Spring Pres For Eaf


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Spring Pres For Eaf

  1. 1. Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality A Brief History of the Education of Dominated Cultures in the United States By: Joel Spring Presented by: Heather Nast, Lauren Finelli and Andrew Reder
  2. 2. Racial Violence <ul><li>Throughout history... </li></ul><ul><li>US Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Trail of Death </li></ul><ul><li>19 th century Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Enslaved Africans </li></ul><ul><li>Race riots in 19 th and 20 th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Zoot Suit riots </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Movement </li></ul><ul><li>In Education </li></ul><ul><li>Protestants and Catholics in 1840’s </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment of enslaved Africans </li></ul><ul><li>Racial clashes </li></ul><ul><li>School integration riots </li></ul><ul><li>Current debates </li></ul>
  3. 3. Globalization <ul><li>Globalization- begins when Columbus arrives in the Americas in 1492 and links the world trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>Civilized v. uncivilized- Christian v. Pagan </li></ul>
  4. 4. Religious Superiority <ul><li>Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Religious heretics </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics schools developed the private school sect </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant </li></ul><ul><li>The superior belief </li></ul><ul><li>Referred to as “public” schools </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly anti-Catholic (obvious in government life) </li></ul>*** Lead to the Catholic/Protestant school riots over religious doctrines
  5. 5. Race, Racism and Citizenship <ul><li>Race- primarily a social construction </li></ul><ul><li>Racism- prejudice plus power </li></ul>
  6. 6. Educational Methods for Global Cultural Encounters <ul><li>Cultural Genocide </li></ul><ul><li>Deculturalization </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Pluralism </li></ul><ul><li>Denial of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Hybridity </li></ul>
  7. 7. Educational and Cultural Differences <ul><li>Colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Child-rearing- discipline, authority and memorization (break the will of the child) </li></ul><ul><li>School- formal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Work- activity provided protection against sin </li></ul><ul><li>Political power- only men </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Child-rearing- quite dismissive </li></ul><ul><li>School- informal, educated by stories told by the elders </li></ul><ul><li>Work- only for what they needed </li></ul><ul><li>Political power- held by some women </li></ul>
  8. 8. Early Native American Educational Programs <ul><li>Failed establishment of Henrico College </li></ul><ul><li>Praying towns </li></ul><ul><li>Dartmouth College </li></ul><ul><li>Moor’s Charity School </li></ul>
  9. 9. 5 Civilized Tribes <ul><li>Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Government wanted their land </li></ul><ul><li>Felt like the nuclear family and the establishment of a formal government was leaked to the need for a nuclear family </li></ul><ul><li>Hoped for a cash economy to develop </li></ul>
  10. 10. Native Americans: Deculturalization, Schooling, and Globalization <ul><li>Native Americans as Indigenous people </li></ul><ul><li>The Naturalization Act of 1790 excluded them from citizenship of the U.S. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Schooling <ul><li>Thomas McKenney thought schooling would socially control Native Americans and improve their society </li></ul><ul><li>He introduced schools to Indian tribes as “experiments” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White Missionary teachers- American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1819 Civilization Fund Act </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Native American language and culture <ul><li>Sequoyah created a written language to preserve their history, religions, and culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elias Boudinot created Cherokee Phoenix in 1828 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Indian Removal <ul><li>Andrew Jackson worried that education was giving Indians the power to resist the U.S. government </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Removal Act of 1830 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trail of Tears </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Once settled they began setting up schools and governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Spencer, Armstrong, & New Hope Academies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cherokees were almost 100% literate! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reservations and Boarding Schools <ul><li>Charles E. Mix said that the U.S. had made great errors when dealing with the tribes </li></ul><ul><li>1867 Indian Peace Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Boarding schools take children to strip away their native culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carlisle Indian School &Hampton- Richard Pratt </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Poor conditions- how are they to learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Meriam Report in 1928 </li></ul>
  17. 17. African Americans: Deculturalization, Transformation, and Segregation <ul><li>“ Diaspora” </li></ul><ul><li>British, Spanish, and Portuguese imperialists moved enslaved Africans to North American and other locations </li></ul><ul><li>North - societies with the slaves </li></ul><ul><li>South - slave societies (plantation life) </li></ul><ul><li>Two ways denial of education laws can be used </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>“ Creole” </li></ul><ul><li>Increase demand of slaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devastating tolls on newly arrived slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free slaves still had restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Petitions to gradually abolish slavery in the North </li></ul>
  19. 19. Educational Segregation <ul><li>Freedom vs. Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Segregated schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading and writing in English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal funding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul>
  20. 20. Boston Fights for Equal Education <ul><li>Massachusetts Education Act of 1789 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benjamin Robert’s daughter- First separate-but-equal ruling in judicial history </li></ul><ul><li>1855 Massachusetts governor signed a law that said no child can be denied admission based on race/religion </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Slaves were not allowed to read </li></ul><ul><li>Although many of them learned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped the slaves learn about what was happening in the Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Darky act” or “trickers” </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>African Americans had to obey the government, but was not allowed to have a say in it </li></ul><ul><li>The Fourteenth Amendment Section 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homer Plessy </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. First Crusade <ul><li>First: literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Former slaves established schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying to improve political and economic standings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Booker T. Washington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ cast down its buckets and use black workers” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W.E.B. Du Bois </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAACP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Samuel Armstrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hampton and segregated industrial education </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Second Crusade <ul><li>1910- 1930s, Expansion of segregated schools paid by individual supporters and government </li></ul><ul><li>The Anna T. Jeanes Fund & The Julius Rosenwald Fund </li></ul>
  25. 25. Asians: From Horde to Adored <ul><li>Generally speaking, White efforts at deculturization focused on the denial of education and separation of Asian populations from White populations </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of Asian immigration caused treatment to shift much faster than any other group </li></ul>
  26. 26. Coming to America <ul><li>Chinese: Moving around since 15 th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First major wave was Gold Rush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1850s in California </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid their own way, not enough money to get back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended up working on railroads or in agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japanese: Late start </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1639 law forbade foreign travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration started in 1868 to Hawaii and California </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Other Asian Populations <ul><li>Small amounts (<10,000) from Korea and India </li></ul><ul><li>In 1907 a large Filipino migration began </li></ul><ul><li>Other Asians not significant until Immigration Act of 1965 </li></ul>
  28. 28. White Views <ul><li>Until 1960s, major views were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Coolie” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low cost, servile labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Born from railroad workers/farmhands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Deviant” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immoral, sexually permissive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Born from opium dens and prostitution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined as “Yellow Peril” </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Push and Pull <ul><li>Asian immigration started relatively late, when big pushes for more equal rights were starting </li></ul><ul><li>“ Coolie” legislation often clashed with “Deviant” legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Many of most repressive laws were reversed soon after being enacted </li></ul>
  30. 30. Example: San Fransisco <ul><li>1872: All White students to be educated </li></ul><ul><li>1884: Imperial Chinese Consulate complains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SF School board specifically bars “Mongolians” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1885: Superior Court overrules SF </li></ul><ul><li>1885: Segregated schools implemented </li></ul><ul><li>1906: Forced integration to avoid international incident </li></ul>
  31. 31. A New Image <ul><li>WWII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese Internment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asians differentiated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1950s, the Model Minority </li></ul>
  32. 32. Latinos: Location, Location <ul><li>Biggest Latino influxes came from conquest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1848: End of Mexican-American War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US gained California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Texas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1898: End of Spanish-American War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US gained Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and naval base in Cuba </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Similar View, Different Treatment <ul><li>Latinos: mix of Indian (not white) and Spanish (white on a technicality) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally regarded as Indians or worse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mexicans valued as cheap labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education was denied/neglected/segregated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Puerto Ricans feared as too independent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education was forced in order to “Americanize” </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Puerto Rico: A dream snatched away <ul><li>Strong independence movement since 1860s </li></ul><ul><li>Made “autonomous state” in 1897 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional Republic with Spanish Governor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conquered in 1898 </li></ul>
  35. 35. Puerto Rico: Winning Hearts and Minds <ul><li>“ Put an American schoolhouse in every valley and upon every hilltop” </li></ul><ul><li>Education used as a weapon to inspire loyalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English-only past first grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American History over Puerto Rican History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celebration of American holidays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biggest tension was over English Language </li></ul>
  36. 36. Mexicans: Kept poor and dumb <ul><li>Similar Policies to Puerto Rico to inspire patriotism </li></ul><ul><li>Almost never enforced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Educating the Mexican is educating them away from the job, away from the dirt” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Those that did go to school were segregated </li></ul>
  37. 37. Globalization: The Great Civil Rights Movement and Wars of Liberation <ul><li>Internationally </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Domestically </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Deculturalization and school segregation was part of a general global movement </li></ul>
  38. 38. School Desegregation <ul><li>NAACP- desegregation and opportunity to participate in economic system </li></ul><ul><li>1954 Brown vs. Board of Education Topeka </li></ul><ul><li>Public demonstrations to take action </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of supervision to make sure segregation ended </li></ul><ul><li>CORE, SNCC, SCLC </li></ul>
  39. 39. Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. <ul><li>King was born in 1929 into a family of Baptist Ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of nonviolent confrontation </li></ul><ul><li>1957 Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Martin Luther King, Jr. Continued… <ul><li>Rosa Parks </li></ul><ul><li>1957 “Give us the Ballot…” speech to Washington, DC </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1964 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Titles 4 & 6 </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>In 1961, 450 Indians attended the American Indian Chicago Conference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End to termination policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John F. Kennedy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More Indian participation in decisions involving federal policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Struggle for self-determination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pan-Indian Movement </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Indian Education: A National Tragedy <ul><li>Bilingual Education Act of 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Tribally Controlled Schools Act </li></ul><ul><li>Native American Languages Act of 1990 </li></ul>
  43. 43. Bilingual Education <ul><li>Boycotts in LA </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual Education Act of 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>Official language disputes </li></ul>
  44. 44. Multicultural Education, Immigration and the Cultural Wars <ul><li>1965 Immigration Act that abolished the 1924 Immigration Act (and the quota system) </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural education rose </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentric schools (go back to segregation) </li></ul>
  45. 45. Cultural Wars cont. and NCLB <ul><li>Mandatory standardized tests only measure one culture </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual education be used as a vehicle for learning English </li></ul>
  46. 46. 21 ST Century: Post- Racial Society <ul><li>Post-racial- a society where race is no longer important in determining social status and income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, government agencies state that the concept of race has no scientific or anthropological meaning but persist in using racial categories in their reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially constructed in contrast to legal or administrative definitions of race </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. In Comparison <ul><li>Race and income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1- all white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2- white (Hispanic or Latino) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Least- Black or African American </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drop out rates (1972-2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1- Hispanic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2- Black </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3- Whites </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Is the US a Post-Racial Society <ul><li>YES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial categories are no longer recognized, by government agencies, as having scientific or anthropological meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because race is a confusing term taking on many different meanings among post-1965 immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since post-1965 immigrants are not facing any overt attempts as Deculturalization and Americanization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many native-born whites and blacks still think in the racial categories created by law and judicial decisions from the 18 th century to the Civil Rights Movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since government agencies require the use of racial categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The legacy of race-based laws and Deculturalization still contribute to educational and economic inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since many immigrants from Mexico and Central America as assimilation into native-born Hispanic communities suffering from the legacy of the past </li></ul></ul>