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TACTICAL 1 PERIODIZATION 
RAÚL OLIVEIRA 
TACTICAL 
PERIODIZATION 
THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY 
© 2014 
TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
TACTICAL 2 PERIODIZATION 
TACTICAL PERIODIZATION EXPLAINED IN SIMPLE TERMS SO THAT ALL COACHES MAY HAVE ACCESS TO THE 
TRAINING METHOD USED BY COACHES LIKE JOSÉ MOURINHO, ANDRÉ VILLAS-BOAS, CARLOS CARVALHAL, LEONARDO 
JARDIM, ETC... IN THIS FIRST BOOK YOU WILL GET THEORICAL INFORMATION THAT WILL GIVE YOU A STARTING POINT TO 
APPLY TACTICAL PERIODIZATION IN YOUR OWN TEAM. HOPE YOU ENJOY THE READING. 
RAÚL DANIEL CERQUEIRA OLIVEIRA, SOCCER COACH BORN IN PORTUGAL, IS 
CURRENTLY COACHING AT AL MESAIMEER SPORTS CLUB FROM DOHA IN 
QATAR (2014/15). 
PREVIOUSLY WORKED AT AL NASR SPORTS CLUB (DUBAI - UNITED ARAB 
EMIRATES) WHERE HE WORKED WITH SVEN-GORAN ERIKSSON, AMONG OTHERS. 
ALSO IN HIS PAST HE COLLABORATED WITH CLUBS SUCH AS FUTEBOL CLUBE 
DO PORTO (PORTUGAL), DEFENSOR SPORTING CLUB AND CLUB NACIONAL 
DE FOOTBALL (URUGUAY). 
WEBSITE: WWW.RAUL-OLIVEIRA.WEBNODE.PT 
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: 
TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
TACTICAL 3 PERIODIZATION 
Index 
1 - Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 5 
2 - Important Organization Phases on Soccer Training Process .................................................................. 10 
2.1 - Programming in Soccer ............................................................................................................... 13 
2.2 - Periodization in Soccer ............................................................................................................... 14 
2.3 - Tactical-Strategic Planning in Soccer......................................................................................... 19 
3 - So what do you mean by "Tactical Periodization"? ................................................................................. 23 
4 -The Model of Pay ...................................................................................................................................... 29 
5- Methodological Principles of Tactical Periodization ................................................................................. 33 
5.1 - Principle of specificity ................................................................................................................ 34 
5.2 - Principle of horizontal “sequential training” in specificity ......................................................... 36 
5.3 - Principle of "disassembly" the game and hierarchical organization of the principles of play . 38 
5.4 - Principle of Complex Progression .............................................................................................. 40 
5.5 - Principle of Propensities ............................................................................................................. 41 
5.6 - Principle of intensity and focus decision-making ...................................................................... 42 
5.7- Principle of Guided Discovery ..................................................................................................... 44 
5.8 - Principle of Performance Stabilization ...................................................................................... 46 
6- The Model of Training ............................................................................................................................... 49 
7 - The Pattern Microcycle ........................................................................................................................... 53 
7.1 - Day 1 (Monday): Passive Recovery ............................................................................................... 55 
7.2 - Day 2 (Tuesday): Active Recovery .............................................................................................. 56 
7.3 - Day 3 (Wednesday): Medium fraction of the “play” .................................................................... 58 
7.4 - Day 4 (Thursday): Large fraction of the “play”. Complex dynamic of the “play”. ....................... 59 
TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
TACTICAL 4 PERIODIZATION 
7.5 - Day 5 (Friday): Small fraction of the “play” ............................................................................... 60 
7.6 - Day 6 (Saturday): Predisposition for the game.......................................................................... 62 
8 - Usual Mistakes When Applying Tactical Periodization ............................................................................. 67 
8.1 - Ambiguous Model of Play ............................................................................................................. 68 
8.2 - Non detailed planning ................................................................................................................. 69 
8.3 - General Feedback ....................................................................................................................... 70 
8.4 - Incorrect progression in the principles of play ......................................................................... 72 
8.5 - Misuse of game situation in the training .................................................................................... 72 
8.6 - Excess of interest in the timings of exercitation, volumes and intensities ................................ 73 
8.7 - Lost of leadership when not based in technical competence ..................................................... 74 
8.8 - Training monotony and low focus levels .................................................................................... 75 
8.9 - Training exercises and not principles of play ............................................................................ 76 
8.10 - Bad control over the evolution of the training ...........................................................................77 
9 - Final Notes .............................................................................................................................................. 78 
10 - Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................ 81 
Extra - Interview with Vitor Frade the creator and developer of Tactical Periodization Method ................. 85 
TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
TACTICAL 5 PERIODIZATION 
1 - Introduction 
heard of physical breaks and soon I found myself 
thinking that my crusade is going to be really hard. I just 
cannot make people realize that this does not exist. 
"I 
Being in shape is not physical. Being in shape is much more than that. The 
physical is the least important in the scope of sports shape. Without organization 
and talent in the operation of a model of play, deficiencies are explicit, but they 
have little to do with the physical shape. And our commentators / reporters, as 
almost always, continue to negatively influence the opinion of those who, in their 
homes, need to be guided in their absorption capacity or understanding of the 
game. " 
José Mourinho (2005) 
ootball requires the adoption of a philosophy by those 
who have greater responsibility in leading the team. This 
philosophy of the play, and therefore, of training 
"F 
requires a logical chain of the process evolution in which the concept of 
specificity will have to be present. There is the need that everything is 
connected, forming a very specific reality that in its essence is already very 
complex - the model of play " 
Guilherme Oliveira (1991) 
TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
TACTICAL 6 PERIODIZATION 
Soccer is a sport with many specific characteristics that make it a sport whose 
training should be carefully planned and analyzed. The game of football is born and raised in 
the nature of the confrontation between two complex systems, two teams, and it is 
characterized by the alternation of successive states of order and disorder, stability and 
instability, uniformity and variety (Garganta, 2001). As such, there are a number of steps 
that a coach should go through to prepare his team for the competition as best as possible 
(Oliveira, 2005). 
Quinta (2003) stated that "there is little soccer training and, and when it is done, it 
is carried out in a haphazard manner, without objectives, programs or schedules in the 
short, medium and long term. The teaching / coaching of soccer, in most cases, is done 
without a program and / or set methods, not stipulating the achievement of individual and 
collective goals, in other words, not looking for players and teams to achieve a given level 
or teaching them the best way to do this or that individual or collective tactical-technical 
action". 
Currently, soccer requires a specialization of different functions and tasks - from 
player to coach, from physician to physiotherapist, from the department head to the club 
president - by increasingly demanding this actors to improve in their skills and knowledge in 
both quantity and quality (Garganta, 2001). 
Tracking the need for specialization of soccer agents it has been registered a rising 
number of publications and "branches of sports training" aiming at a greater specialization 
and specificity in the approach of the soccer game. According to Garganta (2001) mainly 
from the eighties onwards, important initiatives were developed with the aim of 
systematizing knowledge in soccer, which resulted in the organization of congresses, at 
European and global level, and the increase in soccer publications. 
TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
TACTICAL 7 PERIODIZATION 
Over the last few seasons a lot has been speculated about the current training 
methodologies in the national football leagues, largely because of the appearance of the 
"Mourinho phenomenon" that has brought with him methodologies for many people targeted 
as innovative and, specially, results of international quality. So the models concerning the 
indivisibility of factors in training and the need for a methodology of integrated training 
advocated by authors such as Queiroz (1986), Guilherme Oliveira (1991), Garganta (1995) and 
Castelo (2000) returned to be the highest level the "soccer discussion". 
The processes of planning, programming and periodization of training are now 
subject to frequent discussions and publications in the scientific environment and inclusive, 
or even mainly, in the media from all kinds of "experts" although, not always, in the correct 
way and with the necessary stringent. 
This is a term (integrated training) according to Losa et al. (2006) that is almost 
worn out from so much use, although almost always poorly, ambiguous and superfluously 
addressed. Poorly because the issue is not that you have to include perception, decision, 
etc.., But the fact that the stimuli, may be bigger or smaller, but should always be specific to 
the game. Ambiguous because one thing is training with the ball and other thing is soccer 
training, this are absolutely distinct realities. Finally, superfluous because the practice has 
always emerged and will emerge from prior deeply organized theory, and in this case 
almost always the proposal was directly practical. 
According to Oliveira et al. (2006) as it is usually used the integrated training does 
not truly break the logic of "standard practice". The "training with ball" serves only as a 
mean of simulating the physical training, and not as an imperative to the building up of the 
model of play and the principles of play that the coach wants for the team. 
TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
TACTICAL 8 PERIODIZATION 
Guilherme Oliveira (2003) states that before any other task, the coach must 
introspect about his soccer ideas. From this self-reflection it should "be born" clear ideas 
of how we want "our" team to play, covering from the general to the most particular 
aspects. 
Soccer is considered as a highly tactical sport (Teodurescu, 1984; Meinel y Scnabell, 
1988; Deleplace, 1994). Considering that soccer can provide some regularity within its own 
extreme complexity and randomness, the coach is required to modeling a game style 
(Fernandes, 2003). 
Before the definition of a methodology or any "type" training the coach should have 
a clearly defined style of play. 
Guilherme 
Oliveira 
(2003) 
• The model of play is an idea / conjecture of game consisted of 
principles, sub-principles, sub-sub-principles... representing the 
different stages / phases of the game, which hang together, manifesting 
on its own a functional organization, or an identity. This model, as a true 
model, it is always assumed as a conjecture and is permanently open to 
individual and collective additions, so it is in permanent construction, it 
is never, nor will it be a given object. The final model is always 
unattainable, because it is always under evolving reconstruction. 
Mourinho (2001) states that the training process should always be an "exponent of 
the principle of specificity. Specificity / model of play and not just a specificity / soccer". 
According to Castelo (2000) soccer training can be defined as "an educational 
process that aims to develop the technical, tactical, physical and psychological capacities of 
players and teams in the specific context of competitive situations through systematic and 
planned practice exercises, guided by principles and rules substantiated on scientific 
knowledge." 
TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
TACTICAL 9 PERIODIZATION 
Correct training methodology should be, according to Mourinho (2002), "geared to 
large targets where there is a close relationship between the training model and the model 
of play in which the players, to understand the training model have to understand the 
playing model." 
Still on the subject Losa et al. (2006) argue that when it comes to technical-tactical, 
technical-physical training and so on... it comes to joining or add things or parts, that for 
such, had to be separated in advance. Therein lies the basic error of the conventional 
planning. Garganta et al. (1996) refers equally, that football is a multidimensional 
phenomenon and therefore irreducible to any of the dimensions of performance that 
contribute to its expression. When referring to the integrated training, Losa et al. (2006) 
address the training to the theory of dynamical systems, that is, to say that the whole is 
more than the simple sum of the parts because, as mentioned by Garganta (2001), in highly 
complex systems operating in random environments, as those which exist in a soccer game, 
the artificial separation of the factors that contribute to athletic performance are proved to 
be inoperative. 
•Understood as the 
positioning of the 
players 
•Understood as the 
general fitness 
levels 
•Understood as the 
execution of given 
technique 
•Understood as the 
behavior of the 
players 
Technical Tactical 
Psychological Physical 
Graphic 1 - "Old football training divisions" 
TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY

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TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY

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  • 3. TACTICAL 1 PERIODIZATION RAÚL OLIVEIRA TACTICAL PERIODIZATION THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY © 2014 TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
  • 4. TACTICAL 2 PERIODIZATION TACTICAL PERIODIZATION EXPLAINED IN SIMPLE TERMS SO THAT ALL COACHES MAY HAVE ACCESS TO THE TRAINING METHOD USED BY COACHES LIKE JOSÉ MOURINHO, ANDRÉ VILLAS-BOAS, CARLOS CARVALHAL, LEONARDO JARDIM, ETC... IN THIS FIRST BOOK YOU WILL GET THEORICAL INFORMATION THAT WILL GIVE YOU A STARTING POINT TO APPLY TACTICAL PERIODIZATION IN YOUR OWN TEAM. HOPE YOU ENJOY THE READING. RAÚL DANIEL CERQUEIRA OLIVEIRA, SOCCER COACH BORN IN PORTUGAL, IS CURRENTLY COACHING AT AL MESAIMEER SPORTS CLUB FROM DOHA IN QATAR (2014/15). PREVIOUSLY WORKED AT AL NASR SPORTS CLUB (DUBAI - UNITED ARAB EMIRATES) WHERE HE WORKED WITH SVEN-GORAN ERIKSSON, AMONG OTHERS. ALSO IN HIS PAST HE COLLABORATED WITH CLUBS SUCH AS FUTEBOL CLUBE DO PORTO (PORTUGAL), DEFENSOR SPORTING CLUB AND CLUB NACIONAL DE FOOTBALL (URUGUAY). WEBSITE: WWW.RAUL-OLIVEIRA.WEBNODE.PT ABOUT THE AUTHOR: TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
  • 5. TACTICAL 3 PERIODIZATION Index 1 - Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 5 2 - Important Organization Phases on Soccer Training Process .................................................................. 10 2.1 - Programming in Soccer ............................................................................................................... 13 2.2 - Periodization in Soccer ............................................................................................................... 14 2.3 - Tactical-Strategic Planning in Soccer......................................................................................... 19 3 - So what do you mean by "Tactical Periodization"? ................................................................................. 23 4 -The Model of Pay ...................................................................................................................................... 29 5- Methodological Principles of Tactical Periodization ................................................................................. 33 5.1 - Principle of specificity ................................................................................................................ 34 5.2 - Principle of horizontal “sequential training” in specificity ......................................................... 36 5.3 - Principle of "disassembly" the game and hierarchical organization of the principles of play . 38 5.4 - Principle of Complex Progression .............................................................................................. 40 5.5 - Principle of Propensities ............................................................................................................. 41 5.6 - Principle of intensity and focus decision-making ...................................................................... 42 5.7- Principle of Guided Discovery ..................................................................................................... 44 5.8 - Principle of Performance Stabilization ...................................................................................... 46 6- The Model of Training ............................................................................................................................... 49 7 - The Pattern Microcycle ........................................................................................................................... 53 7.1 - Day 1 (Monday): Passive Recovery ............................................................................................... 55 7.2 - Day 2 (Tuesday): Active Recovery .............................................................................................. 56 7.3 - Day 3 (Wednesday): Medium fraction of the “play” .................................................................... 58 7.4 - Day 4 (Thursday): Large fraction of the “play”. Complex dynamic of the “play”. ....................... 59 TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
  • 6. TACTICAL 4 PERIODIZATION 7.5 - Day 5 (Friday): Small fraction of the “play” ............................................................................... 60 7.6 - Day 6 (Saturday): Predisposition for the game.......................................................................... 62 8 - Usual Mistakes When Applying Tactical Periodization ............................................................................. 67 8.1 - Ambiguous Model of Play ............................................................................................................. 68 8.2 - Non detailed planning ................................................................................................................. 69 8.3 - General Feedback ....................................................................................................................... 70 8.4 - Incorrect progression in the principles of play ......................................................................... 72 8.5 - Misuse of game situation in the training .................................................................................... 72 8.6 - Excess of interest in the timings of exercitation, volumes and intensities ................................ 73 8.7 - Lost of leadership when not based in technical competence ..................................................... 74 8.8 - Training monotony and low focus levels .................................................................................... 75 8.9 - Training exercises and not principles of play ............................................................................ 76 8.10 - Bad control over the evolution of the training ...........................................................................77 9 - Final Notes .............................................................................................................................................. 78 10 - Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................ 81 Extra - Interview with Vitor Frade the creator and developer of Tactical Periodization Method ................. 85 TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
  • 7. TACTICAL 5 PERIODIZATION 1 - Introduction heard of physical breaks and soon I found myself thinking that my crusade is going to be really hard. I just cannot make people realize that this does not exist. "I Being in shape is not physical. Being in shape is much more than that. The physical is the least important in the scope of sports shape. Without organization and talent in the operation of a model of play, deficiencies are explicit, but they have little to do with the physical shape. And our commentators / reporters, as almost always, continue to negatively influence the opinion of those who, in their homes, need to be guided in their absorption capacity or understanding of the game. " José Mourinho (2005) ootball requires the adoption of a philosophy by those who have greater responsibility in leading the team. This philosophy of the play, and therefore, of training "F requires a logical chain of the process evolution in which the concept of specificity will have to be present. There is the need that everything is connected, forming a very specific reality that in its essence is already very complex - the model of play " Guilherme Oliveira (1991) TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
  • 8. TACTICAL 6 PERIODIZATION Soccer is a sport with many specific characteristics that make it a sport whose training should be carefully planned and analyzed. The game of football is born and raised in the nature of the confrontation between two complex systems, two teams, and it is characterized by the alternation of successive states of order and disorder, stability and instability, uniformity and variety (Garganta, 2001). As such, there are a number of steps that a coach should go through to prepare his team for the competition as best as possible (Oliveira, 2005). Quinta (2003) stated that "there is little soccer training and, and when it is done, it is carried out in a haphazard manner, without objectives, programs or schedules in the short, medium and long term. The teaching / coaching of soccer, in most cases, is done without a program and / or set methods, not stipulating the achievement of individual and collective goals, in other words, not looking for players and teams to achieve a given level or teaching them the best way to do this or that individual or collective tactical-technical action". Currently, soccer requires a specialization of different functions and tasks - from player to coach, from physician to physiotherapist, from the department head to the club president - by increasingly demanding this actors to improve in their skills and knowledge in both quantity and quality (Garganta, 2001). Tracking the need for specialization of soccer agents it has been registered a rising number of publications and "branches of sports training" aiming at a greater specialization and specificity in the approach of the soccer game. According to Garganta (2001) mainly from the eighties onwards, important initiatives were developed with the aim of systematizing knowledge in soccer, which resulted in the organization of congresses, at European and global level, and the increase in soccer publications. TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
  • 9. TACTICAL 7 PERIODIZATION Over the last few seasons a lot has been speculated about the current training methodologies in the national football leagues, largely because of the appearance of the "Mourinho phenomenon" that has brought with him methodologies for many people targeted as innovative and, specially, results of international quality. So the models concerning the indivisibility of factors in training and the need for a methodology of integrated training advocated by authors such as Queiroz (1986), Guilherme Oliveira (1991), Garganta (1995) and Castelo (2000) returned to be the highest level the "soccer discussion". The processes of planning, programming and periodization of training are now subject to frequent discussions and publications in the scientific environment and inclusive, or even mainly, in the media from all kinds of "experts" although, not always, in the correct way and with the necessary stringent. This is a term (integrated training) according to Losa et al. (2006) that is almost worn out from so much use, although almost always poorly, ambiguous and superfluously addressed. Poorly because the issue is not that you have to include perception, decision, etc.., But the fact that the stimuli, may be bigger or smaller, but should always be specific to the game. Ambiguous because one thing is training with the ball and other thing is soccer training, this are absolutely distinct realities. Finally, superfluous because the practice has always emerged and will emerge from prior deeply organized theory, and in this case almost always the proposal was directly practical. According to Oliveira et al. (2006) as it is usually used the integrated training does not truly break the logic of "standard practice". The "training with ball" serves only as a mean of simulating the physical training, and not as an imperative to the building up of the model of play and the principles of play that the coach wants for the team. TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
  • 10. TACTICAL 8 PERIODIZATION Guilherme Oliveira (2003) states that before any other task, the coach must introspect about his soccer ideas. From this self-reflection it should "be born" clear ideas of how we want "our" team to play, covering from the general to the most particular aspects. Soccer is considered as a highly tactical sport (Teodurescu, 1984; Meinel y Scnabell, 1988; Deleplace, 1994). Considering that soccer can provide some regularity within its own extreme complexity and randomness, the coach is required to modeling a game style (Fernandes, 2003). Before the definition of a methodology or any "type" training the coach should have a clearly defined style of play. Guilherme Oliveira (2003) • The model of play is an idea / conjecture of game consisted of principles, sub-principles, sub-sub-principles... representing the different stages / phases of the game, which hang together, manifesting on its own a functional organization, or an identity. This model, as a true model, it is always assumed as a conjecture and is permanently open to individual and collective additions, so it is in permanent construction, it is never, nor will it be a given object. The final model is always unattainable, because it is always under evolving reconstruction. Mourinho (2001) states that the training process should always be an "exponent of the principle of specificity. Specificity / model of play and not just a specificity / soccer". According to Castelo (2000) soccer training can be defined as "an educational process that aims to develop the technical, tactical, physical and psychological capacities of players and teams in the specific context of competitive situations through systematic and planned practice exercises, guided by principles and rules substantiated on scientific knowledge." TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY
  • 11. TACTICAL 9 PERIODIZATION Correct training methodology should be, according to Mourinho (2002), "geared to large targets where there is a close relationship between the training model and the model of play in which the players, to understand the training model have to understand the playing model." Still on the subject Losa et al. (2006) argue that when it comes to technical-tactical, technical-physical training and so on... it comes to joining or add things or parts, that for such, had to be separated in advance. Therein lies the basic error of the conventional planning. Garganta et al. (1996) refers equally, that football is a multidimensional phenomenon and therefore irreducible to any of the dimensions of performance that contribute to its expression. When referring to the integrated training, Losa et al. (2006) address the training to the theory of dynamical systems, that is, to say that the whole is more than the simple sum of the parts because, as mentioned by Garganta (2001), in highly complex systems operating in random environments, as those which exist in a soccer game, the artificial separation of the factors that contribute to athletic performance are proved to be inoperative. •Understood as the positioning of the players •Understood as the general fitness levels •Understood as the execution of given technique •Understood as the behavior of the players Technical Tactical Psychological Physical Graphic 1 - "Old football training divisions" TACTICAL PERIODIZATION - THE SECRETS OF SOCCER MOST EFFECTIVE TRAINING METHODOLOGY