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    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March-April (2014), pp. 26-33 © IAEME 26 THE IMPORTANCE OF HRD PRACTICES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AT ALL STANDARDS Mr. M. Thejomoorthy Research Scholar, Dept. of Management Studies, S.V. University, Tirupati (A.P) Dr. B. Amarnadh Professor, Dept. of Management Studies, S.V. University, Tirupati (A.P) ABSTRACT Human resource development practices have been observed only in limited organizations to satisfy the globalization standards. But these practices haven’t been implemented in lot many existing and upcoming organizations especially in educational institutions. There has been a lot of research work was done keeping only higher educational institutions in view but at primary and senior level there hasn’t been any kind of research work was done. Keywords: Globalization - Sophisticated Projects - HRM Professionals - Tangible Asset Management Theorists - Behavioral Knowledge - Guru Kulas. INTRODUCTION Globalization has forced the competition among the organizations which led to the revolutionary changes in all sectors of private and public. There is an incessant fast changing scenario in global economy. Sophisticated projects aimed at enriching the quality of life of common people in the society have been on the increase. Ever growing communication facilities have brought together the nations and people. These developments have brought different changes in the society and have left behind many unforeseen problems and issues which are becoming formidable to face. The basic values are getting further diluted. The cultural back up is losing its strength. At this juncture human resources management has assumed greater significance. People today possess advanced skills, knowledge and work on INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MARKETING AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IJMHRM) ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, March – April (2014), pp. 26-33 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmhrm.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 4.7830 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMHRM © I A E M E
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March-April (2014), pp. 26-33 © IAEME 27 sophisticated machines and equipments. But they are becoming highly vulnerable and sensitive to every aspect of their living. Organizations now are facing greeter their challenge to retain their talented competent personnel with them. Now the HRM professionals’ goals are changed the quality of HRM is reported to be an effective alternative to face these challenges. Employees should have open mind for learning and change. Their pro active approach can be generated by providing adequate opportunities as well as motivation in the form of various incentives for the employees by fostering a supportive and favorable from leadership base a productive and supportive environment is essential for effective learning and development in organizations. To fill the long term goals of the organization, the employers want their employees to perform well in teams against both current and future objectives of the organization. Tangible asset of the future is, Human Resource Management. It is increasingly realized that management of human resource is much more complex than managing other resources. The survival and prosperity of an organization depends largely on the capability and attitude of the people who are engaged in the process of performance of the organization. Among all the resources, India’s greatest resource is human resources. It has the power of strengthening or weakening the economy. Indian HR policies vary with western human resource practices. Though it varies still western management theorists influence is there in Indian human resource practices. Indian experience of HRM does not imply that the happenings or practices of all units are one and the same. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (HRD) HRD: In organizational point of view HRD is a process in which the employees of an organization are helped/ motivated to acquire and develop technical, managerial and behavioral knowledge, skills and abilities and mould the values beliefs and attitudes those are necessary to perform present and future roles by realizing highest human potential with a view to contribute positively to the organization’s group, individual and social goals. A comparative analysis of some of the definitions given by various authors reveals that human resource development deals with the developmental aspects of all the components of human resources. Further it deals with all types of skills and the present and future of the organizational needs and the aspect of contribution to not only organizational but also other goals. It is further stated that there are three other aspects, viz. Employees of an organization are helped/ motivated acquire, develop and mould various aspects of human resources and contribute to the organizational group, individual and social goals. The first aspect deals with helping and motivating factors for HRD. These factors may be called enabling factors, which include organizational climate. HRD climate, HRD knowledge and skills to managers include human resource planning, recruitment and selection. The second aspect deals with the techniques or methods which are the means to acquire development and mould the various human resources. These techniques include performance appraisal, potential appraisal, career planning and development training management, developing social and cultural programmes and workers participation in management and quality circles. The third category includes the outcome of the contribution of the HRD process to the goals of the organization, groups, individuals and the society. T.V Rao (1986) an eminent Indian author defined HRD in three organizational contexts as a process by which the employees of an organization are helped in a continuous and planned way to acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future goals and develop their general capabilities as
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March-April (2014), pp. 26-33 © IAEME 28 individuals and discover and explicit their own inner potentials for their own and organizational purposes. SIGNIFICANCE OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The prosperity and development in every aspect of the country is based on the role of the education system as earlier mentioned by Kothari ‘the future of the nation is structured in the class rooms’ because universities or educational institutions have to follow the objectives of higher education a statutory governing body which controls the activities of the higher education. The destined duties of academies to provide leadership in all aspects to meet the increasing demands for every kind of education. They must enable the country to attain in as short time as possible freedom from wants, disease and ignorance by the application of developed scientific knowledge. As India is rich in natural resources and her people now it is the duty of the universities to create knowledge and train minds that bring together two material resources and human energy. THE EVOLUTION OF EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA The roots of Indian education system deep in antiquity in its early stages it appeared in the form of Gurukulas later some famous ancient institutions like Takshsa sila, Nagarjuna konda, vallabhi, kanchi were established in various states of India. But Nalanda and other famous places of learning were declined/ perished either as a consequence of invasions or political up wheels or through internal decay.13 Old system of Higher Education slowly extinguished in India with the advent of Muslim rule. Then came the Dutch, Portuguese, French, and British. Among them British survived finally and established their empire in India. Britishers were initially reluctant to provide educational facilities to the natives of India. With the passage of time the areas of education expanded steadily and the size of the institution grew manifold with this necessitated a more complex structure of university organization. Thus problems which were once handled small body of scholars began to be handled by an elaborate body of academic and administrative network. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Azad (1978) says that institutions of higher education spend more on consumption rather than investment. The expenditure on salary, wages, stationery, and expenditure on day to- day affairs are mounting whereas investment in infrastructure, laboratories and libraries and on research are scanty and seldom happens. Human capital formation must be the aim of higher educational institutions and for achieving it, the institutions must invest in and for human beings, rather than spending on consumption. Sudhir Kumar. M. A.,(1979) in his study titled “Impact of Education on Social Attitudes of People in Some Backward Villages of Malabar” states that education is the process by which society through schools, colleges and universities and other institutions deliberately transmits its cultural heritage - its accumulated knowledge, values, and skills from one generation to another. Therefore, one of the main aims of modern education is to develop the rational faculties of human beings so that they can have independent thinking and their actions are not governed by any stereotyped norms or principles. In a closer analysis,
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March-April (2014), pp. 26-33 © IAEME 29 what Sudhir claims is that the very purpose of education is Human resources Development through quality education. OBJECTIVES * To find out whether HRD practices are being implemented in academic institutions of all standards * To confirm to what extent management of concerned institutions is involved in observing HRD practices. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Table.1: Age-wise distribution of the respondents Age Frequency Percent Below 30years 16 12.5% 31-40years 29 22.7% 41-49 years 39 30.5% Above 50 years 44 34.3% Total 128 100% The above Table furnishes the age-wise distribution of the respondents. Out of the total sample of 128, a majority, 44 respondents are above 50 years and 39 respondents are of age between 41-49 years and between 31-40 years age of respondents are29 and at the least 16 respondents are 30 years of age and their percentages respectively. The graphical representation is shown below. Table.2: Gender -wise distribution of the respondents Frequency Below 30years, 16 31-40years, 29 41-49 years, 39 Above 50 years, 44 Total, 128 Below 30years 31-40years 41-49 years Above 50 years Total GENDER Frequency Percent Male 78 61% Female 50 39% Total 128 100%
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March-April (2014), pp. 26-33 © IAEME 30 Table 2 depicts the Gender-wise distribution of the respondents. Out of the total sample of128, per cent of the respondents are male and the remaining per cent respondents are female respondents and their numbers are 78 and 50 respectively It is observed from the data that the organizations taken up for the present study have more number of male respondents. Table.3: Opinion on evaluation of faculties and administrative staff Category Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total Percentage Principals 10 (7.8%) 12(9.4%) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 22 17.2% HODS 14(10.9%) 18(14.1%) 0 0 0(0.0) 32 25% Faculties 0(0.0) 40(31.3%) 10(7.8%) 2(1.5%) 0(0.0) 52 40.6% Administration staff 5(3.9%) 9(7.1%) 5(3.9%) 2(1.5%) 1(0.8%) 22 17.2% Total 29(22.7%) 79(61.7%) 15(11.7%) 4(3.1%) 1(0.8%) 128 100% Frequency Male, 78 Female, 50 Total, 128 Male Female Total 22 32 52 22 128 17.20% 25% 40.60% 17.20% 100% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 1/1/1900 1/2/1900 1/3/1900 1/4/1900 1/5/1900 Total Percentage
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March-April (2014), pp. 26-33 © IAEME 31 From the above table it was observed that a majority of 108 respondents agreed the above said statement but surprisingly 15 respondents were neutral regarding the statement whereas 5 respondents disagreed with the statement. Table.4: Opinion on relationship between the management and staff Category Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total Percentage principals 4 (3.1%) 1 (0.8%) 1 (0.8%) 2 (1.5%) 0(0.0) 8 6.2% HODs 6 (4.7%) 10 (7.8%) 12 (9.4%) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 28 21.9% faculties 12 (9.4%) 33 (25.8%) 13 (10.6%) 6 (4.7%) 0(0.0) 64 50.1% Administrativ e staff 9 (7%) 18 (14.6%) 0(0.0) 1 (0.8%) 0(0.0) 28 21.9% Total 31 (24.2%) 62 (48.5%) 26 (20.3%) 9 (7%) 0(0.0) 128 100.00% Out of 128 respondents a majority of 93 respondents d the agreed the statement strongly and positively whereas 26 respondents were silent about the said statement while 09 respondents did not agree with the statement. Table.5: Opinion on Participative style of management in the academies Category Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total Percentage Principals 6 (4.7%) 3 (2.3%) 1 (0.8%) 1(0.8%) 0(0.0) 11 8.6% HODs 1 (0.8%) 14 (10.9%) 4 (3.1%) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 19 14.8% Faculties 2 (1.6%) 50 (39.1%) 6 (4.7%) 2 (1.6%) 0(0.0) 60 46.9% Administrative staff 4 (3.1%) 30 (23.5%) 3 (2.3%) 1 (0.8%) 0(0.0) 38 29.7% Total 13 (10.2%) 97 (75.8%) 14 (10.9%) 4 (3.1%) 0(0.0) 128 100.00% 8 28 64 28 128 6.20% 21.90% 50.10% 21.90% 100.00% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 principals HODs faculties Administrative staff Total Total Percentage
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March-April (2014), pp. 26-33 © IAEME 32 It was observed from the above table that 110 respondents positively agreed the statement whereas very few 4 respondents did not offer any opinion about the statement but 14 respondents were neutral regarding the above furnished statement the respondents belong to the categories of principals, head of the departments, faculties of various departments and administrative staff. Findings * 86% respondents felt that there must be participative style of management in their educational institutions. * 84.4% respondents opined that there must be proper evaluation of every faculty members. * 72.9% respondents responded that there should have proper relationship between management and staff. CONCLUSION It is found from the above analysis that the existing HRD system in Indian education is not up to the expectations of the world level standards. That to Indian government is more concern about higher education than school and senior level education. Resource persons sought HRD practices to be implemented in every institution of all standards. SUGGESTIONS Recent statistical analysis says that there is a shortage of skilled employees all over the world which resulted into the more pressure on skilled employees which cannot be borne by them and forced them to resign their jobs. So it is suggested that it must be made mandatory by the government to all academic organizations to implement human resource development practices. Percentage 8.60% 14.80% 46.90% 29.70% 100.00% 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% 11 19 60 38 128 Principals HODs Faculties Administrative staff Total Percentage
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March-April (2014), pp. 26-33 © IAEME 33 REFERENCES 1. Leo Nard Nadler, “Corporate Human resource Development”, Van Nostrand, New York, p.4. 2. Rao T.V.,” Recent experiences in human resource development” Oxford and IBH publishing company, pvt ltd., New Delhi, 1986, pp.4-5. 3. D.Ulrich and D. Lake “Organizational Capability: Competing from the inside/out”, Wiley, NewYork, 1990. 4. D. Ulrich, “HR champions: the new agenda for adding value and delivering result”, Harward Business School, Boston, M.A., 1997. 5. B.Friedman, H. James and M.W. David, “Delivering on the promise: How to attract, manage and retain human capital”, author Anderson, free press, new, 1998. 6. T.V.Rao, “Human Resource Audit’, Response Books, a division of sage publications, New Delhi, 1999. 7. V. Antony Joe Raja, “HRM Practices of Indian Software Organization”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 156 - 159, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510. 8. Ravindra Uttamrao Kanthe and Dr.Rajesh U Kanthe, “Human Resource Practices –A Study on Small Scale Industries in Miraj City”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 228 - 234, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510. 9. Dr.N.Shani and P. Divyapriya, “A Role of Innovative Idea Management in HRM”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 69 - 78, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510.