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@mikeyoung
#speedscience

SCIENCE OF SPEED!
Mike Young, PhD!
Vancouver Whitecaps FC!
Vancouver, BC!
HPC - Athletic Lab!
Ca...
•Fundamental
•General
•Sprint

physics

concepts

math

•Secrets

of the force

•Neuromechanical
•Optimizing
•Basic

consi...
A
M
=
F
NEWTON’S 4th LAW

Fat (or any excess body mass) don’t fly
EXAMINING FORCE

• Force

is a vector quantity!

• Magnitude
• Direction

!
Drag
Increases
Exponentially
INERTIA
It turns out Sir Isaac was right
GENERAL
CONCEPTS OF
SPRINTING
by
Hugo Faasta
BACK SIDE MECHANICS

Refers to the
motions of the swing
leg that occurs
BEHIND the body
FRONT SIDE MECHANICS

Refers to the
motions of the swing
leg that occurs IN
FRONT of the body
SPRINT PERFORMANCE

• Sprint

performance is the
outcome of nature and nurture!

• There

are reflexive and innate
componen...
Loren Seagrave
Sprinting fast is an
unnatural activity

Dr. Ralph Mann
You can’t polish a turd.
You can’t polish a turd.
But you can roll it in glitter.
Sprint Math
MAXIMAL VELOCITY

CHARACTERISTICS
*Stride Frequency: ~5 Hz!
!
!

*Maximal Velocity: ~12.8 m/s!

*Stride Velocity: ~300 deg...
It was Once Thought that
Stride Length x Frequency = Speed
Because Athletes had higher stride lengths &
frequencies at higher speeds, it was thought
that to improve speed, efforts s...
..
..
UT
B
Correlation!

D O E S N OT i m p l y !

Causation
now we are more enlightened...
STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCY

•

Stride length and frequency are linked...they
are a consequence and not a cause of speed

•
...
To run faster there is only ONE solution
Apply More Mass
Specific Force to
the Ground!
Max V Sprinting 101
Small Mass
+
Big Force
+
Right Direction
+
Minimal Time

Run Faster
•Gravity....u
gh
•We wor k
to overc
•Excess ma
ome gra
v
ss hur ts

ity
perform
ance
speed
= more
speeds
force
More
le across
•
mparab
me is co
Air ti
•
ed....meh
imb spe
•L
is KING
cal force
•Ver ti
h speed
lates wit
th corre
leng
por tant
Stride
ically im
•
e is crit
ntal forc
Horizo
•
•CL more effective at a
pplying force
•CL produces higher re
lative net horizon
•CL velocity componen
tal force
t of F-V i...
KINETIC
PARAMETERS

• Ground

reaction forces
approaching 5x bodyweight!

• Muscle

forces in excess of
7x bodyweight
FORCE DEVELOPMENT & SPRINTING
• To

increase running speed an athlete must increase force to
the ground in the appropriate...
Horizontal vs Vertical Propulsive Forces....!
Horizontal vs Vertical Propulsive Forces....!
and why you don’t have to pick a side
VERTICAL FORCE
MATTERS…

Rela%onships,among,jumping,performances,and,sprint,parameters,
during,maximum,speed,phase,in,spri...
VERTICAL PROPULSIVE FORCE
• Increased

vertical propulsive
force produces:!
• Greater
• Stiffer
• Better

displacement!

s...
…BUT SO DOES
HORIZONTAL FORCE

from Strength & Conditioning Research
THE LEG AS A SWINGING
SPRING
INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS
•

Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring

•

Momentum is developed during accele...
VS
Vertical
Displacement?
The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal
curve when viewed in the sagittal plane
COM reaches apex i...
Vertical force production is
the key component of top-end
speed and that in turn
influences the ability to
maintain a slig...
To go faster, you need
more force. The more
force you apply, the
higher you will rise off
the ground.
Charlie Francis
Better sprinters may
appear to bounce

In reality, flight times are similar and
ground contact times are shorter
MORE SPRINT MATH
•

Stride frequency is comprised of two components: !
1. Ground contact time !
2. Flight time!

•

The be...
STRIDE LENGTH
&
FREQUENCY

The benefit of greater force application is two-fold:!
•

Increased stride length

•

Increased ...
Neuromechanical
Considerations
Sprinting is an extremely complex motor task
involving repeated rapid ‘switching on and off’
of practically every muscle i...
Hip extensors are
critically important during
late swing and stance

Amplitude,and,%ming,of,electromyographic,ac%vity,duri...
Hip extensors are
critically important during
late swing and stance
Knee extensors help keep
the spring stiff during
suppo...
Crossed-Extensor
Reflexes

and f
acilit
ate
V

Allow the body
to take advantage
of its own performance
enhancers

Reciproca...
ng
izi
tim
Op
cs
ni
ha
ec
M
r s are front-side
Better sprinte
•
dominant
have shor ter
Better sprinter s
•
contact times
neither needed
Full extension...
OS
P

TU

RE
U
The first most
important
aspect of speed
is posture.

Tom Tellez
Posture is like the mast and rudder for the limbs
Posture
Posture
Trunk Erect
Head Level
Hips Tall
POSTURE
• Movements

of the limbs
originate from the core of
the body!

• Proper

stabilization and
alignment of the core
...
POSTURE
• Postural

Stabilization!

• Postural Alignment!
• Relaxation!
• Freedom
• Elastic

of movement!

energy producti...
PELVIC MOTION

• The

pelvis should rotate in
all three planes
Postural
Test!
PELVIC TILT

Posterior Tilt = less
hamstring tension,
more QFM tension!
Anterior Tilt = more
hamstring tension, less
QFM t...
EFFECT OF POSTURE ON SPEED
EFFECTIVE GROUND
CONTACT POSITION
MINIMIZE BRAKING FORCES
• Decreases

velocity!

• Caused

horizontal

by excessive step
length and positive foot
and leg s...
Vertical Stack

Congruent Contralateral
Joint Angles

High Knee Recovery

Neutral Ankle
Max Velocity
Technical Points
Fix posture
Emphasize vertical pushes
“Push up”
High hips
“Run tall”
Step over and down
Basic Training Guidelines for
Developing Speed
Building a Bigger Engine
THE REAL REASON WE TRAIN
Almost every physical quality relevant to speed &
power falls under the umbrella of (neuromuscula...
To Sprint Faster.... Sprint!
Maximum Velocity Sprinting
•Means:
•Flying Sprints
•Variable Speed Sprints
•Short Speed Endurance
•Length (in MaxV): 10-40...
DOWNHILL RUNNING
minimal grade. overspeed. supra-maximal eccentric.
RESISTANCE TRAINING
Strength ≠ Speed
“Do I really need to lift?”

“...there is sufficient evidence for
strength training programs to
continue to be an integral...
OLYMPIC LIFTS
1-4 reps / set. 5-10 sets.
POWER DEVELOPMENT
Exercise

Absolute Power (Watts)
100kg Male

75kg Female

Bench Press

300

Back Squat

1100

Deadlift

...
POWER DEVELOPMENT
Exercise

Absolute Power (Watts)
100kg Male

75kg Female

Even if
use of O
300
Bench Press
lympic
inappr...
SQUATS

all variants. full depth. 2-6 reps / set. 4-7 sets.
I like STRONG butts
and I can not lie....
TRAIN THE CHAIN (THE POSTERIOR CHAIN)
ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD
110-120% MAXIMAL LOAD. NOT FOR NOVICES.
COMPLEXES
work downstream on F-V curve. rest between sets. low volumes
PLYOS
DEPTH DROPS
low drops. minimize amortization. low volumes.
DEPTH JUMPS
extreme heights unnecessary. low volumes.
VERTICAL EMPHASIS PLYOS
emphasize vertical displacement of the COM not the feet
STIFFNESS JUMPS
minimal amortization. short contact.
SPRINTING FASTER IS ALL ABOUT PUTTING AS MUCH FORCE IN
TO THE GROUND AT AS LITTLE BODY MASS AS POSSIBLE
MECHANICS & PHYSIC...
THANKS

@MIKEYOUNG!
ATHLETICLAB.COM!
ELITETRACK.COM!
FITFORFUTBOL.COM!
HPCSPORT.COM!
SLIDESHARE.NET/HPCSPORT!
Neuromechanics of Speed Development
Neuromechanics of Speed Development
Neuromechanics of Speed Development
Neuromechanics of Speed Development
Neuromechanics of Speed Development
Neuromechanics of Speed Development
Neuromechanics of Speed Development
Neuromechanics of Speed Development
Neuromechanics of Speed Development
Neuromechanics of Speed Development
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Neuromechanics of Speed Development

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This is Dr. Mike Young's presentation from the Royal College of Chiropractic Sport Science 2013 Run Faster conference.

Published in: Sports, Technology, Education
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Neuromechanics of Speed Development

  1. 1. @mikeyoung #speedscience SCIENCE OF SPEED! Mike Young, PhD! Vancouver Whitecaps FC! Vancouver, BC! HPC - Athletic Lab! Cary, NC! !
  2. 2. •Fundamental •General •Sprint physics concepts math •Secrets of the force •Neuromechanical •Optimizing •Basic considerations mechanics training guidelines
  3. 3. A M = F
  4. 4. NEWTON’S 4th LAW Fat (or any excess body mass) don’t fly
  5. 5. EXAMINING FORCE • Force is a vector quantity! • Magnitude • Direction !
  6. 6. Drag Increases Exponentially
  7. 7. INERTIA It turns out Sir Isaac was right
  8. 8. GENERAL CONCEPTS OF SPRINTING by Hugo Faasta
  9. 9. BACK SIDE MECHANICS Refers to the motions of the swing leg that occurs BEHIND the body
  10. 10. FRONT SIDE MECHANICS Refers to the motions of the swing leg that occurs IN FRONT of the body
  11. 11. SPRINT PERFORMANCE • Sprint performance is the outcome of nature and nurture! • There are reflexive and innate components as well as trainable components
  12. 12. Loren Seagrave
  13. 13. Sprinting fast is an unnatural activity Dr. Ralph Mann
  14. 14. You can’t polish a turd.
  15. 15. You can’t polish a turd. But you can roll it in glitter.
  16. 16. Sprint Math
  17. 17. MAXIMAL VELOCITY CHARACTERISTICS *Stride Frequency: ~5 Hz! ! ! *Maximal Velocity: ~12.8 m/s! *Stride Velocity: ~300 deg / sec! ! *Stride Lengths: 2.25-2.7m ! *Ground Contact Time: ~0.08 sec! *40-45 steps for sub 9.80 100m
  18. 18. It was Once Thought that Stride Length x Frequency = Speed
  19. 19. Because Athletes had higher stride lengths & frequencies at higher speeds, it was thought that to improve speed, efforts should be focused on these two variables
  20. 20. .. .. UT B
  21. 21. Correlation! D O E S N OT i m p l y ! Causation
  22. 22. now we are more enlightened...
  23. 23. STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCY • Stride length and frequency are linked...they are a consequence and not a cause of speed • Speed of movement of limbs varies little and is not a primary determining factor
  24. 24. To run faster there is only ONE solution
  25. 25. Apply More Mass Specific Force to the Ground!
  26. 26. Max V Sprinting 101 Small Mass + Big Force + Right Direction + Minimal Time Run Faster
  27. 27. •Gravity....u gh •We wor k to overc •Excess ma ome gra v ss hur ts ity perform ance
  28. 28. speed = more speeds force More le across • mparab me is co Air ti • ed....meh imb spe •L is KING cal force •Ver ti
  29. 29. h speed lates wit th corre leng por tant Stride ically im • e is crit ntal forc Horizo •
  30. 30. •CL more effective at a pplying force •CL produces higher re lative net horizon •CL velocity componen tal force t of F-V is higher •CL has shor ter contac t times •CL has higher stride fr CL = Christophe L eMaitre equency Insert research on French
  31. 31. KINETIC PARAMETERS • Ground reaction forces approaching 5x bodyweight! • Muscle forces in excess of 7x bodyweight
  32. 32. FORCE DEVELOPMENT & SPRINTING • To increase running speed an athlete must increase force to the ground in the appropriate direction and do so over increasingly shorter periods of time! • Minimize • Increase horizontal braking forces*! propulsive forces
  33. 33. Horizontal vs Vertical Propulsive Forces....!
  34. 34. Horizontal vs Vertical Propulsive Forces....! and why you don’t have to pick a side
  35. 35. VERTICAL FORCE MATTERS… Rela%onships,among,jumping,performances,and,sprint,parameters, during,maximum,speed,phase,in,sprinters,,by,Kale,,Asci,,Bayrak,and, Acikada,,in,Journal,of,Strength,and,Condi%oning,Research,,2009!
  36. 36. VERTICAL PROPULSIVE FORCE • Increased vertical propulsive force produces:! • Greater • Stiffer • Better displacement! spring! maintenance of momentum
  37. 37. …BUT SO DOES HORIZONTAL FORCE from Strength & Conditioning Research
  38. 38. THE LEG AS A SWINGING SPRING
  39. 39. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS • Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring • Momentum is developed during acceleration • Body will move at same rate unless acted on by unbalanced forces • Two external forces will cause deceleration • Leg stiffness increases vertical impulse, shortens ground contact and increases elastic return
  40. 40. VS
  41. 41. Vertical Displacement? The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal curve when viewed in the sagittal plane COM reaches apex in flight COM low point during support
  42. 42. Vertical force production is the key component of top-end speed and that in turn influences the ability to maintain a slight increase in stride length and stride frequency Dan Pfaff
  43. 43. To go faster, you need more force. The more force you apply, the higher you will rise off the ground. Charlie Francis
  44. 44. Better sprinters may appear to bounce In reality, flight times are similar and ground contact times are shorter
  45. 45. MORE SPRINT MATH • Stride frequency is comprised of two components: ! 1. Ground contact time ! 2. Flight time! • The best sprinters spend less time on the ground ! ◦ Greater frequency
  46. 46. STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCY The benefit of greater force application is two-fold:! • Increased stride length • Increased stride frequency
  47. 47. Neuromechanical Considerations
  48. 48. Sprinting is an extremely complex motor task involving repeated rapid ‘switching on and off’ of practically every muscle in the body
  49. 49. Hip extensors are critically important during late swing and stance Amplitude,and,%ming,of,electromyographic,ac%vity,during sprinting by Jonhagen, Ericson, and Eriksson,,Scandinavian, Journal,of,Science,in,Sports,,1996! Ac%vity,of,monoJ,and,biar%cular,leg,muscles,during,sprint, running,,by,Simonsen,,Thomsen,,and,Klausen,,in,European, Journal,of,Applied,Physiology,,1985! A,kine%c,analysis,of,the,ground,leg,during,running,,by,Mann, and,Sprague,,Research,Quarterly,for,Exercise,and,Sport,,1980!
  50. 50. Hip extensors are critically important during late swing and stance Knee extensors help keep the spring stiff during support Amplitude,and,%ming,of,electromyographic,ac%vity,during sprinting by Jonhagen, Ericson, and Eriksson,,Scandinavian, Journal,of,Science,in,Sports,,1996! Ac%vity,of,monoJ,and,biar%cular,leg,muscles,during,sprint, running,,by,Simonsen,,Thomsen,,and,Klausen,,in,European, Journal,of,Applied,Physiology,,1985! A,kine%c,analysis,of,the,ground,leg,during,running,,by,Mann, and,Sprague,,Research,Quarterly,for,Exercise,and,Sport,,1980!
  51. 51. Crossed-Extensor Reflexes and f acilit ate V Allow the body to take advantage of its own performance enhancers Reciprocal Inhibition Stretch Shortening Cycles
  52. 52. ng izi tim Op cs ni ha ec M
  53. 53. r s are front-side Better sprinte • dominant have shor ter Better sprinter s • contact times neither needed Full extension • or beneficial n characterized deal touchdown •I g knee even with by swin suppor t knee
  54. 54. OS P TU RE U
  55. 55. The first most important aspect of speed is posture. Tom Tellez
  56. 56. Posture is like the mast and rudder for the limbs
  57. 57. Posture Posture Trunk Erect Head Level Hips Tall
  58. 58. POSTURE • Movements of the limbs originate from the core of the body! • Proper stabilization and alignment of the core ensures appropriate movements of the limbs
  59. 59. POSTURE • Postural Stabilization! • Postural Alignment! • Relaxation! • Freedom • Elastic of movement! energy production
  60. 60. PELVIC MOTION • The pelvis should rotate in all three planes
  61. 61. Postural Test!
  62. 62. PELVIC TILT Posterior Tilt = less hamstring tension, more QFM tension! Anterior Tilt = more hamstring tension, less QFM tension
  63. 63. EFFECT OF POSTURE ON SPEED
  64. 64. EFFECTIVE GROUND CONTACT POSITION
  65. 65. MINIMIZE BRAKING FORCES • Decreases velocity! • Caused horizontal by excessive step length and positive foot and leg speed at ground contact
  66. 66. Vertical Stack Congruent Contralateral Joint Angles High Knee Recovery Neutral Ankle
  67. 67. Max Velocity Technical Points Fix posture Emphasize vertical pushes “Push up” High hips “Run tall” Step over and down
  68. 68. Basic Training Guidelines for Developing Speed
  69. 69. Building a Bigger Engine
  70. 70. THE REAL REASON WE TRAIN Almost every physical quality relevant to speed & power falls under the umbrella of (neuromuscular) coordination ! By considering physical qualities as outcomes of inter & intramuscular coordination we simplify the training method and place stimuli on a continuum rather than in different bubbles
  71. 71. To Sprint Faster.... Sprint!
  72. 72. Maximum Velocity Sprinting •Means: •Flying Sprints •Variable Speed Sprints •Short Speed Endurance •Length (in MaxV): 10-40m / rep •Rest: 20-60 sec / 10m •Volume: 200-300m
  73. 73. DOWNHILL RUNNING minimal grade. overspeed. supra-maximal eccentric.
  74. 74. RESISTANCE TRAINING
  75. 75. Strength ≠ Speed
  76. 76. “Do I really need to lift?” “...there is sufficient evidence for strength training programs to continue to be an integral part of athletic preparation.”
  77. 77. OLYMPIC LIFTS 1-4 reps / set. 5-10 sets.
  78. 78. POWER DEVELOPMENT Exercise Absolute Power (Watts) 100kg Male 75kg Female Bench Press 300 Back Squat 1100 Deadlift 1100 Snatch 3000 1750 Snatch 2nd Pull 5500 2900 Clean 2950 1750 Clean 2nd Pull 5500 2650 Jerk 5400 2600 *Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity **2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocity
  79. 79. POWER DEVELOPMENT Exercise Absolute Power (Watts) 100kg Male 75kg Female Even if use of O 300 Bench Press lympic inappro lifts are priate d 1100 Back Squat ue to la equipm ck of ent, low 1100 Deadlift teachin exper ti g se, or a 3000 1750 Snatch inexper thlete ience; t 5500 Snatch 2nd Pull he basi 2900 principa c 1750 ls shou 2950 Clean ld still b incorpo e rated ( loaded, 5500 Clean 2nd Pull externa 2650 multi-jo int, low lly 2600 5400 Jerk explosi er body ve mov ement) *Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity **2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocity
  80. 80. SQUATS all variants. full depth. 2-6 reps / set. 4-7 sets.
  81. 81. I like STRONG butts and I can not lie....
  82. 82. TRAIN THE CHAIN (THE POSTERIOR CHAIN)
  83. 83. ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD 110-120% MAXIMAL LOAD. NOT FOR NOVICES.
  84. 84. COMPLEXES work downstream on F-V curve. rest between sets. low volumes
  85. 85. PLYOS
  86. 86. DEPTH DROPS low drops. minimize amortization. low volumes.
  87. 87. DEPTH JUMPS extreme heights unnecessary. low volumes.
  88. 88. VERTICAL EMPHASIS PLYOS emphasize vertical displacement of the COM not the feet
  89. 89. STIFFNESS JUMPS minimal amortization. short contact.
  90. 90. SPRINTING FASTER IS ALL ABOUT PUTTING AS MUCH FORCE IN TO THE GROUND AT AS LITTLE BODY MASS AS POSSIBLE MECHANICS & PHYSICAL CAPACITY ARE INTIMATELY INTERTWINED POSTURE IS THE CORNERSTONE FOR OPTIMAL MOVEMENT HIP EXTENSORS PLAY A CRITICAL ROLE IN SPRINT SPEED OPTIMIZING MECHANICS ENSURES MAXIMAL GENERATION OF FORCE IN THE DESIRED DIRECTION
  91. 91. THANKS @MIKEYOUNG! ATHLETICLAB.COM! ELITETRACK.COM! FITFORFUTBOL.COM! HPCSPORT.COM! SLIDESHARE.NET/HPCSPORT!

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