Communications and Information Technology Commission’s page on Cybersafety with information about staying safe online. http://www1.Internet.gov.sa/ 5. “How to Delete your Digital Life” – an article from The Guardian newspaper with guidance on how to remove your digital footprint. http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/apr/04/delete-your-digital-life-advice   6. “How to commit Internet suicide and delete yourself forever” – a similar article from the popular Lifehacker website. http://lifehacker.com/5958801/how-to-commit-Internet-suicide-and-disappear-from-the-web-forever 7. “How you can stay safe and secure online” - advice from Google. http://www.google.co.uk/goodtoknow/online-safety/ 8. Top 10 misunderstood Facebook privacy settings, and how to change them (November 2013): http://www.informationweek.com/10-most-misunderstood-facebook-privacy-facts/d/d-id/898873  9. The most recent 11 changes Facebook has made to your privacy settings, and how to understand them (January 2013): http://socialmediatoday.com/chingya/1176231/11-facebook-privacy-and-timeline-changes-you-should-know 10. Index of articles related to data privacy news, videos, reviews, and gossip – from Lifehacker: http://lifehacker.com/tag/data-privacy
  39. 39. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 38 Appendix 3: Table of figures Figure 1: Technology in households 7 Figure 2: Internet use by location 8 Figure 3: Hours of Internet use per week 9 Figure 4: What people use the Internet for – types of media 10 Figure 5: What people use the Internet for – types of activity 11 Figure 6: What people use the Internet for – online products and services 12 Figure 7: What people use the Internet for – tools for online / creative expression 13 Figure 8a: “The Internet is making things better for people like me.” 15 Figure 8b: Users who disagree with the statement “the Internet is making things better for people like me.” 16 Figure 9: Role of Government authorities in censoring content to protect children 17 Figure 10: Role of Government authorities – censoring discriminatory and racist content 18 Figure 11: Role of Government authorities - pornography 18 Figure 12: Concerns around monitoring of online communication 20 Figure 13: Concerns about personal information being collected by people you don’t know 21 Figure 14: Concerns about Internet accounts and email being broken into 22 Figure 15: Level of concern related to your personal reputation 23 Figure 16: Attitudes towards the safety of personal data online 25 Figure 17: Attitudes towards the reuse of public data 26 Figure 18: Trust in online players – Telecom service providers 27 Figure 19: Trust in online players – businesses, offline service providers and Government 28 Figure 20: Extent to which Internet users are careful online 30 Figure 21: Attitudes towards individual cybersecurity 31 Figure 22: Attitudes towards individual cybersafety 32 Figure 23: MENA sample breakdown by country 34 Figure 24: MENA sample breakdown by age 34 Figure 25: MENA sample breakdown by gender 35 Figure 26: Sample breakdown by language used to complete online survey 36
  40. 40. The attitudes of online users in the MENA region to Cybersafety, Security and Data Privacy 39 Appendix 4: Endnotes 1 Oxford Internet Institute, The Global Internet Values Project: International Perspectives on Privacy, Security, Trust, and Freedom in a Networked World, July 2010. Accessible at: http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/projects/?id=65 2 World Economic Forum in collaboration with INSEAD, comScore, and the Oxford Internet Institute,The Gobal Information Technology Report 2010-2011, April 2011. Accessible at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1810005 3 Statista, The United States Ranks 13th in Smartphone, August 2013. Accessible at: http://www.statista.com/topics/840/ smartphones/chart/1405/the-united-states-ranks-13th-in-smartphone-penetration/ 4 The Ministry of Information & Communications Technology, Qatar’s Smartphone Market Q4 2011 Consumers’ Perspective A Nielsen syndicated study, 2012. Accessible at: http://www.ictqatar.qa/en/documents/download/Qatar%20Smartphone%20 Market%20-%20Q4%202011.pdf 5 Ipsos MENA, presentation at ArabNet Dubai (Slide 24), 2013. Accessible at: http://www.slideshare.net/IpsosMENA/ipsos- arabnet-dubai-2013 6 e-Marketer, Connected Youth Drive Digital Behaviors in the Middle East and North Africa, 2013. Accessible at: http://www.emarketer.com/Article/Connected-Youth-Drive-Digital-Behaviors-Middle-East-North-Africa/1009597#QZf7YdkiZI8 0pMzx.99 7 Booz & Co., Understanding the Arab Digital Generation, 2012. Accessible at: http://www.booz.com/media/file/BoozCo_ Understanding-the-Arab-Digital-Generation.pdf 8 Al Jazeera America, Timeline of Edward Snowden’s revelations. Accessible at: http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/ multimedia/timeline-edward-snowden-revelations.html  9 For examples of this behavior in other markets see: Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Facebook and Online Privacy: Attitudes, Behaviors, and Unintended Consequences, October 2009. Accessible at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01494.x/full; Ofcom, International Communications Market Report, 2011. Accessible at: http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/research/cmr/cmr11/icmr/1_-_context.pdf 10 The Ministry of Information & Communications Technology, presentation for the Qatar Financial Center Regulatory Authority, Attitudes to Online Privacy and Security, June 2013. Accessible at: http://www.slideshare.net/ictQATAR/attitudes-to- online-privacy-and-security

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