Ten Tips to Succeed in Global Software Engineering Education

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  • 1. Ivica  Crnković,  Mälardalen  University,  Sweden  Ivana  Bosnić  and  Mario  Žagar  University  of  Zagreb,  Croa?a   2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   1  
  • 2. Distributed  SoHware  Development  Course   Project  organiza?on  Mälardalen  U.     MDH  Sweden   MDH   Students   Supervisors  U.  of  Zagreb   FER FER   students  Croa?a   Project   group   2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   2  
  • 3. Ten  years  of  experience     Year  #  st.  #pr.  Origina/ng  students’  countries   2003    28  5   2004   20  4       2005    38  6     2007   16  2       2008    37  6     2009   56  10       2010   65    9                     2011      35    5      2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   3  
  • 4. Source  of  Evidence  •  Staff  Experience  •  Students’  experience     –  Ini/al  Ques/onnaire   •  Student  background,  skills,  expecta?ons,  wishes   –  Weekly  Summary  Reports     •  project  current  state   –  “Happiness”  poll     •  I  feel  good/I  don’t  feel  good  this  week   –  Minutes  of  mee/ngs   •  Technical  and  organiza?onal  issues   –  Final    Ques/onnaire   •  Comprehensive  descrip?on  about  the  projects   –  Technical,  organiza?onal,  project  management,  cultural,  knowledge,  workload,…   –  Anonymous  Evalua/on  2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   4  
  • 5. •  Problem –  “Start projects with face-to-face meeting” –  There is no “natural force” to start the comminication •  Solution –  Force the communication start BY ANY MEANS •  Give the assignments from the very first day!  C.  B.  Šmite  D  A  Wohlin,  “A  Whisper  of  Evidence  in  Global  SoHware  Engineering,”  IEEE  So&ware,  vol.  28,  no.  4,  2011     2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   5  
  • 6. Tip1: Example-­‐  Project  Schedule  •  Start  with  the  project  from  the  first  lecture  •  Intensive    communica?on  forced  in  the  start   P   P   P   P   Prototype  I   Prototype  II   Final  Results   Lectures   Waterfall  model   Itera?ons   Itera?ons   Itera?ons   Itera?ons   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 WeeksOct 1 Jan 15 P  =  presenta?on    2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   6  
  • 7. •  Problem –  Lack of the informal communication •  Lower loyalty, trust, commmon responsibility •  Solution –  Let (force) students to talk about themselves N.  B.  Moe  and  D.  Smite,  “Understanding  Lacking  Trust  in  Global  SoHware  Teams:   A  Mul?-­‐case  Study,”  So&ware  Process:  Improvement  and  Prac5ce,  vol.  4589,  no.  3,  pp.  20-­‐34,  2007    2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   7  
  • 8. Tip2: Example  Start  with  the  project  from  the  first  lecture  •  Project  plan  in  an  early   stage  of  the  project  •  Define  means  of   communica?ons  •  Students’  presenta?ons  of   themselves   2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   8  
  • 9. •  Problem –  The communication is the most important part in GSE –  The communcation often lack required quality •  Possible missunderstaning, incomplete information •  Solution –  A detailed plan for communication is required –  Minutes of meetings required –  Communication experience is dicussed 2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   9  
  • 10. Tip3: Example   Steering group Project supervisor CustomerCommunica/on  type     Team 
 Project 
•  Con?nous  (predefined)   Leader Manager•  Dedicated  (specific)   Project members Site 1 Site 2 Continuous communication Dedicated communication2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   10  
  • 11. •  Problem   –  Awareness  of  the  current  state  of  other  site   •  Decision  issues  (implicit  and  explicit  decisions)   •  Local  communica?on  with  external  customers   •  SCM  issues  •  Solu?on   –  Require  extensive  use  of  SCM     •  measure  and  comment  commits,    frequency,  users   –  Keep  in  focus  communica?on  between  project  and  local   leader  Sarma,  D.  Redmiles,  and  A.  Van  Der  Hoek,  “Empirical  evidence  of  the  benefits  of  workspace  awareness  in  soHware  configura?on  management,”  Interna5onal  Symposium  on  Founda5ons  of  so&ware  engineering,  2008.     2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   11  
  • 12. Tip4: Example – students’  opinions   45,0 40,0  communication effort, Synchroniza?on,   35,0 synchronization, Availability   availability 30,0   Communica?on     understanding, communicating 25,0 of  new  ideas   ideas and planning,    Planning    other (trust, team   changes coordination,      Decision   Other  incomplete spirit, (trust,   20,0 leadership, process phases,   decison making ?ming)   etc) timeliness 15,0   10,0 different Educa?onal   educational 5,0 background   backgrounds 0,0 Awareness  problems  2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   12  
  • 13. •  Problem   –  Higher  tendency  of  loosing  mo?va?on    &  higher  consequences   –  Different  mo?va?ons  on  different  sites  (grading,  “fun”,  working   habits,  challenges)  •  Solu?on   –  Give  the  students  enough  flexibility  to  develop  their  crea?vity   –  Give  the  students  the  opportunity  to  express  themselves   –  Awards  and  posi?ve  compe??on  D.  H.  Schunk  and  P.  R.  Pintrich,  Mo5va5on  in  educa5on:  Theory,  research,  and  applica5ons,  3rd  ed.  Pren?ce  Hall,  2007    Bosnić,  I.  Čavrak,  M.  Orlić,  M.  Žagar,  and  I.  Crnković,  “Student  Mo?va?on  in  Distributed  SoHware  Development  Projects,”    (CTGDSD  2011),  2011,  pp.  31-­‐35     2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   13  
  • 14. Tip5: Example – students’  mo?va?ons  •  Mo/va/on  to  start  -­‐  “Why  did  you  choose  this  course?”   –  I  like  to  work  in  a  team   –  I  like  to  work  with  real  projects   –  I  have  heard  from  other  students  that  this  is  a  great  course   –  I  like  to  learn  about  students  from  other  countries  •  Mo/va/on  at  the  end  (“What  did  you  like  most?”)   –  The  project  work   –  The  distributed  environment   –  Mee?ng  other  cultures   –  New  technologies   2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   14  
  • 15. Tip5:    SCORE  compe??ons  @ICSE  (2009,  2011)  Semifinal   10  teams,  4  MDH/FER   Final   6  teams,  3  MDH/FER   ~60  teams,  7  MDH/FER   Semifinal   18  teams,  6  MDH/FER   Final   5  teams,  2  MDH/FER   15  
  • 16. •  Challenges   –  Language  differences,  Technical  background,  Openness  in   communica?ons,  Percep?on  of  ?me,  Commitment,   Teamwork   •  Solu?on   –  indicate  for:  diversity  tolerance  and  difference  tolerance   –  Lectures  about  cultural  differences   –  Important  observa?ons  from  supervisors  E.  Langman,  “Rethinking  the  place  of  tolerance  in  -­‐educa?on  -­‐  Encountering  otherness  between  acceptance  and  rejec?on,”    Nordic  Studies  in  Educa?on,  2011.     2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   16  
  • 17. Tip5:  Example  –  students’  views  25 comm. style20 working hours proactiveness15 work style working hours in-group10 relations educational timeliness differences 5 groupwork 0 The  most  important  elements  of  cultural  differences  2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   17  
  • 18. •  Challenges   –  How  to  make  it  easier  with  differences   •  How  to  avoid  possible  conflicts?  •  Solu?on   –  Flexible  groups  and  flexible  goals  for  students   –  Changes  in  requirements  if  necessary   2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   18  
  • 19. •  Problems   –  Different  rules  valid  for  different  university  sites   •  Grading  system  (grades,  credits)   •  Start/end  of  the  semester   •  Required  elements  in  the  course   •  Course  evalua?ons   –  The  university  support  using  local  language   –  Low  local  understanding  for  distributed  course  specific  needs  •  Solu?on   –  Aaaah,…  keep  going….,  be  flexible,  be  crea?ve…   2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   19  
  • 20. •  Problems   –  nothing  is  default     –  Local  changes  (at  the  universi?es)  to  not  consider  other  site   •  Changes  in  start/end  of  semester   •  New  rules,  new  laws  –  for  local  op?miza?on   –  Technical  surprises   •  Changes  in  technologies    •  Solu?on   –  Be  prepared  for  changes   –  Check  all  elements  in  the  course  before  the  work   –  Risk  analysis  important  (what  if,  what  if  not…)    Indiana  Jones:  “Nothing  shocks  me.  Im  a  scien?st.”,  Indiana  Jones  and  the  Temple  of  Doom   2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   20  
  • 21. •  Challenges   –  Unpredictable  changes   –  More  efforts  required   –  Not  recognized  form  the  local  ins?tu?ons  •  Payoff   –  giving  students  a  (unique)  opportunity  to  gain  knowledge  they  will   very  likely  need  in  their  future  professional  life.     –  the  enthusiasm  of  students  during  their  involvement  in  the  project   –  increasing  interest  in  communica?on  with  other,  unknown,  people,   and,  finally,  in  their  success.     2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   21  
  • 22. Issues  Important  to  Students  vs.  Tips   Issue                %      Related  /ps   Communica?on            55      Tip  1,  2,  3   Task  assignment/work  distribu?on      37      Tip  4     Responsibility/trust          27      Tip  4,  6   Punctuality  –  respec?ng  schedules      22      Tip  4,  6   Team  spirit              21      Tip  5,  10   Coopera?veness            20      Tip  5,  7,  10   Leadership              20      (Tip  1,  3)   Planning  and  coordina?on        17      (Tip  1,  3)   Honesty  and  openness          15      Tip  6,  7   Tolerance              14      Tip  6,  7   Goal  awareness            14      (Tip  1,  3,  4)   Awareness  of  individual  tasks      10      Tip  4   Proac?veness/aytude        10      Tip  5,  6   (Tips  8,9,10  related  to  the  teaching  staff)  2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   22  
  • 23. Conclusion  –  the  Ten  Tips  •  Communica)on  and  awareness   –  Tip  1:    Start  communica?on  by  brute  force;   –  Tip  2:    Get  the  students  to  be  familiar  with  each  other  as  soon  as  possible;   –  Tip  3:    Keep  communica?on  levels  consistently  high;   –  Tip  4:    Ensure  that  students  keep  the  other  site  in  mind;  •  Issues  of  diversity  and  difference   –  Tip  6:    Remember:  we  are  different;   –  Tip  7:    Be  flexible  –  overcome  the  differences;  •  Mo)va)on  and  socio-­‐psychological  issues   –  Tip  5:    Keep  the  students  highly  mo?vated;   –  Tip  10:  Be  enthusias?c;  •  Prac)cal  issues   –  Tip  8:    Be  flexible  –  beat  the  administra?on:   –  Tip  9:    Be  alert.   2012-­‐06-­‐06   ICSE  2012   23  
  • 24. THANKS  FOR  THE  ATTENTION   Ques?ons?   24