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Culture And Competitive Advantage in Higher Education Industry

CApstone report for MBA

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Culture And Competitive Advantage in Higher Education Industry

  1. 1. A REPORT ON “Evaluating the Cultural and Competitive Advantage In Higher Education Industry” A capstone report submitted to the Lovely Faculty of Business and Applied Arts In School of Business In the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA) Lovely Professional University, Phagwara SUPERVISED BY: SUBMITTED BY: Mrs. Puneet Kaur Sachin Bohra (11104318) Priya Sharma (11102364) Avinash Kumar (11208863) DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT, LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY, PHAGWARA (PUNJAB) (2016-17)
  2. 2. i DECLARATION We hereby declare that our project report titled “Evaluating the Cultural and Competitive Advantage in Higher Education Industry” is an authentic record of our own work carried out as the requirement for the award of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA) at Lovely Professional University, Phagwara and Punjab. The content presented in the report has not been submitted in full or in part to any university for the award of any degree with such a focus. Date - 28-04-2017 Sachin Bohra (11104318) Priya Sharma (11102364) Avinash Kumar (11208863)
  3. 3. ii CERTIFICATE I hereby declare that the project titled “Evaluating the Cultural and Competitive Advantage in Higher Education Industry” is an authentic work carried out by Sachin Bohra (11104318), Priya Sharma (11102364) and Avinash Kumar (11208863) under my guidance and supervision. This synopsis report is fit for the submission and submitted in the fulfillment of the condition for the award for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA). Mrs. Puneet Kaur Assistant Professor UID- 17764 School of Business Lovely Professional University
  4. 4. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A project is never the work of an individual. It is moreover a combination of ideas, suggestions, reviews, contributions, and work involving many folks. It cannot be completed without guidelines. The goal of new ideas and development can only be obtained by hardworking. It is the only key to success. We acknowledge our innermost gratitude to our faculty guide Mrs. Puneet Kaur for his best co- operation and kind assistance during framing of this project. Finally, we would like to convey our heartiest thank to our well-wishers for their blessings and co-operation throughout the synopsis report. Sachin Bohra 11104318 Priya Sharma 11102364 Avinash Kumar 11208863
  5. 5. iv Table of Content SR NO. TOPIC PG NO. 1 INTORDUCTION 1.1 Higher Education in India 1.2 Higher Education in Punjab 1.3 Cultural Advantages 1.4 Competitive Advantages 1 - 4 1 2 2 - 3 3 - 4 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 5 - 15 3 NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 16 4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 17 5 REASEARCH METHODOLOGY 5.1 Target Population 5.2 Sampling 5.3 Research design 18 - 19 6 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 6.1 InterpretationFrom Students Questionnaire Responses 6.2 Interpretation From Teachers Questionnaire Responses 20 – 31 7 FINDINGS 32 8 CONCULSION 32 REFRENCES ANNEXURE (QUESTIONNAIRE)
  6. 6. v List of Tables SR NO. DETAILS PG NO. Table 5.1 Cronbach’s Alpha for Teacher 19 Table 5.2 Cronbach’s Alpha for Students 19 For Students:- Table 6.1 Correlation 20 Table 6.2 Variables Entered/ Removed 21 Table 6.3 Model Summary 21 Table 6.4 ANOVAb 22 Table 6.5 Cofficienta 22 Table 6.6 ANOVA 23 Table 7.1 Institute * Culture_mean Crosstabulation 29 For Teacher:- Table 6.7 Correlation 24 Table 6.8 Variables Entered/ Removed 25 Table 6.9 Model Summary 25 Table 6.10 ANOVAb 26 Table 6.11 Cofficienta 26 Table 6.12 ANOVA 27 Table 7.2 Institute * Culture_mean Crosstabulation 31
  7. 7. vi List of Figures SR. NO. Figures Page No. 1 Figures 1 28 2 Figures 2 28 3 Figures 3 30 4 Figures 4 30 5 Figures 5 31
  8. 8. 1 | P a g e 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC 1.1 Higher Education in India Higher education sector has seen an enormous increment in the Number of Universities/University level Institutions and Colleges since Independence. The quantity of Universities has expanded 34 times from 20 in 1950 to 677 in 2014. The sector boosts of 45 Central Universities of which 40 are under the domain of Ministry of Human Resource Development, 318 State Universities, 185 State Private colleges, 129 Deemed to be Universities, 51 Institutions of National Importance (set up under Acts of Parliament) under MHRD (IITs - 16, NITs – 30 and IISERs – 5) and four Institutions (built up under different State enactments). The number of colleges has likewise showed an increment of 74 times with only 500 in 1950 developing to 37,204, as on 31st March, 2013. The quantum development in the Higher Education Sector is lance headed by Universities, which are the highest seats of learning. In India, "Universities" implies a University set up or incorporated by or under a Central Act, a Provincial Act or a State Act and incorporates any such institutions as may, in consultation with the University concerned, be recognized by the University Grants Commission (UGC) as per the directions made in such manner under the UGC Act, 1956. Consistently, a great many understudies from inside the nation and abroad, enter these entrances portals for their graduate, post graduate studies while millions leave these portals for the world outside. Higher education is the common obligation of both the Center and the States. The coordination and assurance of principles in Universities and Colleges is trusted to the UGC and other statutory administrative bodies. The Central Government gives Grants to the UGC and sets up Central Universities/Institutions of National Importance in the nation. The Central Government is additionally in charge of declaring an educational establishment as "Deemed to-be University" on the recommendations of the UGC. At present, the primary classifications of University/University-level Institutions are:-  Central Universities,  State Universities,  Deemed-to-be Universities and  University-level establishments
  9. 9. 2 | P a g e (Ministry of Human Resource and Development Government, 2016) 1.2 Higher Education in Punjab The Higher Education Department, Government of Punjab gives instruction to undergrad and post-graduate level in different teaches through more than 350 Colleges working under the supervision and the direction of the Education Minister and Principal Secretary Higher Education, Government of the Punjab. The primary aim of the Department of higher Education , Punjab is not just to illuminate the recipients of the division i.e. the understudies additionally and expand their mental skyline keeping in mind the end goal to set them up to adapt up to the challenges of the 21st century's reality. The Department take the general public as a general public frequently fit for living with high standards; tolerant of other's perspectives, a general public which can coincide with the changing circumstances the wonder of globalization of the world; a general public which knows the delight of significant living; a general public quick to secure its more youth and abandon a superior world. They confidence in equivalent open door for all in the journey for instruction and are endeavoring to bestow quality education of a standard perceived at the world community. They perceive it as obligation to make quality instruction reasonable for the basic man. (Directorate of Public Instructions (Colleges),Punjab 2016) 1.3 Cultural Advantages Size doesn't make a difference when it comes work cultural environment. Each Organization, paying little respect to what number of individuals is employed, can benefit the advantages that a work cultural environment brings to the table. Working cultural environment fortifies the way a business works with spoken and unspoken beliefs, and values and norms shared between employees and the owner. It is clear in everything from how workers dress, what time they come, by the way they spend their lunch hours and how they make answers for internal and external issues.  Enhance Productivity Representatives who comprehend their working cultural environment have a superior handle of their goals and are more tune in to the requirements of their supervisors,
  10. 10. 3 | P a g e colleagues and clients. They're invested into the organization and show dedication. Entrepreneur, an online asset for business owner, says that representatives who work for organizations with positive working environment might be more dedicated and productive.  Increase Marketability Organization culture is a part of the brand you make for your business, and it will have an effect on how you hire Talent and what sort of talent you draw in. Work seekers search for company that fit their ways of life, whether it's adaptable hours, money related help with proceeding with instruction, easygoing clothing regulations, global work openings or organizations gloating courtesies, for example, on location exercise centers. Barb Bruno, a professional staffing and training recruiter, takes note of that during interviews, organizations ought to impart working environment culture to potential representatives and refer to explanations behind working there. In an article for Harvard Business School's, "Working Knowledge," teachers James Heskett and W. Earl Sasser say that organizations with all around characterized corporate culture regularly are perceived as better work environment, making them be known among prospective employees.  Form Unity Between Employees Representatives and association Employees and organization members take signs from management as they frame their feelings about the way of a working cultural environment. When representatives adopt the standards of an organization, it brings together employes and management. Patty Vogan, Entrepreneur.com's “Leadership” columnist, says that corporate culture begins and finishes at the top with the entrepreneur and upper management. The unity makes representatives feel like they're a part of a group. (Chron.com, 2016) 1.4 Competitive Advantages “A superiority gained by an organization when it can provide the same value as its competitors but at a lower price, or can change higher prices by providing greater value through differentiation. Competitive advantage results from matching core competencies to the opportunities”. (Business Dictionary, 2016)
  11. 11. 4 | P a g e Being Competitive is an absolute necessity so that you best your rivals. In the event that you simply sit around and trust that your business draws in the clients it requires to remain above water, you will probably be disillusioned. Instead, you should effectively offer your products or administrations, utilizing focused methodologies to separate you from the rest.  Better Industry Understanding To successfully take part in the utilization of Competitive Strategies, you should comprehend the business in which your business is part. By learning more about this industry in general, you can allow yourself to settle on more educated business-related choices and likely increase your odds of success in business.  More grounded Action Plan When organizations don't utilize Competitive strategies, they frequently fail to plan as viable as possible. Without these strategies, it is simple for entrepreneurs to kick back and permit their business to work as though on autopilot. While a business over which you have free control could wind up being successful, it could likewise fail as you have not steered and attempted to direct the business with the utilization of competitive Strategies.  Simplicity of Communicating Goals At the point when Business owners utilize competitive Strategies, they make clear layouts as to where they are going and where they would like to wind up. By making these objectives, they can all the more successfully communicate them to laborers. Through this upgraded correspondence, entrepreneurs can get all individuals from their workforce in agreement, enhancing all employees’ capacities to accomplish these desirable ends  Enhanced Chances of Success While a business owner utilize focused competitive strategies and fail, it is more improbable that they won't accomplish their objectives than it would be in the event that they utilized no proven strategies by any stretch of the imagination. Basically using competitive strategies of this sort, entrepreneurs can build their odds of achievement in business. (Chron.com, 2016)
  12. 12. 5 | P a g e 2. LITERATURE OF REVIEW (Ambrosini, et.al, 2009): This study has characterized a portion of the key resources and capacities that higher education need to create with a specific end goal to be fruitful in the changing worldwide market for instruction. Resources pools by their tendency are perplexing and a few different assets, for example, new process advancement capacities (new course improvement), commercialization skills and information improvement abilities would likewise appear to be essential in this circumstance. And in addition attempting to completely process the advanced education asset pool, the following phase of the examination will seek after to test the plans characterized previously. The most powerful assets from an aggressive perspective are those that are hard to recognize and comprehend and numerous levels of capabilities have been distinguished. (Birgitta and Giertz 2000): In this study it expressed that 'The quality idea in higher education recommends that Higher instruction is required to build up and build up its quality. To have the capacity to work methodically to create something one must know and concur upon - what it is that ought to be produced. Quality in advanced education is no more extended of intrigue just to the scholastic. There are a wide range of stakeholders, with shifting interests and points of view. There is no gaurantee that strategies in view of one sort of observation can be utilized as a part of circumstances where quality is seen in another way. This has suggestions for the conceivable outcomes to actualize TQM in advanced education establishments. The customary view is that, as scholastic, everybody works inside a similar structure and has similar values and despite the fact that one won't not have the capacity to disclose to untouchables what quality in advanced education is, it sets up no issue. View of value in advanced education concentrate on agreeable. Advanced education has dependably been extremely content arranged. What an educator thinks about a subject has dependably been viewed as more imperative than how he can help understudies learn. The aggregate quality administration over and again requires an adjustment in the start of value held by scholastics. This implies a culture change, since quality is an idea profoundly altered in the scholarly culture. (Chan, Dimmock 2008) and (Naidoo 2010): In this study it expressed that the higher instruction associations have dependably had the hereditary calculate of being aggressive attempting to achieve high scholarly guidelines, to accomplish scholastic quality and to acquire
  13. 13. 6 | P a g e global notoriety and status. Additionally understudy's engagement in a learning group and the accomplishment of their future vocation progressively make up an incredible piece of development system at numerous advanced education and this likewise proposes the utilization of new apparatuses, for example, internationalization, showcasing and advancement for enhancing upper hands. (Costa, 2014) The private sector of education has been increasing its participation in Brazilian higher education. Between 1997 and 2007, the respective sector grew 394%, which represents an average of 17.30% per annum. However, from the year 2008 it can be seen that this expansion cycle came to an end, as the growth has stagnated in most reasonable rates around 3%, creating more challenges and the need of professionalization of the sector (HOPER, 2009). From this scenario, this work proposes to conduct a study of sectorial actors that influence private higher education in Brazil, in order to provide data and information for decision making by the government, maintainers groups, institutions maintained, and the whole community. For this, we conducted an exploratory study, of qualitative nature, by means of bibliographic data collection and interviews with managers from seven private higher education institutions nationally recognized. The results showed that there is a strong influence of the sectorial factors in private institutions of higher education, which should then monitor them properly. The executives interviewed highlighted the importance of these factors, which can turn into big enemies or powerful allies, in a scenario ever more challenging and competitive (Eckel, 2007 and Antikainen, 2010): In this study it expressed that, instructive professionals express a general worry that decided for market position change progressively overwhelms the conventional importance of unadulterated scholastic change, they sharp out that today's "being aggressive" has turned into a demand from the outside environment of advanced education. The presence of their foundations relies on upon whether they can meet this demand. Beyond any doubt advanced education need to meet open prerequisites that might not have much esteem in the commercial center but rather are basic to neighborhood group and social improvements, however numerous business exercises and business administration techniques may give the extra assets advanced education can use to satisfy their open reason. (Fazlagic and Skikiewicz, 2014) The paper analyses the part of scholarly capital in picking up and maintaining upper hand of HEIs. Scholarly capital is a determinant of value in research and instruction. Advanced education Institutions (HEIs) are viewed as one of the mainstays of the
  14. 14. 7 | P a g e Polish instructive achievement in the most recent 20 years. Because of them a large number of Polish college understudies accessed advanced education. This institutional change was one of the empowering influences for the improvement of the information society in Poland both as far as qualitative and quantitative development. The tertiary instruction advertise in Poland is defragmented with around 150 open and 300 non-open advanced education establishments. The quantity of non-open HEIs is diminishing because of monetary issues bringing about their insolvencies or constraining them to converge with other non-state funded colleges. With the continuous demographic downturn the market is portrayed by savage rivalry among those HEIs which have not shut down their operations. This paper incorporates a short hypothetical prologue to vital administration of HEIs when all is said in done setting. The outcomes from the observational study directed by the creators among directors of Polish non-state funded colleges are exhibited in the paper. The study comprised of an on-line overview which made inquiries identifying with the three key components of scholarly capital, in particular: human capital, authoritative capital and client capital (understudies and other outer partners). The paper incorporates a quantitative investigation of chose research questions which are exhibited in Ms Excel figures. The paper outlines the exploration discovering which are trailed by incorporates a dialog on the significance of IC in key administration of IC. The lessons from the Polish instruction showcase (which makes up roughly half of the market for tertiary training in the district) can be helpful to different nations from the developing markets which confront comparative difficulties. (Ferenc, et.al, 2009): In this study it expressed that the principle objective of the organisation with the utilization of the current information and scholarly capital inside the association. One fundamental presumption of learning organization is that the change of information base can bolster the association in accomplishing a superior position in rivalry. The creators look at the information exchange between the advanced education foundations as learning concentrated administration suppliers and the understudies. Understudies speak to such systems the components of which are fit for learning sharing and information dissemination among each other. To have the capacity to research on information forms in advanced education establishments, the creators propose that one ought to observe the deciding achievement elements of learning procedures at first. Considering the talk on learning forms in colleges, the creators have found that qualities of the associations ought to have been considered. For this, the
  15. 15. 8 | P a g e creators think that it’s proper to see those elements of colleges, delivering and conveying administration to people in general, which can affect fruitful execution of information administration programs. (Ferlie, et.al, 2008) In this study it expressed that the adjustment in the activities of advanced education institution, the improvement of their business enterprise, the advancement of competition among advanced education establishments, advanced education frameworks being the members of the advanced education framework contend to draw in scholastic assets, market logical learning, scholarly administrations. Another favorable position of market framework is that the market allocates assets to inquire about on a focused premise, which prompts to the ease of use of logical information, examine, particular potential business benefits. However notwithstanding the benefits of market relations in advanced education, conceivable negative worries of the contribution of market relations are unmistakable the constraint of access to logical information because of commercialization, the confinement on development stream, potential dangers to scholarly flexibility, the underestimation of principal research, the preparation of Specialists of restricted specialization, the start of particular research. At that point, the lessening of advanced education as an open decent, went to by declining open support is distinguished as a negative effect. (Gradstein and Justman 2000): In this study it expressed that it is guaranteed that the advantages of higher education don't expand just to a person as a financial unit however to the general public on the loose. The more extensive social advantages like the advancement of citizenship, a more profound feeling of group, support for majority rule government and information overflows. It had exhibited a theoretic model, which contends that the government funded instruction builds social consistency. (Haan, 2014) Competitive Advantages, what does it truly mean with regards to open advanced education foundations? The reason for this paper is to basically examine the talk on "upper hand", an idea that has been generally connected in the general population advanced education part, yet once in a while characterized and conceptualized. With a specific end goal to get some sagacious comprehension about how "upper hand" is really showed in the life and exercises of open higher education organizations (PHEIs), it is important to acquire information about the observations held by training experts in various sub-segments and at different occupation work levels. Altogether, 73 interviews at 16 Dutch PHEIs were directed in the time of 2009-2011. By
  16. 16. 9 | P a g e studying the broadened implications, 13 components were distinguished in building the Competitive Advantages looked for by PHEIs, and, more critically the hugeness of every component is appraised and positioned. Moreover, this examination found that the exploration colleges and colleges of connected sciences see this idea in an unexpected way; additionally, the experts holding distinctive occupation capacities gave disparate implications to this term. The elucidation of this compartment idea "upper hand" prompts to the conclusion that the business method for characterizing "Competitive Advantae" ought to be fundamentally looked into and checked with regards to people in general advanced education part. (Jessop, et.al, 2008): In this study it stated that the analysis of the competitiveness of higher education phenomenon discloses that scientific works do not present concept of higher education competitiveness, which may be related to the fact that there is no scientific agreement with respect to combined concept of competitiveness. To reach a agreement on the concept of competitiveness may be complicated due to the fact that competitiveness can be seen at different levels, macro (at national level) and meso (at the level of economic branch or economic sector) and micro (at enterprise level). Apart from that, competitiveness can be examined at range of levels, i.e., internal (national), local (regional) and international (global). Dominating multi- aspect definition of the field shows that the competitiveness of higher education, its research and evaluation suggest new complex (interdisciplinary or even multidisciplinary) themes in the field of higher education research. The objective of this article is to present a model of the analysis of the competitiveness of the national higher education system. These objective goals discuss the uniqueness of higher education in defining the concept of competitiveness in higher education system. (Kirp 2004): In this study it expressed that the opposition in the advanced education condition is not immaculate market rivalry, but rather a blend of conventional scholastic rivalry and the recently presented advertise rivalry. The restricted research that can be found in the training and Business College writing in characterizing this idea in the particular setting of advanced education demonstrates that the many-sided quality of instruction market rivalry has not been totally perceived. So the conceivable impacts and expenses of expanded rivalry on the advancement of advanced education has not been acceptably considered, however numerous scholastics.
  17. 17. 10 | P a g e (Lugkana and Worasinchai 2006): In this study it expressed that "An innovative approach in advanced education" Many scholarly organizations have been included in the improvement and the utilization of computer upheld helpful work frameworks or e-learning frameworks. However the sudden increment of accessible instructing and learning material at the grounds has raised other sort of necessities. Those are identified with the strategies and advancements on the best way to obtain, store, compose, convey, pursuit, record and recover effectively and effectively the accessible learning. Another recognized test is the means by which to ensure that end-client will utilize viably the frameworks in their day by day schedules. (Mamta and Malik 2005): In this study it expressed that "Change in higher education" proposes that Universities have generally had two principle parts, making information, and conveying learning. Look into has been the essentially to create information and instructing has been the primary for conveying learning. In today's quickly changing monetary environment, the conventional part of colleges as suppliers of learning is significantly tested. KM can make an imaginative relationship and connection amongst work and instruction, help understudies to all the more nearly match their gifts with the present work environment requests, add to the adjustment and incorporation of new information with the current one, add to the re-association of learning with involvement, so that an educational programs mirrors the ongoing, genuine place and genuine issues work can never again be viewed as something that happens at a later stage in life. The creator likewise proposes that a learning association, in view of KM standards, encourages the learning of every one of its individuals (understudies and specialists) and constantly changes it. Because of its particular elements, a learning association is in the position to create understudies who are scurrilous, have exible manners of thinking, are interested in new thoughts and have self-inspired inventiveness and remarkable intuition limit. The creator recommends how learning can be measured and controlled, and gives suitable approaches to screen the increments and reductions in the information resources altered in the association as a major aspect of future research. (Marginson, et.al, 2007): In this study it expressed that with regards to public education these two sorts of competition primary two scales sides of similar terms like "position" and "quality". Taking "position" for instance, in adding to the market position expressed to by the business writing a unique part of "upper hand" scholarly position is distinguished in the advanced education viewpoint. The aggressive position of advanced education is generally related by
  18. 18. 11 | P a g e training writing to terms like magnificence, notoriety, status and esteem. In their view, scholarly Competitive favorable position rivalry is controlled by scholastic bases in which social and social estimations of government funded training are saved as the need when choosing what upper hand ought to be required. In spite of the fact that market competiotion is engaged by financial grounds. The essential objective of building upper hand is to acknowledged predominant monetary qualities that are depicted by market position, piece of the overall industry, rate of profitability, budgetary responsibility. (Maringe 2006): In this study it expressed that Competition within the presence of market relations in the field of investigation of higher education is connected with the understudy attraction prompting to the attraction of monetary assets. This proposes advanced education foundations when viewing for money related assets, the wellspring of which is the understudies (particularly from different nations as far as the aggressiveness trademark it can be viewed as an outside exchange advanced education administrations acknowledge the significance of the notoriety of an advanced education establishment as that of a supplier of advanced education, specifically, a sensible obligation of an advanced education organization as an advanced education supplier (rankings of advanced education organizations give data that enables to effectively look at or assess). Advertise relations in advanced education frame the state of mind towards understudies as beneficiaries of instructive administrations, to be specific, as shoppers. This approach depends on the way that understudies are presented to advanced education costs and ought to be dealt with as whatever other administration shopper's attracts thoughtfulness regarding the way that understudies are not normal clients. (Menguc and Auh 2006): This study say development is the main way that higher education can keep the progression with the evolving environment, which requires the era of new showing hones (fresh out new projects), new understudies' relationship administration frameworks (new affirmation frameworks), new research activities (new research projects or research focuses), new learning exchange activities (new industry based joined projects). While the significance of advancement has for some time been acknowledged in business settings, despite everything it speaks to a test in the earth of advanced education where for quite a while, keeping with custom has been a measure of value and status. (Essary, 2011): Exploring the Development of a Competitive-Advantage Model for Online Education in a Small State University, The motivation behind the current subjective, exploratory,
  19. 19. 12 | P a g e numerous contextual analyses was to make an upper hand display for on the web and conventional instruction that would help college initiative in vital basic leadership. The study was led at Athens State University, situated in Athens, Alabama. The concentration of the study was to pick up top to bottom information of the interior and outside components at Athens State to make an upper hand demonstrate for on the web and conventional instruction. A semi organized meeting poll was utilized to assemble information for the study. Deliberate examining was utilized to choose 16 members from the organization, bookkeeping business office staff, and individuals from the University Master Plan Committee who had particular information of the issues concentrated on. Yin's 5-staged cycle subjective information investigation process was utilized to prepare the information by means of grounded codes. The developing study subjects were administration, separate learning cost, subsidizing, aggressive issues, personnel concerns, group connections, and understudies. The study comes about included 4 key elements that set up the points of confinement of what an open organization can effectively accomplish: institutional qualities and shortcomings, institutional open doors and dangers, more extensive societal desires and citizen desires, and the individual estimations of the foundation. The upper hand display for on the web and customary instruction basic leadership created in this study, if actualized and connected successfully, may turn into a critical device for guaranteeing the proceeded with presence and productivity of little universities, for example, Athens State. Future research ought to investigate the consequences of executing the upper hand demonstrate for on the web and customary instruction to help with key basic leadership. (Miguel, Rombert and Trigo 2007): In this study it expressed that ‘Using competitive intelligence as a strategic tool in Higher Education context' proposes that data assembled is among one of the more essential organisation resources. The establishments that could arrange and exploit their own operations concerning data as social event, handling, and dispersion frameworks are more ready to advise their own procedure. Making a data framework that satisfies the authoritative data needs should think about a setting that backings aggressive insight. The system must give a developing consciousness of the activities that advance better results and help the association to pick the best procedures and creative procedures. The procedure is directed inside the setting of the outer environment of the association exercises, with the significant objective of providing the right data, at the right minute, in the right structure, to the perfect individual, keeping in mind the end goal to bolster the most ideal choice.
  20. 20. 13 | P a g e (Ordorika 2008): In this study it expressed that opposition between establishments is essential for their individual achievement, advanced education must recognize the significance of between foundation joint efforts to achieve genuine frame with a specific end goal to accomplish execution results. The globalization of training has brought about expanded levels of cross- outskirt institutional action and more noteworthy scholarly development. Advanced education is under weight to team up for the reasons for both instructing and look into and to adjust for institutional shortcomings. There is likewise a drive behind more noteworthy cooperation with industry. Notwithstanding essential R&D exercises, numerous advanced education has ended up expound in the foundation of science parks and on-grounds new companies, where abnormal state research is marketed.8 (Philip and G. Altbach, 2006): In this study it expressed that amid the previous decade foundations of higher education needed to challenge many changes in their outer and inside environment, and react to creating difficulties, for example, diminishing budgetary support, fast innovative advances, evolving demographics, and obsolete scholarly projects. Therefore, numerous colleges required in key arranging as intends to make valuable, vital changes to adjust to the quickly moving environment. By and large, vital arranging at colleges has been just calmly fruitful, as just few could accomplish expressively effective results and changed themselves significantly. Others have possessed the capacity to roll out essential improvements in parts of their operations. Be that as it may, numerous organizations have fallen, keep running into debate, or lost their boldness. So a few creators have endeavored to clarify triumphs and disappointments of vital arranging in advanced education, scholastics vary in their assessments. Thus, there is no understanding or clarity on main considerations of key arranging's achievement in colleges. (Richardson, 2006): This exploration is about successful market competion on the development of procedure in little B-school advanced education, this study brought up few issues (1) what is the way of their arranging forms utilized for business college methodology and mission; (2) work together schools investigate their aggressive position concerning different business colleges; (3) with reductions in understudy request, how are unranked business colleges utilizing upper hand to discover new territories for understudy development; (4) Have establishments adjusted their central goal and vision to get upper hand. The Author has taken Michael Porter's (1980) structure as a manual for study advanced education frameworks and how they contend in the instructive market.
  21. 21. 14 | P a g e (Rowley, et.al, 1997): In this study it expressed that amid the previous decade foundations of higher education needed to challenge many changes in their outer and inside environment, and react to creating difficulties, for example, diminishing budgetary support, fast innovative advances, evolving demographics, and obsolete scholarly projects. Therefore, numerous colleges required in key arranging as intends to make valuable, vital changes to adjust to the quickly moving environment. By and large, vital arranging at colleges has been just calmly fruitful, as just few could accomplish expressively effective results and changed themselves significantly. Others have possessed the capacity to roll out essential improvements in parts of their operations. Be that as it may, numerous organizations have fallen, keep running into debate, or lost their boldness. So a few creators have endeavored to clarify triumphs and disappointments of vital arranging in advanced education, scholastics vary in their assessments. Thus, there is no understanding or clarity on main considerations of key arranging's achievement in colleges. (S. Marginson, 2004): In this study it expressed that an open data environment, the advancement of organized relationship, that reinforce global streams don't demonstrate the presence of a worldwide education system, the local point of view is essential for the cooperation between colleges or exercises of information based accumulations. He contends that the nearby setting prompts to another corporate independence of various colleges from the little disapproved of state establishments. The significance of the national setting is fit the bill to national assets and national needs. To characterize these entwined points of view of advanced education and additionally the effect of their components on advanced education part. (Salvador and Harmon, 2013): This paper addresses one basic part of this change environment: the undiscovered capability of business colleges to quite improve their strategic offer. In particular, we address the present commence under which customary business colleges add esteem and to whom this esteem gathers, what the business group served by business colleges as of now anticipate that these organizations will give and how these orders are changing, and how the mitigating variables that are driving systemic changes in all parts of business college operations really speak to positive open door for another level of reason and esteem creation for these revered establishments, inaction will probably add to further disintegration of the budgetary feasibility of business colleges in the 21st century, right now is an ideal opportunity to grasp change and save the exceptional legacy of the world's business colleges.
  22. 22. 15 | P a g e (Sanat and Kaul 2006): In this study it expressed that to evaluate its viability in guaranteeing that India is effectively ready to talk these difficulties in the education sector. Accepted the settled confinements on open financing of instruction, the part of the private area particularly in the arrangement of higher education and specialized preparing has been highlighted. The paper proposes that India needs a reasonable request based arrangement towards private advanced education including remote establishments/colleges sharp of setting up grounds in India or going into joint-ventures. This must be joined with the foundation of an administrative system that guarantees that understudies, welfare is not traded off and quality measures are kept up. Strategy measures required for producing the required supply reaction will supplement endeavors of Indian moderators for securing a superior market access for our administrations.
  23. 23. 16 | P a g e 3. NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Culture of the organization/Institution has gained importance as past few years. As it tells us how the people in the organization behave and interact with each other, so if there is misbalance of organizational culture the working environment is spoiled and give bad name to the organization/Institution. With this study we would focus on finding out the that is there a relation between Cultural Satisfaction and Competitive Advantage which would eventually help in attracting students and good faculties towards the Institution how the culture of an organization, and how much impact Cultural Satisfaction have on Competitive Advantage of an organization. And is there any need of building a good organizational culture and win competitive edge.
  24. 24. 17 | P a g e 4. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY  To study the Cultural Satisfaction of Students in Higher Education Institutions. Hypothesis: H0: There is no significant difference in Cultural Satisfaction of Students with respect to their Higher Education Institutes. H1: There is significant difference in Cultural Satisfaction of Students with respect to their Higher Education Institutes  To study the Cultural Satisfaction of Teachers in Higher Education Institutions. Hypothesis: H0: There is no significant difference in Cultural Satisfaction of Teacher with respect to their Higher Education Institutes. H1: There is significant difference in Cultural Satisfaction of Teacher with respect to their Higher Education Institutes.  To identify the relationship between Cultural Satisfaction and Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institutions. Hypothesis: H0: There is no relation between Cultural Satisfaction and Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institution H1: There is relation between Cultural Satisfaction and Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institutions.  To study the contributory factors leading to Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institutions.
  25. 25. 18 | P a g e 5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 5.1 Target Population: As we are studying about the cultural and competitive advantage higher education institution. So the target populations for this study are the students and the teacher of different universities in Punjab. 5.2 Sampling Technique To conduct this study and to collect data, samples of Colleges are selected on the basis of Convenient sampling technique. As time is limited so we decided to select any of the university where we can get the required respondents and which are nearby. Sample Size For this study, we have selected 395 samples from data is collected using standard questionnaire. Sample size is decided by Sample size calculator from www.rasoft.com/samplesize, wherethe Margin of error we can accept is taken 5%, Confidence level Taken is 95%, Population size was taken 140636, which taken by reference www.ugc.ac.in/stateuniversity.aspx by totaling both Student and Teachers, the data from UGC site was referenced on 30th march 2017. 5.3 Research design  Type of Research: Descriptive design is be used for conducting this study. This study will help to understand the culture and its impact on competitive advantage of higher education institutes.  Data Collection For the study the collection of primary data is done using questionnaire.  Survey We have used questionnaire as a tool for collecting primary data. There were two separate questionnaire for Teachers and Student, to collect the data which includes 25 questions for Students and 27 for Teachers. In this questionnaire we have included 6
  26. 26. 19 | P a g e demographic questions for Students and Teachers which include Name, Age, Profession, Male/Female, Institute/collage Name and Address. Reliability Test: For Teachers: Table - 5.1 Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 100 100.0 Excludeda 0 .0 Total 100 100.0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .718 27 This table shows that the set of question used for collecting the data is 71% reliable as the value for Cronbach’s Alpha is .718. This mean that the questions are in well synchronization and are very well related to each other. And the data gathered using these questions will show 71% accurate result. For Student: Table - 5.2 Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .895 25 Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 294 99.7 Excludeda 1 .3 Total 295 100.0 a. List wise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. This table shows that the set of question used for collecting the data is 90% reliable as the value for Cronbach’s Alpha is .909. This mean that the questions are in well synchronization and are very well related to each other. And the data gathered using these questions will show 90% accurate result.
  27. 27. 20 | P a g e 6. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION For Students:- Correlation When we tried to find the relationship between Cultural Satisfaction in Higher Education Institutions and Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institutions by using Correlation, as a result we got For Students: Table - 6.1 Correlations Culture_Mean Competitiveness_Mean Culture_Mean Pearson Correlation 1 .611** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 295 295 Competitiveness_Mean Pearson Correlation .611** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 295 295 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). P value(sig.) = 0.000< 0.05 which means rejection of null hypothesis H0 and acceptance of Alternate hypothesis H1. So according to this P value we can say that H1- There is significant difference in Cultural Satisfaction of Students with respect to their Higher Education Institutes.
  28. 28. 21 | P a g e Regression To Find the Impact of Cultural Satisfaction in Higher Education Institutions on Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institutions by using Linear Regression, as a result we got: Table - 6.2 Variables Entered/Removedb Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 Culture_Meana . Enter a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Competitiveness_Mean Table - 6.3 Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .611a .373 .371 .46934 a. Predictors: (Constant), Culture_Mean Here if we look in the above table, we can find that value of Adjusted R Square is .371. This means that the dependent variable is 37.1% defined by the observed independent variables. Which shows low impact of independent variable on dependent variable. So, we can say that Cultural Satisfaction of Students in Higher Education Institutions defines 37.1% of Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institutions.
  29. 29. 22 | P a g e Table - 6.4 ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 38.442 1 38.442 174.516 .000a Residual 64.541 293 .220 Total 102.983 294 a. Predictors: (Constant), Culture_Mean b. Dependent Variable: Competitiveness_Mean Looking at the above table, we find that the 0.000 < 0.05, which indicates the rejection of Null hypothesis H0 and Acceptance of Alternate hypothesis H1. This means that we accept the H1: There is Impact between Cultural Satisfaction and Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institution Table - 6.5 Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1.454 .148 9.839 .000 Culture_Mean .563 .043 .611 13.210 .000 a. Dependent Variable: Competitiveness_Mean If we look at the above shown table, In case of Culture Mean 0.000< 0.05, which means rejection of null hypothesis H0 and acceptance of Alternate hypothesis H1. So according to this P value we can say that, there is significant impact of cultural Satisfaction on Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institution.
  30. 30. 23 | P a g e Now If we look at B value under Unstandardized Coefficients, for Culture Mean it is .563 which mean that if 1 unit of Culture Mean is increased then there will be increase of .563 units in Competitive Advantage. And as the B value is in positive it means that there is direct or positive impact on Competitive Advantage. We can write the linear regression equation for Cultural mean and Competitive advantage as: Competitive Advantage = 1.454 + .563(Culture Mean) ANOVA Table - 6.6 ANOVA Culture_Mean Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 12.427 4 3.107 8.284 .000 Within Groups 108.759 290 .375 Total 121.186 294 Here if we look at the P value(Sig.) in the above table we can find that Sig. < 0.05 that is Sig. = .000 this mean that we have to reject the null hypothesis H0 and accepts the Alternate Hypothesis H1. So now we can conclude that there is significant difference in Cultural Satisfaction of Student with respect to their Higher Education Institutes
  31. 31. 24 | P a g e For Teacher:- Correlation When we tried to find the relationship between Cultural Satisfaction in Higher Education Institutions and Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institutions by using Correlation, as a result we got For Students: Table - 6.7 Correlations competitiveness_mean Culture_mean competitiveness_mean Pearson Correlation 1 .211* Sig. (2-tailed) .035 N 100 100 Culture_mean Pearson Correlation .211* 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .035 N 100 100 *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). P value(sig.) < 0.05, which is 0.035 which means rejection of null hypothesis H0 and acceptance of Alternate hypothesis H1. So according to this P value we can say that H1: There is relation between Cultural Satisfaction and Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institutions. There is a positive Correlation between Competitiveness mean and Culture Mean.
  32. 32. 25 | P a g e Regression To Find the Impact of Cultural Satisfaction in Higher Education Institutions on Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institutions by using Linear Regression, as a result we got: Table - 6.8 Variables Entered/Removedb Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 Culture_meana . Enter a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: competitiveness_mean Table - 6.9 Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .211a .044 .035 .23864 a. Predictors: (Constant), Culture_mean Here if we look in the above table, we can find that value of Adjusted R Square is .035. This means that the dependent variable is 3.5% defined by the observed independent variables. This shows very low impact of independent variable on dependent variable. So, we can say that Cultural Satisfaction of Teachers in Higher Education Institutions defines 3.5% of Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institutions.
  33. 33. 26 | P a g e Table - 6.10 ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression .259 1 .259 4.551 .035a Residual 5.581 98 .057 Total 5.840 99 a. Predictors: (Constant), Culture_mean b. Dependent Variable: competitiveness_mean Looking at the above table, we find that the P value(sig.) < 0.05, which indicates the rejection of Null hypothesis H0 and Acceptance of Alternate hypothesis H1. This means that we accept the H1: There is Impact between Cultural Satisfaction and Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institution Table - 6.11 Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 2.613 .164 15.919 .000 Culture_mean .094 .044 .211 2.133 .035 a. Dependent Variable: competitiveness_mean If we look at the above shown table, In case of Culture Mean 0.035 < 0.05, which means rejection of null hypothesis H0 and acceptance of Alternate hypothesis H1. So according to this P value we can say that, There is significant impact of cultural Satisfaction on Competitive Advantage of Higher Education Institution. Now If we look at B value under Unstandardized Coefficients, for Culture Mean it is 0.094 which mean that if 1 unit of Culture Mean is increased then there will be increase of .094 units in Competitive Advantage. And as the B value is in positive it means that there is direct or positive impact on Competitive Advantage.
  34. 34. 27 | P a g e We can write the linear regression equation for Cultural mean and Competitive advantage as: Competitive Advantage = 2.613 + .094(Culture Mean) ANOVA Table 6.12 ANOVA Culture_mean Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 1.891 3 .630 2.200 .093 Within Groups 27.499 96 .286 Total 29.390 99 Here if we look at the P value(Sig.) in the above table we can find that Sig. > 0.05 that is Sig. = .093 this mean that we have to Accept the null hypothesis H0 and reject the Alternate Hypothesis H1. So now we can conclude that there is no significant difference in Cultural Satisfaction of Teacher with respect to their Higher Education Institutes 6.1 Interpretation From Students Questionnaire Responses By Pearson’s correlation we found out that there is a positive correlation between Culture and Competitive Advantage. As a finding we found out that Cultural Satisfaction has 56% direct Impact on Competitive Advantage. With the help of ANOVA we found out that there is significant difference in Cultural Satisfaction of Students in their Higher Education Institutes.
  35. 35. 28 | P a g e Figure.1 In the above fig, it defined that who motivate to join the collage/university are mostly motivated by Advertisement Are 38.4%, by friend are 28.1%, by Family are 19.5% and remain are motivated because that is their previous college i.e. 13.9%. Figure.2 The major Reason for joining the university by students are Placements 32.8%, Fee structure 27.8%, by Infrastructure are 21.5%, by good Reputation of the College 9.6%, By faculty of the organization are 8.3%.
  36. 36. 29 | P a g e Table 7.1 Institute * Culture_Mean Cross tabulation Count Culture_Mean Total %1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % Institute Pyramid 0 0 1 2 28 50 27 48 56 100 GNA 3 6 6 12 8 15 35 67 52 100 GNDU 0 0 0 0 38 46 45 54 83 100 Khalsa 0 0 6 11 14 26 34 63 54 100 DAV 0 0 3 6 46 92 1 2 50 100 Total 3 1 16 5 134 46 142 48 295 100 With the help of the table above we find out that in Pyramid college 50% of Students are aware of the culture, 48% are highly aware and the remain 2% have very low aware about the culture. In GNA college 67% are highly aware, 15% are aware, 12% have very low Awareness and the remaining 6% have no Awareness about the Culture. In GNDU regional campus 46% of people are aware of the culture and the other 54% are highly aware about the culture. In Khalsa college 26% of people are aware of the culture, 63% are highly aware and the remain 11% have very less aware about the culture. In DAV 92% of people are aware of the culture, 2% are highly aware and the remain 6% have very less aware about the culture. 6.2 Interpretation From Teachers Questionnaire Responses By Pearson’s correlation we found out that there is a positive correlation between Culture and Competitive Advantage. As a finding we found out that Cultural Satisfaction has 56% direct Impact on Competitive Advantage. With the help of ANOVA we found out that there is no significant difference in Cultural Satisfaction of Teachers in their Higher Education Institutes.
  37. 37. 30 | P a g e Figure.3 In the above fig, it defined that who motivate to join the collage/university are mostly motivated by Advertisement Are 21%, by friend are 12%, by Family are 15% and remain are motivated because that is their previous college i.e. 52%. Figure.4 More the working hours more the work which creates pressure for the teachers, no of Teaching Hours by teachers are 20 to 30 are 8% and 30 to 40 are 92%.
  38. 38. 31 | P a g e Figure.5 Institute giving Health Benefits have a great competitive advantage over other institution, As the medical bills are very expensive, so Institute provide the health benefits are 87%, and institution not providing medical facilities are 13%. Table 7.2 Institute * Culture_mean Crosstabulation Count Culture_mean Total %3 % 4 % 5 % Institute Pyramid 5 38 8 62 0 0 13 100 GNA 7 30 16 70 0 0 23 100 GNDU 10 26 24 63 4 11 38 100 Khalsa 13 50 13 50 0 0 26 100 Total 35 35 61 61 4 4 100 100 With the help of the table above we find out that in Pyramid College 62% of Students are aware of the culture, and the remaining 38% have little awareness about the culture. In GNA college 70% are aware and remaining 30% have little awareness about the culture. In GNDU 63% of people are aware of the culture, 11% are highly aware and the remaining 26% have little awareness about the culture. In Khalsa college 50% of people are aware of the culture and remaining 50% have little awareness about the culture.
  39. 39. 32 | P a g e 7. Findings For Student:-  In this study by using Pearson’s correlation we found out that there is a direct and positive correlation between Culture and Competitive Advantage.  In this study we found out that Cultural Satisfaction has 56% direct Impact on Competitive Advantage which means that, Competitive Advantage = 1.454 + .563(Culture Mean)  With the help of ANOVA we found out that there is significant difference in Cultural Satisfaction of Students with respect to their Higher Education Institutes. For Teacher:-  In this by using Pearson’s correlation we found out that there is a direct or positive correlation between Culture and Competitive Advantage.  In this study we found out that Cultural Satisfaction has 3.5% direct Impact on Competitive Advantage which means that, Competitive Advantage = 2.613 + .035(Culture Mean)  With the help of ANOVA we found out that there is no significant difference in Cultural Satisfaction of Students with respect to their Higher Education Institutes 8. Conclusion: This study focused on understanding of cultural perspective of Students and Teachers regarding their higher educational institutions. It has been found that there are significant difference in Cultural Satisfaction of Students and teachers with respect to their Higher Education Institutes. Further the study highlighted the factors giving competitive advantage to the Higher Education Institutions over others in the industry are , family, previous school/ College Has given competitive edge to the institutions. Lastly it was identified that there is positive correlation between Culture and Competitive Advantage and the Cultural Satisfaction has profound impact upon the competitive advantage of Higher Education Institutions.
  40. 40. 33 | P a g e References  Ambrosini, V., Bowman, C., Collier, N. 2009,"Dynamic capabilities : An exploration of how firms renew their resource base", British Journal of Management, 20, S9-S24.  Brigitta and Giertz, 2000, “Strategic Alertness and Expanded Awareness of higher education", Journal Teacher Development in Higher Education.pp.10-20  Brigitta and Giertz, 2000,"The quality concept in higher education suggests that Higher education is required to establish and develop its quality", Journal of Teacher Development in Higher Education.pp. 8-20  Chan, 2008,"The Higher education organizations have always had the genetic factor of being competitive", Journal of The Role of Internationalization in the Higher Education.pp.5-11  Essary, 2011, " Exploring the development of competitive advantage model for online education in small state university", Proquest.  Ferenc, F. a. (2009),"The main goal of the organization with the application of the existing knowledge and intellectual capital within the organization", Journal of Knowledge Management Asymmetries in Higher Education.pp. 8-15  Ferlie, 2008, "The change in the activities of higher education institutions, the development of their entrepreneurship", Journal of cultural political economy of competitiveness and its implications for higher education.pp.5-11  Haan, 2014," Competitive advantage what does it really mean in the context of public higher education Institutions?", Hollad University of Applied Science  Jessop, 2008, "A cultural political economy of competitiveness and its implications for Higher education", Journal of Education and the Knowledge Based Economy.pp.1-20  Justman, 2000,"Relevant theoretical underpinnings suggest that higher education", Journal of Education and social cohesion for economic growth.pp. 1-15
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  43. 43. 36 | P a g e ANNEXURE Questionnaire for Teacher Name: Age: 20 - 25 25 – 30 30 – 35 35 – 40 40 above Profession: Male/Female: Institute/ collage Name: Address: 1. Who motivated you to join this collage/ university? a) Friend b) Previous school/collage c) Family d) Social media (TV, Newspaper) 2. How many hours of teaching do you do per week? a) 20 to 30 b) 30to 40 c) 40 to 50 d) 50 to 60 4. How many hours of non teaching or administration work do you do per week? a) 20 to 30 b) 30to 40 c) 40 to 50 d) 50 to 60 3. Do you do official work after office timings? a) Yes b) No
  44. 44. 37 | P a g e 4. Does your collage or Institute invest on employee health and wellbeing? a) Yes b) No 5. Please tick the major reasons for your selection of this collage/university: a) Infrastructure b) Good reputation c) Facilities d) Pay Scale e) Easy to Commute/ Location 7. Are there other good institutions in this region? a) Yes b) No 7. If yes, what benefits they have better than this institution. a) Infrastructure b) Good reputation c) Facilities d) Pay Scale e) Easy to Commute/ Location Questions: Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree 8. I have sufficient time for my personal life. 9. I find reasonable time to devote on my professional development. 10. I am satisfied with the working conditions of the workplace.
  45. 45. 38 | P a g e 11. My organization invests on employees’ development. 12. The culture of this institute is healthy and harmonious. 13. I share good bond with my boss. 14. I am highly comfortable with the culture in university. 15. Faculties of university are supportive. 16. I am satisfied with university policy. 17. University maintains the safety standards. 18. People in the institute respect difference in culture of each other. 19. Other institutions are competitors. 20. I share good bond with my students. 21. My Institute or collage provides me sufficient number of leaves and holidays. 22. I am satisfied with the institute pay scale. 23. I am expected to do only the teaching work as a part of my job.
  46. 46. 39 | P a g e 24. My institution gives chances for growth. 25. My institution is better than others. 26. If given opportunity I would like to switch to other institute. 27. Other Institutions give tough competition to this institution.
  47. 47. 40 | P a g e Questionnaire For Student Name: Age: 20 - 25 25 – 30 30 – 35 35 – 40 40 above Profession: Male/Female: Institute/ collage Name: Address: 1. Who motivated you to join this collage/ university?  Friend  Previous school/collage  Family  Social media (TV, Newspaper) 2. Which are the major reasons for your selection of this collage/university? a) Placements b) Fee structure c) Infrastructure d) Good reputation e) Faculty 3. This university takes part in social initiatives? a) Yes b) No 4. This university organizes many cultural events for the students? a) Yes b) No
  48. 48. 41 | P a g e 5. Are there other good institutions in this region? a) Yes b) No 6. If yes, what benefits they have better than this institution. a) Infrastructure b) Good reputation c) Facilities d) Easy to Commute/ Location Questions Strongly disagree Dis- agree Neutral Agree Strongly agree 7. It is very essential for university to provide scholarship. 8. I am highly comfortable with the culture in university. 9. I am highly satisfied from this university 10. Faculties of university are supportive. 11. I do not face any difficulty in university. 12. Residential facility of this university. 13. University provides good quality of education. 14. I am satisfied with university policy. 15. Examination pattern is fair. 16. My university evaluation pattern is fair
  49. 49. 42 | P a g e Questions Strongly disagree Dis- agree Neutral Agree Strongly agree 17. Institute shows the marks of student’s performance after the evaluation. 18. Faculty returns assignment after evaluation 19. University maintains the safety standards. 20. People in the institute respect difference culture of each other. 21. I would recommend this university to other students. 22. This university is better than other. 23. Quality of teaching is good. 24. Syllabus is as per the UGC guideline or standards. 25. Other institutions are competitors.

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