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  • Transcript

    • 1. Concentrate on the four points in the middle of this figure for approximately 30 seconds.
    • 2. Look at the centre of the white space below and blink your eyes a few times. What do you see?
    • 3.  
    • 4. Unjustified Discrimination
    • 5. Unjustified Discrimination
      • 1) What is it?
      • 2) How is it manifested? Past and present examples?
      • 3) Why are we uncomfortable with difference?
      • 4) What does “tyranny of the majority” mean?
      • 5) Why should educators care?
    • 6. Definition - Andrews (SCC - 1989)
      • [D]iscrimination may be described as a distinction, whether intentional or not but based on grounds relating to personal characteristics of the individual or group, which has the effect of imposing burdens, obligations, or disadvantages on such individual or group not imposed upon others, or which withholds or limits access to opportunities, benefits, and advantages available to other members of society.
    • 7. Definition - Andrews (SCC - 1989)
      • Distinctions based on personal characteristics attributed to an individual solely on the basis of association with a group will rarely escape the charge of discrimination, while those based on an individual's merits and capacities will rarely be so classed.
    • 8. Statutory Guarantees
      • Human rights legislation
      • Charter
      Canadian Charter Of Rights and Freedoms
    • 9. Human Rights Code (SK)
      • Prohibited grounds - s.9
      • . . . race, creed, religion, colour, sex, sexual orientation, family status, marital status, disability, nationality, ancestry, place of origin or receipt of public assistance.
    • 10. Canadian Charter of Rights & Freedoms
      • Prohibited grounds - s.15
      • . . . race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.
      • Or
      • “ analogous grounds” (ex. sexual orientation)
    • 11. Little Tolerance for Difference
      • Nazi Germany’s “final solution”
      • Protestant / Catholic clashes in N. Ireland
      • South Africa (apartheid)
      • Genocide in Rwanda (Hutus & Tutsis)
      • “ Ethnic Cleansing” in Yugoslavia
        • Christians & Muslims
        • Serbs & Croats, Albanians
      • Current situation in Iraq and Darfur (Sudan)
    • 12. The Three Biggest Lies
      • 1. The Demographic Context
      • Lie # 1: Canada is a Nation of "Two Solitudes," the English and the French. Canada is bilingual and bicultural.
      • 2. The Social Context
      • Lie # 2: Canadians are a tolerant, open, generous people. They cannot be characterized as racist, bigoted, or prejudiced.
      • 3. The Response of Education
      • Lie # 3: The issues raised by the multicultural nature of Canadian society can be addressed through one or more Simple Solutions and/or "Quick Fixes."
    • 13. Canadian Attitudes Toward Minority Groups
      • 1. A core of about 12 to 16 percent of Canadians admit to extreme intolerance;
      • 2. 70 percent of respondents to a 1988 U of T poll indicated that immigrants bring discrimination on themselves. Thirty-three percent said that laws that guarantee equal employment opportunities for minorities go too far;
      • 3. An in-depth survey showed that 80 percent of corporate headhunters and all job agency recruiters received requests to discriminate by race. Ninety-four percent said they rejected job seekers on the basis of race.
    • 14. Manifestations
      • Blatant
      • hate crimes against minority groups (e.g. gay bashing; cemetery desecrations, graffiti & hate propaganda; discrimination against persons who are or appear to be Muslim)
      • vandalism = Calgary book slasher targets gay and lesbian literature ( G & M , A2, Feb 9/00)
    • 15. Manifestations
      • Subtle
      • jokes, stereotypes & innuendo
      • demonization/construction of the “other” (e.g. portrayal of homosexuals in the Bible, portrayal of Muslims as fundamentalist extremists, etc.)
      • tolerate “it” but let’s not talk about “it”
    • 16. The Ugly Canadian
      • Slavery existed in Canada until 1834
      • Treatment of Jehovah Witnesses in Quebec (1940s & 1950s: Duplessis v. Roncarelli )
      • 1930 William Phillips (KKK leader) convicted & jailed for burning a cross outside door of Ira Johnson in Oakville, ON
      • Treatment of First Nations’ citizens through the “residential schools” institution.
    • 17. Women
      • Political treatment of women
        • a) suffrage in SK - March 14, 1916
        • b) suffrage in Canada - May 24, 1918
        • c) October 18, 1929 - women first declared “persons” under the law and allowed to be appointed to the Senate
        • d) suffrage for Aboriginal women - 1960
    • 18. The Famous 5: The “Persons” Case
      • “ Does the word ‘persons’ in Section 24 of the British North America Act , 1867, include female persons?”
        • Judicial Committee of Privy Council of G.B. “. . . Unanimously came to the conclusion that the word ‘persons’ in Section 24 includes members both of the male and female sex . . .” SCC said “NO!”
    • 19. The Ugly Canadian
      • Treatment of Jewish Canadians (Keegstra & Ross - educators of hatred)
      • Treatment of gays & lesbians (Till 1969, certain forms of homosexual activity were criminal offences. Even in 1993, WHO labeled homosexuality a psychiatric disorder.)
      • In 2002 an Ontario Catholic Board requested an injunction to prohibit a gay student from bringing his partner to his grad.
    • 20. Racism in Canada: A Few Historical Examples 1. Asian workers were allowed to come to Canada to work as cheap labour, particularly on the Western sections of the Trans-Canada Railway. However, a federal “Head-tax” of $50 (1880 dollars) per Chinese immigrant was imposed. This increased to $500 by 1900 and continued in effect until 1923.
    • 21. Right to Vote
      • A series of legislative enactments effectively denied British Columbians of Chinese descent the right to vote in provincial or federal elections until 1947; those of Japanese descent were enfranchised in 1949.
      • In 1900, Tomey Homma, a naturalized Canadian of Japanese descent, challenged the B.C. voter legislation and won in the Supreme Court of B.C. This decision was appealed to the Privy Council in London, where, in 1902, it was overturned. The editor of the Victoria Colonist commented:
        • We are relieved from the possibility of having polling booths swamped by a horde of Asians who are totally unfitted either by custom or education to exercise the ballot, and whose voting would totally demoralize politics . . . . They have not the remotest idea of what a democratic and representative government is, and are quite incapable of taking part in it.
    • 22. Japanese Internment
      • At the outbreak of W.W. II, Canadian citizens of Japanese descent (but not German and Italian Canadians) were assembled, their property was confiscated and they were interned in the interior of B.C., or “east of the Rockies” for the duration of the war and beyond. Following the war a concerted effort was made to deport these Canadian citizens, more than half of whom were born in Canada. Throughout this entire period, almost nothing was said or done in defense of the Japanese Canadians. No compensation was provided until the late 1980s.
    • 23. And . . .
      • B.C. legislation prohibited the employment of Asians in the construction of public works;
      • It was a condition of sale of Crown Timber that Asians could not be employed
      • between 1921 and 1930, Japanese-Canadian fishermen were barred from using gas-powered boats on the Skeena River, non-“Japanese” fishermen were permitted to use power boats
      • a person who had not been on the voters’ list at age 21 could be enrolled as an articled clerk with the B.C. Law Society. Asian persons were not allowed to vote.
    • 24. And . . .
      • Jewish persons were systematically excluded from Canada during the early period of the Third Reich, when opportunities for saving them were available. Many died in the holocaust as a direct result of having nowhere to go to escape.
      • These are not isolated examples.
    • 25. In Education
      • 1. Several studies have shown that Canadian textbooks contain biases and stereotyping of minority groups;
        • a. Outright Lies (e.g., Aboriginal peoples were warlike and treated settlers with great savagery),
        • b. Inaccuracies originating from the language of presentation (e.g., savage v. civilized),
        • c. Omission of facts (e.g., systematic genocide of the Beothuk)
      • 2. There is a scarcity of teaching materials which reflect the history and literature of visible minorities;
      • 3. While immigrants have as many or more years of education as non-immigrants, there is evidence that visible minority children are more likely to be inappropriately streamed into special education and basic level courses. Conversely, no Canadian Education Act recognizes language or cultural difference as a criteria for legitimate special education provision.
    • 26. Multiculturalism: What Do We Want? P L U R A L I S M N A T I O NA L I D E N T I T Y Ethnocentric Assimilationism, or At best The “Melting-pot” Structural or Corporate Pluralism The “Mosaic” What is the best way to accommodate cultural and linguistic diversity? What is FAIR?
    • 27.
      • What do we mean by “multicultural education”?
      • Education of the Culturally Different
      • Education About Cultural Differences, Or “Cultural Understanding”
      • Education For Cultural Pluralism
      • Bicultural Education
      P L U R A L I S M N A T I O NA L I D E N T I T Y What is the best way to accommodate cultural and linguistic diversity? What is FAIR?
    • 28. Education of the Culturally Different
      • “Sensitive” Teacher Education Programs (e.g., “crosscultural education courses”)
      • Provide Special Materials
      • School-Community Liaison Personnel
      • Transition Programs Such As English/French As A Second Language
      P L U R A L I S M N A T I O NA L I D E N T I T Y
    • 29. Education About Cultural Differences, Or Cultural Understanding
      • Targets All Students And All Teachers
      • Provides Materials Which Promote Respect for Ethnic And Cultural Diversity
      • Stresses A Multicultural Approach To The Study of Canadian Society
      • Pizza and Polka Dilemma
      P L U R A L I S M N A T I O NA L I D E N T I T Y
    • 30. Education For Cultural Pluralism
      • Separate Schools
      • Special Materials
      • Special Programs Either In Regular Hours or After School
        • Heritage Language Classes
        • Cultural Retention Classes
      • Quota Systems For Teachers And Administrators
      N A T I O NA L I D E N T I T Y P L U R A L I S M
    • 31. Bicultural/Bilingual Education
      • Programs Which Center On Bilingualism
        • Bilingual Or "Mixed" Schools Which Offer Parallel Programs (Duel-Track)
        • Partial Or Full Immersion Programs And/Or Schools
      N A T I O NA L I D E N T I T Y P L U R A L I S M
    • 32. Multiculturalism: What Do We Want? What is the best way to accommodate cultural and linguistic diversity? What is FAIR? N A T I O NA L I D E N T I T Y P L U R A L I S M

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