Students’ use of Web 2.0 tools in higher education:Good practice in assessment and academic integrity          An ALTC pri...
Project teamJenny Waycott (project manager), Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health    Sciences, University of Melbourn...
Projectbackground
The future of teaching & assessing               “academic writing”Chodorow       • “the form and substance of scholarly(2...
The future of teaching & assessing                “academic writing”O’Reilly & Battelle   “One of the fundamental ideas un...
The future of teaching & assessing               “academic writing”Kakutani               “jump to the summary, the video ...
What do you think?“The assessment of student web 2.0 authoring  is [.......................] for learning and teaching  in...
Project aimsA collegial approach to addressing the challenges of universityassessment 2.0:1. Survey and interview Australi...
1. What goes on in assessment 2.0?The subject teaching context1. What discipline or professional degree/s are students enr...
The subject teaching context             Discipline                                  Number of                            ...
The subject teaching context           Level of study         Number of responsesBachelor or honours degree               ...
The subject teaching context          Number of students   Number of responses            enrolled in unitLess than 50    ...
The subject teaching context       Year assignment began   Number of responses2009                                   19200...
1. What goes on in assessment 2.0?The mechanics of the assignment :• What Web 2.0 activities do students do in this assign...
The mechanics of the assignment     Type of Web 2.0 activity   Number of responseswiki writing                            ...
The mechanics of the assignment      Time given to complete   Number of           assignment          responsesMore than 1...
The mechanics of the assignment   Estimated time to complete   Number of          assignment            responses11-20 hou...
The mechanics of the assignment   Where students complete assignment        Number of                                     ...
1. What goes on in assessment 2.0?The point of the assignment :• What are the intended learning outcomes for this assignme...
The point of the assignment       Intended learning outcomes               Number of                                      ...
The point of the assignmentHow much the assignment is   Number of responses         worth         01-10%                  ...
The point of the assignmentIs it compulsory for students   Number of    to do this assignment?      responses             ...
1. What goes on in assessment 2.0?The marking process:• Who marks the assignment?• What techniques are used to mark the as...
The marking process     Who marks the assignment?             Number of                                           response...
What techniques are used to mark the assignment?   Number of                                                       respons...
What feedback do students receive?             Number of                                                        responsesG...
2. What would good practice look like?When university students are asked todemonstrate their learning using this form ofwe...
2. What would good practice look like?Mashing up:affordances of Web 2.0stages in the assessment cycleacademic assessment p...
2. What would good practice look like?Affordances:Ensuring an appropriate fit between what Web 2.0 activities  entail and ...
AffordancesOpen publishing:• Student work can be made easily  accessible to an audience of  peers for mutual benefit inclu...
AffordancesCommunication styles &texts• Web 2.0 assignments can involve  frequent short pieces of work  employing conversa...
AffordancesPersonal identity andexperience:• Students’ online identity can be  different from the student who is  recognis...
AffordancesCo-creation,collaboration,crowdsourcing:• Group work can scale between a  small closed group and a large  free-...
AffordancesContent management• Students’ assessable work may  consist of remixing web content  from diverse sources.• Stud...
2. What would good practice look like?ProcessesSupporting individual and                 Designorganisational learningthro...
ProcessesDesign rationale• Student learning can’t be assessed with as much effectiveness, reliability  or validity by usin...
ProcessesImplementing how?• Explain the timing, weighting and criteria• Show and discus exemplary student work• Explain ac...
ProcessesDoing the marking• Rubrics• Reference to standard levels of attainment and grade descriptors• Cross-marking and m...
ProcessesGiving feedback• Confirmation whether the work is of acceptable standard or not• Correction of specific shortcomi...
ProcessesReview and monitor using...• Student feedback about this assignment• Input from relevant professional or industry...
2. What would good practice look like?PolicyAssessment that is safe andfair for students and staff• disability• access to ...
3. What works and doesn’t work in real subject teaching settings?                                      Criminal Law18 subj...
We acknowledge contributions by ...Project Advisory Group•   Matthew Allen, Bill Anderson, Greg Battye, Robyn Benson, Trac...
We invite you to join in and extend the discussion• Moodle: www.groups.edna.edu.au/course/view.php?id=2146• Blog: http://w...
References• Chodorow, S. (2000). Scholarship & scholarly communication in the  electronic age. Educause Review, 35(1), 86-...
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  1. 1. Students’ use of Web 2.0 tools in higher education:Good practice in assessment and academic integrity An ALTC priority project 2009-2011 E Assessment Webinar 26 May 2010
  2. 2. Project teamJenny Waycott (project manager), Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne.Celia Thompson, School of Languages and Linguistics, University of Melbourne.Margaret Hamilton, School of Computer Science and IT, RMIT University.Joan Richardson, School of Business Information Technology, RMIT University.Kathleen Gray (project leader), Faculty of Medicine / Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne.Rosemary Clerehan, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University.Judithe Sheard, Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.
  3. 3. Projectbackground
  4. 4. The future of teaching & assessing “academic writing”Chodorow • “the form and substance of scholarly(2000, p.91) communications will change over time, so that it will be difficult to trace the historical flow of the work” • “a free-flowing stream of scholarly discourse will reduce the role of scholarly authority in the progress of research” • “the roles of individual authors will be obscured in the electronic environment”
  5. 5. The future of teaching & assessing “academic writing”O’Reilly & Battelle “One of the fundamental ideas underlying(2009, p. 2) Web 2.0 [is] that successful network applications are systems for harnessing collective intelligence ... a large group of people can create a collective work whose value far exceeds that provided by any of the individual participants”
  6. 6. The future of teaching & assessing “academic writing”Kakutani “jump to the summary, the video clip, the sound bite — never mind if context and nuance are lost(2010, in the process; never mind if it’s our emotions, moreparas 13-14) than our sense of reason, that are engaged; never mind if statements haven’t been properly vetted and sourced” “tweet and text one another during plays and movies, forming judgments before seeing the arc of the entire work” “power-search for nuggets of information that might support their theses, saving them the time of wading through stacks of material that might prove marginal but that might have also prompted them to reconsider or refine their original thinking”
  7. 7. What do you think?“The assessment of student web 2.0 authoring is [.......................] for learning and teaching in Australian universities”.
  8. 8. Project aimsA collegial approach to addressing the challenges of universityassessment 2.0:1. Survey and interview Australian teaching academics (September 2009)2. Convene a national roundtable (November 2009)3. Field-test good practice guidelines (February to June 2010)4. Produce and share resources (July 2010 ff)
  9. 9. 1. What goes on in assessment 2.0?The subject teaching context1. What discipline or professional degree/s are students enrolled in when they complete this unit of study?2. At what level/s is this unit of study?3. How many students were enrolled in this unit of study the last time it ran?4. When did you first use this assignment in more or less its present form in this unit of study?
  10. 10. The subject teaching context Discipline Number of responsesHumanities/Society & Culture 16Education 15Information technology 11Management and commerce 6Health 5
  11. 11. The subject teaching context Level of study Number of responsesBachelor or honours degree 35Masters degree 10Graduate certificate or diploma 6
  12. 12. The subject teaching context Number of students Number of responses enrolled in unitLess than 50 2150-100 10101-200 9More than 200 7
  13. 13. The subject teaching context Year assignment began Number of responses2009 192008 132007 122006 52005 or earlier 3
  14. 14. 1. What goes on in assessment 2.0?The mechanics of the assignment :• What Web 2.0 activities do students do in this assignment?• How long are students given to complete the assignment?• How long do students take to complete this assignment?• Where do students complete the assignment?
  15. 15. The mechanics of the assignment Type of Web 2.0 activity Number of responseswiki writing 32blogging/microblogging 31social networking 17audio/video podcasting 16virtual world activities 12social bookmarking 11
  16. 16. The mechanics of the assignment Time given to complete Number of assignment responsesMore than 1 month 421 month or less 141 week or less 21 day or less 1
  17. 17. The mechanics of the assignment Estimated time to complete Number of assignment responses11-20 hours 2101-10 hours 1721-30 hours 1031-40 hours 7Less than 1 hour 3More than 40 hours 1
  18. 18. The mechanics of the assignment Where students complete assignment Number of responsesOff campus elsewhere (e.g., at home during 52independent study time)On campus but out of class 25On campus in class 16Off campus while undertaking fieldwork or 7workplace learning
  19. 19. 1. What goes on in assessment 2.0?The point of the assignment :• What are the intended learning outcomes for this assignment?• How much does this assignment contribute towards students’ overall mark for this unit of study?• Is it compulsory for students to do this assignment to pass the subject/unit of study?
  20. 20. The point of the assignment Intended learning outcomes Number of responsesGeneric or graduate skills or attributes 35Specialised knowledge or skills required in a 29discipline or professionFoundation knowledge or skills preparatory to 28a discipline or profession
  21. 21. The point of the assignmentHow much the assignment is Number of responses worth 01-10% 7 11-20% 11 21-30% 9 31-40% 6 41-50% 9 51-60% 2 61-70% 0 71-80% 3 81-90% 2 91-100% 4
  22. 22. The point of the assignmentIs it compulsory for students Number of to do this assignment? responses Yes 49 No 13
  23. 23. 1. What goes on in assessment 2.0?The marking process:• Who marks the assignment?• What techniques are used to mark the assignment?• What kind of feedback do students receive?
  24. 24. The marking process Who marks the assignment? Number of responsesMarked by one staff member 40Marked by more than one staff member 17Marked by other students 8Self-marked by the student/s responsible 7
  25. 25. What techniques are used to mark the assignment? Number of responsesComments as well as marks provided 41Rubric used 33Marked in stages 22Equal marks shared by everyone in a student group 15Verification of identity of students submitting work 13Plagiarism checking tools used (e.g., Turnitin) 12Blind marking (i.e., student work is de-identified) 3Automated analysis or grading of student work 2
  26. 26. What feedback do students receive? Number of responsesGrades in the form of a number or letter 44Confirmation 43(confirmation that work is of acceptable standard)Explanation 41(recommendations for bringing work up to standard)Correction 39(flagging of specific shortcomings with student work)Elaboration 25(supplementary information to extend understanding)Diagnosis(analysis of what may have led to shortcomings or 22misconceptions in student work)
  27. 27. 2. What would good practice look like?When university students are asked todemonstrate their learning using this form ofweb 2.0 authoring, what academic standards,and assessment and reporting practices areessential or desirable? Proceedings of national roundtable:http://web2assessmentroundtable.pbworks.com/
  28. 28. 2. What would good practice look like?Mashing up:affordances of Web 2.0stages in the assessment cycleacademic assessment policies
  29. 29. 2. What would good practice look like?Affordances:Ensuring an appropriate fit between what Web 2.0 activities entail and what assessment is trying to achieve• Open publishing• Communication styles and texts• Personal identity and experience• Co-creation, collaboration, crowdsourcing• Content management
  30. 30. AffordancesOpen publishing:• Student work can be made easily accessible to an audience of peers for mutual benefit including reviewing and rating.• Review and assessment of student work from outside the university can be invited or anticipated.
  31. 31. AffordancesCommunication styles &texts• Web 2.0 assignments can involve frequent short pieces of work employing conversational language and combining audio, video, images & text.• Feedback can be exchanged rapidly, using rating or ranking systems, informal rejoinders, audio, video, images, icons.
  32. 32. AffordancesPersonal identity andexperience:• Students’ online identity can be different from the student who is recognisable in class.• Students’ social or cultural experiences of web authoring can influence the work they produce for assessment.• Reflection and self-reflection about the idea of identity are prompted by the need to create and express an online identity.
  33. 33. AffordancesCo-creation,collaboration,crowdsourcing:• Group work can scale between a small closed group and a large free-to-join learning community• Individual contributions to group work can (sometimes) be distinguished.• Groups can work on large, complex tasks.
  34. 34. AffordancesContent management• Students’ assessable work may consist of remixing web content from diverse sources.• Students’ work may be posted on several host sites. Work posted on one site may be syndicated by others and tracked back.• Students can control the content they produce for assessment in accordance with terms of service, end user agreements or other governance policies of host sites.
  35. 35. 2. What would good practice look like?ProcessesSupporting individual and Designorganisational learningthroughout the cycle of Review Implementassessment activities Feedback Mark
  36. 36. ProcessesDesign rationale• Student learning can’t be assessed with as much effectiveness, reliability or validity by using any other type of assignment.• Students strive to achieve excellence more than they would in some other type of assignment.• Staff manage the assignment related workload more sustainably than with some other type of assignment.• Another reason ....
  37. 37. ProcessesImplementing how?• Explain the timing, weighting and criteria• Show and discus exemplary student work• Explain academic attribution and citation practices that are expected• Provide opportunities to practice and show learning based on formative assessment, before submitting work for summative assessment• Other teaching techniques?
  38. 38. ProcessesDoing the marking• Rubrics• Reference to standard levels of attainment and grade descriptors• Cross-marking and moderation in a teaching team• Systematic checking for plagiarism or collusion• Other marking techniques...
  39. 39. ProcessesGiving feedback• Confirmation whether the work is of acceptable standard or not• Correction of specific shortcomings in the work• Explanation of what would improve the standard of the work• Diagnosis of factors that have helped or hindered learning• Elaboration, i.e. additional advice or resources to extend learning• Other types of feedback....
  40. 40. ProcessesReview and monitor using...• Student feedback about this assignment• Input from relevant professional or industry advisors• Longitudinal evaluation of student performance in this assignment• Academic peer review in learning and teaching forums• Other methods of continuous improvement....
  41. 41. 2. What would good practice look like?PolicyAssessment that is safe andfair for students and staff• disability• access to IT services or equipment• appropriate conduct• identity and privacy• academic honesty and integrity• special consideration• moral rights and copyright
  42. 42. 3. What works and doesn’t work in real subject teaching settings? Criminal Law18 subjects @ Blogging Cultural Studies5 universities Media Studiesduring Social bookmarking EducationSemester 1, Social networking Japanese2010: Photo and video Communication Design Economics sharing Work Integrated Learning Business Virtual worlds Chinese Accounting Education Wiki writing Science Information Technology Italian Combined Web 2.0 Document Management tools Information Technology
  43. 43. We acknowledge contributions by ...Project Advisory Group• Matthew Allen, Bill Anderson, Greg Battye, Robyn Benson, Tracey Bretag, Jenny Buckworth, Denise Chalmers, Geoffrey Crisp, Leitha Delves, Bobby Elliott, Jacqui Ewart, Glenn Finger, Tom Franklin, Merrilyn Goos, Scott Grant, Ashley Holmes, Christopher Hughes, David Jones, Marj Kibby, Adrian Kirkwood, Mark Lee, Catherine McLoughlin, Beverley Oliver, Kaz Ross, Alison Ruth, Royce Sadler, Mary Simpson, Arthur Winzenried, Katina Zammit, Lynette Zeeng.Project Reference Group• Michael Abulencia, Robyn Benson, John Benwell, Marsha Berry, Marilys Guillemin, Laura Harris, Deborah Jones, Gregor Kennedy, Shaun Khoo, George Kotsanas, Lauren O’Dwyer, Jason Patten, Emma Read, Julianne Reid, Gordon Sanson, Cristina Varsavsky.Project Field-testing Group• Matthew Absolom, Anne Davies, Cathy Farrell, Scott Grant, Terry Hallahan, Michael Henderson, John Hurst, Ramon Laboto, Warren McKeown, Michael Nott, Kerry Pantzopoulos, Michele Ruyters, Sukunesan Sinnappan, Michael Smith, Sandra Smith, Robyn Spence-Brown, Elizabeth Stewart, John Terrell, Jenny Weight, Lynette ZeengALTCSupport for this project has been provided by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council Ltd. (www.altc.edu.au), an initiative of the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations.The views expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views of the Australian Learning and Teaching Council, or the views of individual contributors apart from the project team.
  44. 44. We invite you to join in and extend the discussion• Moodle: www.groups.edna.edu.au/course/view.php?id=2146• Blog: http://web2assessment.blogspot.com• Bookmarks: http://www.citeulike.org/tag/assessment20• Workshops 2010-2011 @ HERDSA, ATN Assessment, ASCILITE, ACE• Feedback: http://www.zoomerang.com/Survey/WEB22APCVU3JP7
  45. 45. References• Chodorow, S. (2000). Scholarship & scholarly communication in the electronic age. Educause Review, 35(1), 86-92. Retrieved 28 November, 2007 from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM001B.pdf• Kakutani, M. (2010, 17 March). Texts without context. [Book review]. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/21/books/21mash.html?ref=books• O’Reilly, T., & Battelle, J. (2009). Web Squared: Web 2.0 Five Years On. Special Report for the Web 2.0 Summit, 20-22 October , San Francisco CA. Retrieved October 1, 2009 from http://assets.en.oreilly.com/1/event/28/web2009_websquared- whitepaper.pdf

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