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SOCCER FITNESS A SCIENCE BASED APPROACH         Mike Young, PhD      Athletic Lab - Cary, NCVancouver Whitecaps - Vancouve...
Opening Thoughts       sume n othing     As           Question every                            thing      “C ommon” sense...
GA  ME     REQ           UIR              EM                EN                  TS
FIT   NE      SS           TR             AIN                IN                  G
I   NG         PLANNYEARLY
RE  DU     CI       NG            IN              JU                 RY
AT  HL       ET         EM           O               NI                  TO                       RI                      ...
FATIG      UE MA           NAG               EMEN                   T
GAME REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENTS OF THE GAME       Technical
REQUIREMENTS OF THE GAME       Technical                   Tactical
REQUIREMENTS OF THE GAME        Technical      Psychological Tactical
REQUIREMENTS OF THE GAME        Technical   Physical      Psychological Tactical
REQUIREMENTS OF THE GAME        Technical   Physical      Psychological Tactical
•   Players cover average of 10-12km in a game (~6 miles)•   Game is 80-90 minutes of continuous activity•   10-12km / 80-...
“Logical” conclusion....     run,     run,     run (slow & steady)•   Players cover average of 10-12km in a game (~6 miles...
BU T. ...
Flaw of Averages
A’AM                  TS   ,M         HE   FACJU   STT
FITNESS DEMANDS           ANALYSIS           SOCCER P OF MOTOR ACTIV                    LA            ITIE       YERS     ...
•Aerobic capacity•Average intensit    is EXTREME                                 LY impor tan                   y approach...
FITNESS DEMANDS                                                                 CCER                                      ...
s er peer s                                                      n s than les                                           te...
FITNESS DEMANDS
in                                    om  inant powerful action•Straight sprints are the most d              rdecisive off...
POSITIONAL DEMANDS           ©Journal                    of           http://www Sports Science and                     .j...
•Player s spent 48.7           directly forwa    ± 9.2% of pu                         rd               rposeful mov       ...
ATTACKER                 MLS     FAPL    nPC                                                Dist. Covered           10737 ...
Conclusions...  Different positions may require different levels & types of fitnessAerobic demand of the sport is highAnae...
Conclusions...      Linear sprinting is a HUGE     determinant of goal scoringSpeed without the ball may be a bigger  dete...
Conclusions...      The game is primarily characterized as short bursts of  high intensity straight ahead   acceleration p...
Conclusions...   Due to the intermittent highintensity efforts with insufficient recovery, the sport can best be classifie...
plicati on?Ap
POINTS OF TRAINING          EMPHASISConsiderable emphasis should be given to developing:  Aerobic capacity  Alactic Anaero...
Aerobic Capacity
Aerobic Capacity        Aerobic capa                        city fuels the       ability to per                      form ...
ANAEROBIC ALACTIC ABILITIES• Speed   (especially linear)• Power• Strength
Quickness &  Agility?
A distinct but              related motor                pattern to              speed, power &                 strengthQu...
ANAEROBIC LACTIC             CAPACITY                                                     VIE        W                    ...
threshold lay an                                   of lactate city may p                         the fringe lactic capa   ...
FITNESS TRAINING
AEROBIC FITNESS•   Intensity must be sufficiently low that you are training aerobic pathways    and not glycolytic•   Durat...
Aerobic Training         Guidelines   Continuous Method:       Inter val Method:     Duration: 15-60 min     Duration: 3-8...
Aerobic Training     GuidelinesThe combination of games and standardduration technical / tactical practicesmay provide suf...
ANAEROBIC LACTIC   CAPACITY
Anaerobic Glycolytic      Training GuidelinesWill primarily be addressed through small sided games                and / or...
SPEED!
SPEED TRAINING GUIDELINES• Emphasize    appropriate mechanics and maximal intensity• Work    : rest ratios = 1 : 20 - 40• ...
SPEED TRAINING GUIDELINES Adding changes of direction, start-stops,turns, lateral movement, change of tempo,jumps, headers...
Repeat Sprint   Ability      To be fit for soccer                you must be able to                    sprint fast.       ...
LIMITERS OF RSA•Fatigue from repeat efforts is inversely correlated to initial sprintperformance•Limitations in energy sup...
TRAINING RSA1. Include traditional sprint training to   improve an athlete’s capacity in a single   sprint effort2. Some h...
RSA Training GuidelinesRSA is addressed indirectly through other trainingmethods but specific training is also recommended...
AGILITY & QUICKNESS?
Small Sided Games! Can be a sport-specific means of addressing aerobic,  anaerobic, and / or anaerobic alactic abilities w...
STRENGTH &  POWER
“Do I really need to lift?”
“Do I really need to lift?”     “...there is sufficient evidence for       strength training programs to     continue to b...
Benefits of Strength Training Enhances acceleration Reduces likelihood for injury Enhances power (jumping, change of direct...
Maximal strength is most efficiently developed using external loads that challengethe neuromuscular system
TRAINING HOLISTICALLY•   Muscles don’t act in isolation•   Train movements not    muscles•   Address asymmetries and    im...
BASIC GUIDELINES• Multi-joint   exercises through complete ranges of motion• Forstrength & power, lower rep ranges, higher...
EXERCISE SELECTION: STRENGTH
POWER DEVELOPMENTExercise                      Absolute Power (Watts)                              100kg Male             ...
POWER DEVELOPMENTExercise                      Absolute Power (Watts)                              100kg Male             ...
EXERCISE SELECTION: POWER
Heavy-Low Rep vs. Light-High Rep
Weight Training          Guidelines•   1-3x/ week•   Short but intense workouts•   20-40 minutes per session is sufficient•...
Bodyweight strength exercises are great for muscular endurance, work capacity,strength maintenance and when facility / equ...
PlyometricsIntensity is directly relatedto vertical displacement andpoints of contact (1 leg vs 2)Can and should occasiona...
RUNNING ECONOMY:HOW STRENGTH & POWER TRAINING CAN        AFFECT ENDURANCE
MECHANISMS OF BENEFIT•   Running economy is a result of enhanced neuromuscular    characteristics like improved muscle pow...
•2.9% Impr•4.6% Impr oved Per                    formanc           oved Eco         e                   no my
Evidence Supporting                 Evidence Refuting      Resistance Training                Resistance Training• K Stkre...
CORE?
d -numbing Myth: Min             e          ab s” are threps of “              s trengthenbe st way to        the core
d -numbing Myth: Min             e          ab s” are threps of “              s trengthenbe st way to        the coreReal...
d -numbing Myth: Min             e          ab s” are th           Reality: Rreps of “                                   u...
d -numbing Myth: Min             e          ab s” are th             Reality: Rreps of “                                  ...
Core Strength•   Refers to functional    capacity & positioning of    core of body•   Use static & dynamic    exercises•  ...
Activity of trunk muscles during squats and pulls from     the floor (dead lifts) is greater or equal to that produced wit...
Core Training
Core Training
Flexibil                ity TraRotten Core            ining
ROLE OF FLEXIBILITY FOR SOCCER
e soreness                esn’t reduc ou sore     etching do an MAKE y•Str•Over   stretching c
•Stretching makes                    you weaker (a                                 cute)
ching makes you s lower (acute)•Stret          g = more slower•More stretchin
le?   xibFle     o  To
Stretching May Not Decrease Injury
Stewart & Burden, 2004DANGER OF HYPERMOBILITY
Due to t                he dema     the spor               nds of                                     Stewart & Burden, 20...
YEARLY PLANNING
PL ANAH EA
OFF-SEASON TRAINING:PUT HAY IN THE BARN
UNDERSTAND THIS
IN-SEASON TRAINING
Usecommon sense!
IN-SEASON TRAINING             CONSIDERATIONS• Pre-game   training for those not selected• Post-game   training for bench ...
INJURY REDUCTION
Many Injuries are Preventable
INJURY DATA    Here is what the latest research tells us regarding what types of soccer injuries occur:Most common boys’ i...
INJURY CORRELATES• Previous      injury• Aerobic    fitness prior to season• Asymmetries• Flexibility   deficiencies
PERFORMANCE & INJURY    Performance
PERFORMANCE & INJURY    Performance             Injury Prevention
WARMUP
ROLE OF THE WARMUP• Ready   the body and mind for practice / games: • Increase   core body temperature • Improve    perfor...
WARMUP CONSIDERATIONS• Timing• Physical   & Technical• Practice   vs. Games  • In-game    sideline warmups• General    gui...
WARMUP EXAMPLE
PRE-MATCH PRIMER
ATHLETE MONITORING
SURVEYSIf you want to know....ask!
HEART RATE•   Heart rate is a great indicator of training    intensity•   Current technology allows longitudinal    tracki...
S ng     P i   G k  r acT
Time-MotionQuantifying fitness values from practice & games
The Future is Here
HRV & OMEGA WAVE
Field tests are the most ‘real-world’ and pragmatic means of assessingreadiness but may be logistically difficult to incor...
FIELD TESTING• Aerobic: Bleep, Yo-Yo1     & 2, XC Runs, Cooper test, etc• Agility: Arrow   head, Illinois, Pro-Agility, et...
PUTTING IT ALL  TOGETHER
MANAGING FATIGUE &ENHANCING RECOVERY
Tra   vel         Str            ess
SLEEP & REST
NUTRITION                              •   Daily                              •   Training                                ...
Facilitating      Recovery?Teach lifestyle habitsActive recovery sessions?Manual therapyCryo therapy
facilitates recover y•Cold water immer sion•But not for the reasons you think...
Fitness is moreth an just running     and lifting
Fitness is moreth an just running     and lifting  Manage fatigue &  player readiness
Fitness is moreth an just running     and lifting  Manage fatigue &  player readiness  Plan, track, monitor, repeat
Fitness is moreth an just running     and lifting  Manage fatigue &  player readiness   Smarter beat                      ...
@MIKEYOUNGFITFORFUTBOL.COMELITETRACK.COMATHLETICLAB.COMHPCSPORT.COMMIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COM   THANKS
Soccer Fitness: A Science Based Approach
Soccer Fitness: A Science Based Approach
Soccer Fitness: A Science Based Approach
Soccer Fitness: A Science Based Approach
Soccer Fitness: A Science Based Approach
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Soccer Fitness: A Science Based Approach

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This is a presentation by Mike Young, PhD. Dr. Young is the fitness coach for the Vancouver Whitecaps (MLS) and founder of HPC-Athletic Lab sport performance training and research center. The presentation details the physical demands of the sport of soccer and how to best train for them while managing fatigue.

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Transcript of "Soccer Fitness: A Science Based Approach"

  1. 1. SOCCER FITNESS A SCIENCE BASED APPROACH Mike Young, PhD Athletic Lab - Cary, NCVancouver Whitecaps - Vancouver, BC
  2. 2. Opening Thoughts sume n othing As Question every thing “C ommon” sense? Science is fu ndamental
  3. 3. GA ME REQ UIR EM EN TS
  4. 4. FIT NE SS TR AIN IN G
  5. 5. I NG PLANNYEARLY
  6. 6. RE DU CI NG IN JU RY
  7. 7. AT HL ET EM O NI TO RI NG
  8. 8. FATIG UE MA NAG EMEN T
  9. 9. GAME REQUIREMENTS
  10. 10. REQUIREMENTS OF THE GAME Technical
  11. 11. REQUIREMENTS OF THE GAME Technical Tactical
  12. 12. REQUIREMENTS OF THE GAME Technical Psychological Tactical
  13. 13. REQUIREMENTS OF THE GAME Technical Physical Psychological Tactical
  14. 14. REQUIREMENTS OF THE GAME Technical Physical Psychological Tactical
  15. 15. • Players cover average of 10-12km in a game (~6 miles)• Game is 80-90 minutes of continuous activity• 10-12km / 80-90 min = average pace of ~7km / hr (roughly 13’ mile pace)
  16. 16. “Logical” conclusion.... run, run, run (slow & steady)• Players cover average of 10-12km in a game (~6 miles)• Game is 80-90 minutes of continuous activity• 10-12km / 80-90 min = average pace of ~7km / hr (roughly 13’ mile pace)
  17. 17. BU T. ...
  18. 18. Flaw of Averages
  19. 19. A’AM TS ,M HE FACJU STT
  20. 20. FITNESS DEMANDS ANALYSIS SOCCER P OF MOTOR ACTIV LA ITIE YERS S OF MARCIN A PROFESS 1 NDRZEJ E WSKI, 1,2 IONAL Faculty of Methodolo JAN CHM URA, 3 B 2 KKS Lech gy and Re EATA P Poznan S.A creation, U LUTA, 1 Motor Acti ´ , Football C niversity S AND A NDRZEJ vity, Univ lub, Pozna chool of Ph KASPRZAK 2 ersity Scho n´, Poznan ysical Edu ol of Physi ´, Poland; cation, Poz cal Educati and 3Facu nan, Polan on, Wrocła lty of Play d; w, Poland ers’ ABSTRACT Andrzejew ski, M, Ch of motor mura, J, P activities luta, B, an tactical, a of profess d Kasprza nd menta Cond Re ional socc k, A. Analy Recently, l prepara s 26(6): er players sis much atte tion from study was 1481–14 . J Streng players p ntion has the playe to determ 88, 2012 th been paid rs (23). ine the dis —The obje ossessing to the sele soccer pla tance cov ctive of th profiles, th proper an ction of yers durin ered by p is us provid thropome ized matc g matche rofessiona workouts ing for th tric and h analysis s with the l that allow e possibil efficiency system Am use of the players to ity of sys France). K isco Pro Ò computer- mance. Th tematic inematic e (version 1 e preparati achieve o distance c xamination .0.2, Nice the impro on of a pla ptimum p overed by included th , vement of yer is freq erfor- 31 players e specific of develop technical uently focUnion of participati ation of th ing motor or tactical used on European ng in 4 ma e abilities (2 skills at thduring the Football tches in th team sport ,3,17,22,27 e expense 200 Associatio e s, soccer a ). Lik n ls
  21. 21. •Aerobic capacity•Average intensit is EXTREME LY impor tan y approache t•Mid-Fielder s r un s lactate thre sh the most old ANALYSIS SOCCER P OF MOTOR ACTIV LA ITIE YERS S OF MARCIN A PROFESS 1 NDRZEJ E WSKI, 1,2 IONAL Faculty of Methodolo JAN CHM URA, 3 B 2 KKS Lech gy and Re EATA P Poznan S.A creation, U LUTA, 1 Motor Acti ´ , Football C niversity S AND A NDRZEJ vity, Univ lub, Pozna chool of Ph KASPRZAK 2 ersity Scho n´, Poznan ysical Edu ol of Physi ´, Poland; cation, Poz cal Educati and 3Facu nan, Polan on, Wrocła lty of Play d; w, Poland ers’ ABSTRACT Andrzejew ski, M, Ch of motor mura, J, P activities luta, B, an tactical, a of profess d Kasprza nd menta Cond Re ional socc k, A. Analy Recently, l prepara s 26(6): er players sis much atte tion from study was 1481–14 . J Streng players p ntion has the playe to determ 88, 2012 th been paid rs (23). ine the dis —The obje ossessing to the sele soccer pla tance cov ctive of th profiles, th proper an ction of yers durin ered by p is us provid thropome ized matc g matche rofessiona workouts ing for th tric and h analysis s with the l that allow e possibil efficiency system Am use of the players to ity of sys France). K isco Pro Ò computer- mance. Th tematic inematic e (version 1 e preparati achieve o distance c xamination .0.2, Nice the impro on of a pla ptimum p overed by included th , vement of yer is freq erfor- 31 players e specific of develop technical uently focUnion of participati ation of th ing motor or tactical used on European ng in 4 ma e abilities (2 skills at thduring the Football tches in th team sport ,3,17,22,27 e expense 200 Associatio e s, soccer a ). Lik n ls
  22. 22. FITNESS DEMANDS CCER OM EN SO F E LITE W E LEVE LS IES O ANC CTIVIT RFORM 1 AMATCH AT DIFFERENT PE 3 ND JENS B L, A ANGSB O KENDA LD KIR ark; ERS ONA gen, Denm Physical 2 ON, D f CopenhaPLAY 1 HELENA ANDERSS gy, Unive RUSTR UP, rsity o nce, Divis ion of uman Phy siolo Movemen t Scie TER K 1 tment of H 3 Center for Human R, P E epar MAGN I MOH Sciences, D eden; xercise and Sport ¨rebro University, Sw na 1 stitute of E rth Caroli In Sciences, O a, Chapel Hill, No 2 epartment of Health arolin D f North C yers have apy, U niversity o CTION soccer pla Ther I NTRODU f elite ,12,14– aspects o n (1,2,10 he physical ly in me the xtensive regarding T r- been studied e n exists , match pe informati o yers (5,6,7 A BSTR ACT ical dem ands and nd 15 18,22,2 5). Less omen soccer pla ower the phys p-class a ands in w aerobic p to study ineteen to ysical dem maximum ral We soug ht r players. N ompetitive ph ns (8) and ed in seve en socce ped in c dimensio n determin e activity of wom y videota ers 11,19,24). Body players ha ve bee formance individuall . The play ve examin ed th ers were performed of women tudies ha cus high-level play lysis were espond- (6,8,1 1,23) me s e main fo otion ana game corr dition, so owever, th be and time-m 0 times in a top- studies. In ad (2,24). H lieved to matches, ity .1,30 total. The atch play hich is be
  23. 23. s er peer s n s than les tensity r u f a game o re high in he end o er s perform m wards t attacker s -class play s temporarily & to an mid-fielder s &•Top develop h e•Fatigu der s have lower wo r k rates t •Defen CCER OM EN SO F E LITE W E LEVE LS IES O ANC CTIVIT RFORM 1 A MATCH AT DIFFERENT PE 3 ND JENS B L, A ANGSB O KENDA LD KIR ark; ERS ONA gen, Denm Physical 2 ON, D f Copenha PLAY 1 HELENA ANDERSS gy, Unive RUSTR UP, rsity o nce, Divis ion of uman Phy siolo Movemen t Scie TER K 1 tment of H 3 Center for Human R, P E epar MAGN I MOH Sciences, D eden; xercise and Sport ¨rebro University, Sw na 1 stitute of E rth Caroli In Sciences, O a, Chapel Hill, No 2 epartment of Health arolin D f North C yers have apy, U niversity o CTION soccer pla Ther I NTRODU f elite ,12,14– aspects o n (1,2,10 he physical ly in me the xtensive regarding T r- been studied e n exists , match pe informati o yers (5,6,7 A BSTR ACT ical dem ands and nd 15 18,22,2 5). Less omen soccer pla ower the phys p-class a ands in w aerobic p to study ineteen to ysical dem maximum ral We soug ht r players. N ompetitive ph ns (8) and ed in seve en socce ped in c dimensio n determin e activity of wom y videota ers 11,19,24). Body players ha ve bee formance individuall . The play ve examin ed th ers were performed of women tudies ha cus high-level play lysis were espond- (6,8,1 1,23) me s e main fo otion ana game corr dition, so owever, th be and time-m 0 times in a top- studies. In ad (2,24). H lieved to matches, ity .1,30 total. The atch play hich is be
  24. 24. FITNESS DEMANDS
  25. 25. in om inant powerful action•Straight sprints are the most d rdecisive offensive s ituations in elite socce en ts ending in goals are•Most de cisive powerful movemmade without the ball
  26. 26. POSITIONAL DEMANDS ©Journal of http://www Sports Science and .jssm.org Medicine (2007) 6 , 63-70 Research article Physical d emands o f differen Jonathan t positi on 1 Bloomfield 1 s in FA Premier L Sports Ins , Remco P eague soc titute of N olman a Exercise S cie orthern Ir ela 2 nd Peter cer tute Cardif nce, The Universit nd, University of ODonogh 3 ue f, Cardiff, y of Hull, U UK East Ridin lster, Northern Irela g of York shire, UK 3 nd, UK, 2 Departm , School e Abstract of Sport, U nt of Sport, Healt niversity o h& The purpo f Wales In se sti- of English of this study was to age, statu Football A evaluate th re, body m three diffe ss e recently id as and strike rent posit ociation (FA) Prem physical demands ional clas ier Leagu entified be s and body mass in r). sifications e tions sugg tween elite dex have Bloomfield Computerised time (defender, soccer of es p may be su ting that players of layers of different p n bee Movemen -motion v midfielder it pa os positions able for the deman rticular size and sh i- purposefu ide l moveme t Classification w o-analysis using th nt (PM) p as undert e (B ds ap tional role loomfield et al., 20 of the various pla e tion of PM erformed a ment ( = had a goo d inter-tes by 55 pla ken on the appears to 05). In th ying ter reliabil yers. is 0 performin .7277). Players sp ity strength Recogni- expenditu re in a m have an influence respect, posi- g PM. Po ent 40.6 ± of agree- atch, sug otime spen sit 1 t sprinting ion had a significa 0.0% of the match physiolog ical and b gesting d n total energystill (p < , running, nt influen enced by ioenergeti ifferent p 0.0 shu ce o play c requ hysical,
  27. 27. •Player s spent 48.7 directly forwa ± 9.2% of pu rd rposeful mov ement going •726 ± 203 turns •Upwards of 40% in a game or slowly jogg of purposeful ing movement is spent walking ©Journal of http://www Sports Science and .jssm.org Medicine (2007) 6 , 63-70 Research article Physical d emands o f differen Jonathan t positi on 1 Bloomfield 1 s in FA Premier L Sports Ins , Remco P eague soc titute of N olman a Exercise S cie orthern Ir ela 2 nd Peter cer tute Cardif nce, The Universit nd, University of ODonogh 3 ue f, Cardiff, y of Hull, U UK East Ridin lster, Northern Irela g of York shire, UK 3 nd, UK, 2 Departm , School e Abstract of Sport, U nt of Sport, Healt niversity o h& The purpo f Wales In se sti- of English of this study was to age, statu Football A evaluate th re, body m three diffe ss e recently id as and strike rent posit ociation (FA) Prem physical demands ional clas ier Leagu entified be s and body mass in r). sifications e tions sugg tween elite dex have Bloomfield Computerised time (defender, soccer of es p may be su ting that players of layers of different p n bee Movemen -motion v midfielder it pa os positions able for the deman rticular size and sh i- purposefu ide l moveme t Classification w o-analysis using th nt (PM) p as undert e (B ds ap tional role loomfield et al., 20 of the various pla e tion of PM erformed a ment ( = had a goo d inter-tes by 55 pla ken on the appears to 05). In th ying ter reliabil yers. is 0 performin .7277). Players sp ity strength Recogni- expenditu re in a m have an influence respect, posi- g PM. Po ent 40.6 ± of agree- atch, sug otime spen sit 1 t sprinting ion had a significa 0.0% of the match physiolog ical and b gesting d n total energystill (p < , running, nt influen enced by ioenergeti ifferent p 0.0 shu ce o play c requ hysical,
  28. 28. ATTACKER MLS FAPL nPC Dist. Covered 10737 10715 11073 H.I. Dist Covered 1168 1090 1221 Season 2011 H.I. Dist Covered WP 705 672 751 PHYSICAL H.I. Dist Covered WOP 385 349 388 COMPARISON H.I. Dist Covered BOP No. H.I. Activities 70 154 68 149 94 164 Sprint Dist. 375 325 383 HSR Dist 793 764 838 No. of Sprints 56 50 57 Recovery Time 39 40 36LEFT MIDFIELD MLS FAPL nPC CENTRE MIDFIELD MLS FAPL nPC RIGHT MIDFIELD MLS FAPL nPCDist. Covered 11469 11361 11753 Dist. Covered 11631 11544 11850 Dist. Covered 11455 11514 11734H.I. Dist Covered 1212 1305 1440 H.I. Dist Covered 1038 1114 1225 H.I. Dist Covered 1291 1352 1478H.I. Dist Covered WP 653 701 741 H.I. Dist Covered WP 395 432 492 H.I. Dist Covered WP 673 715 771H.I. Dist Covered WOP 473 529 584 H.I. Dist Covered WOP 581 626 650 H.I. Dist Covered WOP 538 556 591H.I. Dist Covered BOP 76 74 114 H.I. Dist Covered BOP 55 56 80 H.I. Dist Covered BOP 76 79 114No. H.I. Activities 168 178 193 No. H.I. Activities 166 169 184 No. H.I. Activities 173 183 195Sprint Dist. 353 387 442 Sprint Dist. 255 287 320 Sprint Dist. 402 408 466HSR Dist 859 918 998 HSR Dist 783 827 905 HSR Dist 888 944 1011No. of Sprints 55 60 66 No. of Sprints 44 48 53 No. of Sprints 58 62 69Recovery Time 35 33 30 Recovery Time 36 35 32 Recovery Time 34 32 30LEFT BACK MLS FAPL nPC CENTRE BACK MLS FAPL nPC RIGHT BACK MLS FAPL nPCDist. Covered 10996 10741 11100 Dist. Covered 10299 10017 10420 Dist. Covered 11104 10690 11170H.I. Dist Covered 1130 1114 1180 H.I. Dist Covered 784 715 823 H.I. Dist Covered 1122 1063 1283H.I. Dist Covered WP 438 440 430 H.I. Dist Covered WP 165 144 165 H.I. Dist Covered WP 409 402 517H.I. Dist Covered WOP 609 595 640 H.I. Dist Covered WOP 546 499 566 H.I. Dist Covered WOP 627 587 660H.I. Dist Covered BOP 82 79 107 H.I. Dist Covered BOP 71 72 91 H.I. Dist Covered BOP 77 73 104No. H.I. Activities 157 151 165 No. H.I. Activities 119 107 125 No. H.I. Activities 155 146 170Sprint Dist. 331 341 356 Sprint Dist. 212 195 221 Sprint Dist. 339 315 407HSR Dist 798 773 825 HSR Dist 571 520 602 HSR Dist 783 748 876No. of Sprints 51 52 55 No. of Sprints 34 31 36 No. of Sprints 52 48 60Recovery Time* 38 39 35 Recovery Time 50 56 48 Recovery Time 37 40 35 GOALKEEPER MLS FAPL nPC Dist. Covered 5145 5168 5628 H.I. Dist Covered 69 69 84 No. H.I. Activities 14 14 17 Sprint Dist. 15 14 20 HSR Dist 54 55 64 Run Dist. 189 196 235 Jog Dist. 1125 1128 1343 Walk Dist. 3676 3684 3885 No. of Sprints 3 3 4
  29. 29. Conclusions... Different positions may require different levels & types of fitnessAerobic demand of the sport is highAnaerobic lactate component is less than what many believe
  30. 30. Conclusions... Linear sprinting is a HUGE determinant of goal scoringSpeed without the ball may be a bigger determinant of scoring ability than speed with the ball
  31. 31. Conclusions... The game is primarily characterized as short bursts of high intensity straight ahead acceleration punctuated byintermittent rest periods of very low & moderate activity
  32. 32. Conclusions... Due to the intermittent highintensity efforts with insufficient recovery, the sport can best be classified as an alactic-aerobic sport
  33. 33. plicati on?Ap
  34. 34. POINTS OF TRAINING EMPHASISConsiderable emphasis should be given to developing: Aerobic capacity Alactic Anaerobic abilities (especially linear speed)Limited (but beneficial) training should be done toenhance anaerobic lactate capacity
  35. 35. Aerobic Capacity
  36. 36. Aerobic Capacity Aerobic capa city fuels the ability to per form repeate high intensity d efforts when the rest inter val between efforts is insu fficient for complete rec overy
  37. 37. ANAEROBIC ALACTIC ABILITIES• Speed (especially linear)• Power• Strength
  38. 38. Quickness & Agility?
  39. 39. A distinct but related motor pattern to speed, power & strengthQuickness & Agility?
  40. 40. ANAEROBIC LACTIC CAPACITY VIE W BRIEF RE 09, 4, 291-306 rformance, 20 and Pe rts Ph ysiology al of Spo n al Journ .Internatio etics, Inc man Kin ootball Hu © 2009 ty Train ing in F High -Intensi ens Ban gsb o ini , an dJ a nno Rampin c high- arce llo Iaia, Erm e effects of aerobi emen- F. M d pe rformanc t on impl ogical an es insigh l mea- ajo r physiol ll, and provid siologica ws the m n footba and phy is ar ticle revie ance training i ng. Analysis emanding , and Th ed-endur cal traini tically d .
  41. 41. threshold lay an of lactate city may p the fringe lactic capa perate on anaerobic• Player s o n ot critical• Although ppor t role imp or tant su ing efficiency • Grea t for train VIE W BRIEF RE 09, 4, 291-306 rformance, 20 and Pe rts Ph ysiology al of Spo n al Journ . Internatio etics, Inc man Kin ootball Hu © 2009 ty Train ing in F High -Intensi ens Ban gsb o ini , an dJ a nno Rampin c high- arce llo Iaia, Erm e effects of aerobi emen- F. M d pe rformanc t on impl ogical an es insigh l mea- ajo r physiol ll, and provid siologica ws the m n footba and phy is ar ticle revie ance training i ng. Analysis emanding , and Th ed-endur cal traini tically d .
  42. 42. FITNESS TRAINING
  43. 43. AEROBIC FITNESS• Intensity must be sufficiently low that you are training aerobic pathways and not glycolytic• Durations must be sufficiently long that you are providing an adequate stimulus• For non-continuous efforts, rest intervals must be appropriate to achieve the desired outcome...too long or too short and you won’t provide the desired stimulus
  44. 44. Aerobic Training Guidelines Continuous Method: Inter val Method: Duration: 15-60 min Duration: 3-8 min / inter val Intensity: 70-85% of max HR Reps: 3-5 Intensity: 85-95% of max HR Work:Rest Ratio: 1:0.5-3Should be addressed in some manner 3-4x / week
  45. 45. Aerobic Training GuidelinesThe combination of games and standardduration technical / tactical practicesmay provide sufficient aerobic stimulusAdditional work is appropriate formaintenance, remediation and duringcritical training windows of the year (off-season, long stretches w/o games, etc)
  46. 46. ANAEROBIC LACTIC CAPACITY
  47. 47. Anaerobic Glycolytic Training GuidelinesWill primarily be addressed through small sided games and / or HIIT Methods Interval Method: Repetition Method: Duration: 15 - 60 sec Duration: 40 sec - 12 min Intensity: 100-120% of Intensity: 95-105% V02max V02max Work:Rest ratio: 1:1-2 Work:Rest ratio: 1:3-5
  48. 48. SPEED!
  49. 49. SPEED TRAINING GUIDELINES• Emphasize appropriate mechanics and maximal intensity• Work : rest ratios = 1 : 20 - 40• Rep lengths of 10-40m (~ 1 - 5 sec)• Total volume should be constrained (160m - 300m)
  50. 50. SPEED TRAINING GUIDELINES Adding changes of direction, start-stops,turns, lateral movement, change of tempo,jumps, headers, etc are all appropriate but should not take away from the focal point of developing linear speed
  51. 51. Repeat Sprint Ability To be fit for soccer you must be able to sprint fast. Repeatedly. With minimal rest.
  52. 52. LIMITERS OF RSA•Fatigue from repeat efforts is inversely correlated to initial sprintperformance•Limitations in energy supply, which include energy available fromphosphocreatine hydrolysis, anaerobic glycolysis and oxidativemetabolism, and the intramuscular accumulation of metabolic by-products, such as hydrogen ions are key factors in performancedecrement•Neural factors (magnitude and strategy of recruitment) arerelated to fatigue•Stiffness regulation, hypoglycemia, muscle damage andenvironmental conditions may also compromise repeat sprint ability (Bishop et al, 2011)
  53. 53. TRAINING RSA1. Include traditional sprint training to improve an athlete’s capacity in a single sprint effort2. Some high intensity interval training is beneficial to improve the athlete’s ability to recover between sprint efforts. (Bishop et al, 2011)
  54. 54. RSA Training GuidelinesRSA is addressed indirectly through other trainingmethods but specific training is also recommended Intensity: 95-100% Reps: 10-30m Volume: <300m total Work:Rest Ratio: 1:5-10 Frequency: 1-2x / week
  55. 55. AGILITY & QUICKNESS?
  56. 56. Small Sided Games! Can be a sport-specific means of addressing aerobic, anaerobic, and / or anaerobic alactic abilities whilesimultaneously working on technical & technical skills Stimulus will depend on the following variables: Rest inter val bet ween games Players involved Field size & dimensions Duration of games Restrictions
  57. 57. STRENGTH & POWER
  58. 58. “Do I really need to lift?”
  59. 59. “Do I really need to lift?” “...there is sufficient evidence for strength training programs to continue to be an integral part of athletic preparation in team sports.”
  60. 60. Benefits of Strength Training Enhances acceleration Reduces likelihood for injury Enhances power (jumping, change of direction, etc) Improves running economy
  61. 61. Maximal strength is most efficiently developed using external loads that challengethe neuromuscular system
  62. 62. TRAINING HOLISTICALLY• Muscles don’t act in isolation• Train movements not muscles• Address asymmetries and imbalances
  63. 63. BASIC GUIDELINES• Multi-joint exercises through complete ranges of motion• Forstrength & power, lower rep ranges, higher loads, and moderate volumes are suggested• Forhypertrophy, moderate reps and load with higher volume is suggested
  64. 64. EXERCISE SELECTION: STRENGTH
  65. 65. POWER DEVELOPMENTExercise Absolute Power (Watts) 100kg Male 75kg FemaleBench Press 300Back Squat 1100Deadlift 1100Snatch 3000 1750Snatch 2nd Pull 5500 2900Clean 2950 1750Clean 2nd Pull 5500 2650Jerk 5400 2600 *Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity **2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocity
  66. 66. POWER DEVELOPMENTExercise Absolute Power (Watts) 100kg Male 75kg Female Even ifBench Press 300 use of O inappro lympicBack Squat 1100 priate d lifts are equipm ue to laDeadlift 1100 ent, low ck of exper ti teachinSnatch 3000 se, or a g1750 inexper tSnatch 2nd Pull ience; t hlete 2900 p5500 ipa rinc l he basi c 1750 incorpo s shoulClean 2950 d still b loaded, rated ( eClean 2nd Pull 5500 multi-jo externa 2650Jerk explosi int, low lly 2600 5400 ve mov er body ement) *Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity **2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocity
  67. 67. EXERCISE SELECTION: POWER
  68. 68. Heavy-Low Rep vs. Light-High Rep
  69. 69. Weight Training Guidelines• 1-3x/ week• Short but intense workouts• 20-40 minutes per session is sufficient• High load / low rep and / or explosive emphasis• Train the entire body• Use appropriate rest intervals
  70. 70. Bodyweight strength exercises are great for muscular endurance, work capacity,strength maintenance and when facility / equipment access is limited
  71. 71. PlyometricsIntensity is directly relatedto vertical displacement andpoints of contact (1 leg vs 2)Can and should occasionallybe mixed in with runningQuality rather than quantityis importantAppropriate mechanics arecritical
  72. 72. RUNNING ECONOMY:HOW STRENGTH & POWER TRAINING CAN AFFECT ENDURANCE
  73. 73. MECHANISMS OF BENEFIT• Running economy is a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics like improved muscle power development and more efficient use of stored elastic energy• Resistance training using heavier loads or explosive movements improves muscle power and enhances the ability to store and use elastic energy
  74. 74. •2.9% Impr•4.6% Impr oved Per formanc oved Eco e no my
  75. 75. Evidence Supporting Evidence Refuting Resistance Training Resistance Training• K Stkren, J Helgerud, E Stka, and J Hoff. Maximal Strength Training Improves Running Economy in Distance Runners. MSSE 2008• G Millet, B Jaouen, F Borrani, and R Candau. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics. MSSE 2002.• J Esteve-Lanao, M Rhea, S Fleck,   and A Lucia.  Running Specific Periodized Strength Training Attenuates Loss of Stride Length during intense Endurance Running.   JSCR 2008.• And MUCH MORE
  76. 76. CORE?
  77. 77. d -numbing Myth: Min e ab s” are threps of “ s trengthenbe st way to the core
  78. 78. d -numbing Myth: Min e ab s” are threps of “ s trengthenbe st way to the coreReality: The prim ary role of the c ore is controll ing flexiextensio on, n and ro tation
  79. 79. d -numbing Myth: Min e ab s” are th Reality: Rreps of “ unning & s trengthen loaded exebe st way to rcises are at the core least as b eneficialReality: The prim ary role of the c ore is controll ing flexiextensio on, n and ro tation
  80. 80. d -numbing Myth: Min e ab s” are th Reality: Rreps of “ unning & s trengthen loaded exebe st way to rcises are at the core least as b eneficialReality: The prim ary role of the c ta tional & ore is Real ity: Ro controll x ercises ing flexi ( back) eextensio n and ro on, a nterior rporated tation must be inco
  81. 81. Core Strength• Refers to functional capacity & positioning of core of body• Use static & dynamic exercises• Whole body movements requiring mid-line stabilization are beneficial
  82. 82. Activity of trunk muscles during squats and pulls from the floor (dead lifts) is greater or equal to that produced with many common stability ball exercises.Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 95-102, 2008.Trunk Muscle Activity During Stability Ball and Free Weight Exercises: Nuzzo, McCaulley, Cormie, Cavill, and McBride
  83. 83. Core Training
  84. 84. Core Training
  85. 85. Flexibil ity TraRotten Core ining
  86. 86. ROLE OF FLEXIBILITY FOR SOCCER
  87. 87. e soreness esn’t reduc ou sore etching do an MAKE y•Str•Over stretching c
  88. 88. •Stretching makes you weaker (a cute)
  89. 89. ching makes you s lower (acute)•Stret g = more slower•More stretchin
  90. 90. le? xibFle o To
  91. 91. Stretching May Not Decrease Injury
  92. 92. Stewart & Burden, 2004DANGER OF HYPERMOBILITY
  93. 93. Due to t he dema the spor nds of Stewart & Burden, 2004 t, socce need mo r players re flexibi other at lity than hletes b usually t ut as is he case much is , too never go odDANGER OF HYPERMOBILITY
  94. 94. YEARLY PLANNING
  95. 95. PL ANAH EA
  96. 96. OFF-SEASON TRAINING:PUT HAY IN THE BARN
  97. 97. UNDERSTAND THIS
  98. 98. IN-SEASON TRAINING
  99. 99. Usecommon sense!
  100. 100. IN-SEASON TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS• Pre-game training for those not selected• Post-game training for bench players who see minimal or no time• Maintaining fitness while minimizing likelihood for soreness and fatigue
  101. 101. INJURY REDUCTION
  102. 102. Many Injuries are Preventable
  103. 103. INJURY DATA Here is what the latest research tells us regarding what types of soccer injuries occur:Most common boys’ injuries:o Ankle sprains (16.5% of all boys’ injuries)o Thigh and upper leg strains (10.3%)o Concussions (9.3%)Most common girls’ injuries:o Ankle sprains (20.8% of all girls’ injuries)o Concussions (12.0%)o Knee sprains (10.6%)o Thigh and upper leg strains (9.6%)Amount of time lost following injury:o Less than one week (55.0% of all injuries)o One to three weeks (28.6%)o More than three weeks (16.4%)
  104. 104. INJURY CORRELATES• Previous injury• Aerobic fitness prior to season• Asymmetries• Flexibility deficiencies
  105. 105. PERFORMANCE & INJURY Performance
  106. 106. PERFORMANCE & INJURY Performance Injury Prevention
  107. 107. WARMUP
  108. 108. ROLE OF THE WARMUP• Ready the body and mind for practice / games: • Increase core body temperature • Improve performance • Reduction of injury • Psychologically, neurologically, physiologically prime • Training stimulus?
  109. 109. WARMUP CONSIDERATIONS• Timing• Physical & Technical• Practice vs. Games • In-game sideline warmups• General guidelines • Duration
  110. 110. WARMUP EXAMPLE
  111. 111. PRE-MATCH PRIMER
  112. 112. ATHLETE MONITORING
  113. 113. SURVEYSIf you want to know....ask!
  114. 114. HEART RATE• Heart rate is a great indicator of training intensity• Current technology allows longitudinal tracking of every player on a team
  115. 115. S ng P i G k r acT
  116. 116. Time-MotionQuantifying fitness values from practice & games
  117. 117. The Future is Here
  118. 118. HRV & OMEGA WAVE
  119. 119. Field tests are the most ‘real-world’ and pragmatic means of assessingreadiness but may be logistically difficult to incorporate on a frequent and regular
  120. 120. FIELD TESTING• Aerobic: Bleep, Yo-Yo1 & 2, XC Runs, Cooper test, etc• Agility: Arrow head, Illinois, Pro-Agility, etc• Speed: 10m, 20m, 30m, 40m• Repeat Sprint Ability: 6 x 30m w/ 30 sec rest, etc• Strength: weight room and body weight• Power: power output, vertical jump, etc
  121. 121. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
  122. 122. MANAGING FATIGUE &ENHANCING RECOVERY
  123. 123. Tra vel Str ess
  124. 124. SLEEP & REST
  125. 125. NUTRITION • Daily • Training • Pre-training • Post-training • Games • Pre-gamesMan City “Nutrition Locker” • Half-time
  126. 126. Facilitating Recovery?Teach lifestyle habitsActive recovery sessions?Manual therapyCryo therapy
  127. 127. facilitates recover y•Cold water immer sion•But not for the reasons you think...
  128. 128. Fitness is moreth an just running and lifting
  129. 129. Fitness is moreth an just running and lifting Manage fatigue & player readiness
  130. 130. Fitness is moreth an just running and lifting Manage fatigue & player readiness Plan, track, monitor, repeat
  131. 131. Fitness is moreth an just running and lifting Manage fatigue & player readiness Smarter beat s harder any d ay Plan, track, monitor, repeat
  132. 132. @MIKEYOUNGFITFORFUTBOL.COMELITETRACK.COMATHLETICLAB.COMHPCSPORT.COMMIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COM THANKS
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