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SPRINT MECHANICS:
WHAT TO LOOK FOR & HOW TO
EFFECTIVELY MAKE CHANGES!
Mike Young, PhD
HPC - Athletic Lab
Cary, NC
@mikeyou...
•General Concepts of Sprinting
•Motor Learning Fundamentals
•Optimizing Acceleration Mechanics
•OptimizingTransition Mecha...
GENERAL
CONCEPTS OF
SPRINTING
by
Hugo Faasta
BACK SIDE MECHANICS
Refers to the
motions of the swing
leg that occurs
BEHIND the body
FRONT SIDE MECHANICS
Refers to the
motions of the swing
leg that occurs IN
FRONT of the body
ACCELERATION
CHARACTERISTICS
• Velocity @10m: ~8.2 m/s!
• Ground ContactTime: ~0.17 sec!
• Height of foot @ 1st step: 12-3...
*MaximalVelocity: ~12.8 m/s!
!
!
*Ground ContactTime: ~0.08 sec!
*40-45 steps for sub 9.80 100m
*Stride Frequency: ~5 Hz!
...
KINETIC PARAMETERS
• Ground reaction forces
approaching 5x bodyweight!
• Muscle forces in excess of
7x bodyweight
Sprinting 101
Small Mass
+
Big Force
+
Right Direction
+
Minimal Time
Run Faster
• To increase running speed an athlete must increase force to
the ground in the appropriate direction and do so over
incre...
Horizontal vsVertical Propulsive Forces....!
and why you don’t have to pick a side
VERTICAL FORCE
MATTERS…
Rela%onships,among,jumping,performances,and,sprint,parameters,
during,maximum,speed,phase,in,sprin...
from Strength & Conditioning Research
…BUT SO DOES
HORIZONTAL FORCE
THE LEG AS A SWINGING
SPRING
• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring
• Momentum is developed during acceleration
• Body will move at...
• Increased vertical force
produces:!
• Greater displacement!
• Stiffer spring!
• Better maintenance of
momentum
VERTICAL ...
Vertical
Displacement?
The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal
curve when viewed in the sagittal plane
COM reaches apex i...
Vertical force production is
the key component of top-end
speed and that in turn
influences the ability to
maintain a slig...
Charlie Francis
To go faster, you need
more force. The more
force you apply, the
higher you will rise off
the ground.
Better sprinters may
appear to bounce
In reality, flight times are similar and
ground contact times are shorter
• Stride frequency is comprised of two components: !
1. Ground contact time !
2. Flight time!
• The best sprinters spend l...
The benefit of greater force application is two-fold:!
• Increased stride length • Increased stride frequency
STRIDE LENGTH...
To run faster there is only ONE solution
Apply More Mass
Specific Force to
the Ground!
Motor
Learning
Sprinting is an extremely complex motor task
involving repeated rapid ‘switching on and off’
of practically every muscle i...
Dr. Ralph Mann
Sprinting fast is an
unnatural activity
Loren Seagrave
TRUE learning is
assessed by retention
Things to Consider
Intrinsic
vs.
Augmented feedback
Knowledge of results
vs.
Knowledge of performance
Novice
vs.
Expert
X
Internal vs External Cues
Feedback
Frequency
Clear.
Concise.
Concrete.
Accelerate like a
plane taking off
Elbow the short person
Hit the ground like
a sledge hammer
You’re running like
a hamster in a
spinning wheel
Make your legs
like pistons
Good Feedback is like Triage…
Don’t fix a hangnail before a heart attack
Optimizing
Mechanics
General Sprinting
Mechanics
•Better sprinters are front-side
dominant
•Better sprinters have shorter
contact times
•Full extension neither needed
nor ...
POS TU URE
The first most
important
aspect of speed
is posture.
TomTellez
Posture is like the mast and rudder for the limbs
Posture
Trunk Erect
Head Level
Hips Tall
Posture
• Movements of the limbs
originate from the core of
the body!
• Proper stabilization and
alignment of the core
ensures app...
PELVIC TILT
Posterior Tilt = less
hamstring tension,
more QFM tension!
Anterior Tilt = more
hamstring tension, less
QFM te...
Acceleration:
What to See.
What to Say.
What to See
• Big split of arms & legs
• Forward lean (from the ankles)
• Neutral postural alignment
pushing through long ...
What to Say
• “Knees to chest”
• “Shade the sun”
• “Feel the feet behind you”
• “Push the ground away”
• “Legs like piston...
Transition:WhatToSee.WhattoSay.
What to See
• Continued progression of
body angles
• Preservation of posture
• Gradual changes in limb
movement magnitude
...
What to Say
• “Push yourself tall”
• “Tuck the hips”
• “Cheek to cheek”
• “Step over the ankle, step
over the calf, step o...
Top Speed: What To See. What To Say.
EFFECTIVE GROUND
CONTACT POSITION
What to See
• Upright posture
• Powerful & dynamic arm swing (not
locked at 90 deg)
• High knee recovery
• Front side domi...
What to Say
• “Balance a bowl on your head”
• “Slam the elbows down”
• “Step over the knee”
• “Feel everything in front”
•...
Creating a learning
environment
Creating a learning
environment
Try to coach without “coaching” by
creating an environment that
facilitates motor learning...
Block Serial Random
Falling Start! Falling Start! Crouch Start
Falling Start! Crouch Start Falling Start!
Falling Start! S...
Practice Variability?
Increasing Variability Enhances Learning
Surface
Weather
Block position
Gun vs Clap
Alone or with pa...
FRAMEWORK FOR SKILL
ACQUISITION
Contextual Interference
Movement
& Task
Variability
Low Practice
Variability
Beginners
Exp...
Use Tools And
environments
that facilitate
learning
SPRINTING IS A SKILL
SPRINTING FASTER IS THE RESULT OF PUTTING MORE FORCE IN
TO THE GROUND AT AS LITTLE BODY MASS AS POSSI...
@MIKEYOUNG!
ATHLETICLAB.COM!
ELITETRACK.COM!
FITFORFUTBOL.COM!
HPCSPORT.COM!
SLIDESHARE.NET/HPCSPORT!
THANKS
Coaching Sprint Mechanics. What to look for. What to say.
Coaching Sprint Mechanics. What to look for. What to say.
Coaching Sprint Mechanics. What to look for. What to say.
Coaching Sprint Mechanics. What to look for. What to say.
Coaching Sprint Mechanics. What to look for. What to say.
Coaching Sprint Mechanics. What to look for. What to say.
Coaching Sprint Mechanics. What to look for. What to say.
Coaching Sprint Mechanics. What to look for. What to say.
Coaching Sprint Mechanics. What to look for. What to say.
Coaching Sprint Mechanics. What to look for. What to say.
Coaching Sprint Mechanics. What to look for. What to say.
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Coaching Sprint Mechanics. What to look for. What to say.

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This is Dr. Mike Young's presentation from the 2014 Midwest Speed Summit. Dr. Young is the owner and Director of Performance at Athletic Lab sports performance training center and has coached multiple national champions in Track & Field along with working with some of the fastest athletes in soccer, football and baseball. This presentation focuses on applied sprinting mechanics and how coaches can best make technical changes. The presentation uses biomechanics and motor learning concepts and relates them to coaching the sprints.

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Transcript of "Coaching Sprint Mechanics. What to look for. What to say. "

  1. 1. SPRINT MECHANICS: WHAT TO LOOK FOR & HOW TO EFFECTIVELY MAKE CHANGES! Mike Young, PhD HPC - Athletic Lab Cary, NC @mikeyoung #speedsummit
  2. 2. •General Concepts of Sprinting •Motor Learning Fundamentals •Optimizing Acceleration Mechanics •OptimizingTransition Mechanics •Optimizing MaxV Speed Mechanics •Take Home Points
  3. 3. GENERAL CONCEPTS OF SPRINTING by Hugo Faasta
  4. 4. BACK SIDE MECHANICS Refers to the motions of the swing leg that occurs BEHIND the body
  5. 5. FRONT SIDE MECHANICS Refers to the motions of the swing leg that occurs IN FRONT of the body
  6. 6. ACCELERATION CHARACTERISTICS • Velocity @10m: ~8.2 m/s! • Ground ContactTime: ~0.17 sec! • Height of foot @ 1st step: 12-30cm! • Stride Frequency: 3.6-4 Hz! • Stride Lengths: ~1.5m first step
  7. 7. *MaximalVelocity: ~12.8 m/s! ! ! *Ground ContactTime: ~0.08 sec! *40-45 steps for sub 9.80 100m *Stride Frequency: ~5 Hz! ! ! *StrideVelocity: ~300 deg / sec! *Stride Lengths: 2.25-2.7m MAXIMALVELOCITY CHARACTERISTICS
  8. 8. KINETIC PARAMETERS • Ground reaction forces approaching 5x bodyweight! • Muscle forces in excess of 7x bodyweight
  9. 9. Sprinting 101 Small Mass + Big Force + Right Direction + Minimal Time Run Faster
  10. 10. • To increase running speed an athlete must increase force to the ground in the appropriate direction and do so over increasingly shorter periods of time! • Minimize horizontal braking forces*! • Increase propulsive forces FORCE DEVELOPMENT & SPRINTING
  11. 11. Horizontal vsVertical Propulsive Forces....! and why you don’t have to pick a side
  12. 12. VERTICAL FORCE MATTERS… Rela%onships,among,jumping,performances,and,sprint,parameters, during,maximum,speed,phase,in,sprinters,,by,Kale,,Asci,,Bayrak,and, Acikada,,in,Journal,of,Strength,and,Condi%oning,Research,,2009!
  13. 13. from Strength & Conditioning Research …BUT SO DOES HORIZONTAL FORCE
  14. 14. THE LEG AS A SWINGING SPRING
  15. 15. • Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring • Momentum is developed during acceleration • Body will move at same rate unless acted on by unbalanced forces • Two external forces will cause deceleration • Leg stiffness increases vertical impulse, shortens ground contact and increases elastic return INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS
  16. 16. • Increased vertical force produces:! • Greater displacement! • Stiffer spring! • Better maintenance of momentum VERTICAL FORCE PRODUCTION
  17. 17. Vertical Displacement? The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal curve when viewed in the sagittal plane COM reaches apex in flight COM low point during support
  18. 18. Vertical force production is the key component of top-end speed and that in turn influences the ability to maintain a slight increase in stride length and stride frequency Dan Pfaff
  19. 19. Charlie Francis To go faster, you need more force. The more force you apply, the higher you will rise off the ground.
  20. 20. Better sprinters may appear to bounce In reality, flight times are similar and ground contact times are shorter
  21. 21. • Stride frequency is comprised of two components: ! 1. Ground contact time ! 2. Flight time! • The best sprinters spend less time on the ground ! ◦ Greater frequency MORE SPRINT MATH
  22. 22. The benefit of greater force application is two-fold:! • Increased stride length • Increased stride frequency STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCY
  23. 23. To run faster there is only ONE solution
  24. 24. Apply More Mass Specific Force to the Ground!
  25. 25. Motor Learning
  26. 26. Sprinting is an extremely complex motor task involving repeated rapid ‘switching on and off’ of practically every muscle in the body
  27. 27. Dr. Ralph Mann Sprinting fast is an unnatural activity
  28. 28. Loren Seagrave
  29. 29. TRUE learning is assessed by retention
  30. 30. Things to Consider Intrinsic vs. Augmented feedback Knowledge of results vs. Knowledge of performance Novice vs. Expert
  31. 31. X
  32. 32. Internal vs External Cues
  33. 33. Feedback Frequency
  34. 34. Clear. Concise. Concrete.
  35. 35. Accelerate like a plane taking off
  36. 36. Elbow the short person
  37. 37. Hit the ground like a sledge hammer
  38. 38. You’re running like a hamster in a spinning wheel
  39. 39. Make your legs like pistons
  40. 40. Good Feedback is like Triage… Don’t fix a hangnail before a heart attack
  41. 41. Optimizing Mechanics
  42. 42. General Sprinting Mechanics
  43. 43. •Better sprinters are front-side dominant •Better sprinters have shorter contact times •Full extension neither needed nor beneficial •Ideal touchdown characterized by swing knee even with support knee
  44. 44. POS TU URE
  45. 45. The first most important aspect of speed is posture. TomTellez
  46. 46. Posture is like the mast and rudder for the limbs
  47. 47. Posture Trunk Erect Head Level Hips Tall Posture
  48. 48. • Movements of the limbs originate from the core of the body! • Proper stabilization and alignment of the core ensures appropriate movements of the limbs POSTURE
  49. 49. PELVIC TILT Posterior Tilt = less hamstring tension, more QFM tension! Anterior Tilt = more hamstring tension, less QFM tension
  50. 50. Acceleration: What to See. What to Say.
  51. 51. What to See • Big split of arms & legs • Forward lean (from the ankles) • Neutral postural alignment pushing through long axis of body • ‘Complete’ pushes & triple extension • Low heel recovery • Gradual progression of body angles
  52. 52. What to Say • “Knees to chest” • “Shade the sun” • “Feel the feet behind you” • “Push the ground away” • “Legs like pistons” • “Push, Push, PUSH!” • “Drag the toe” (even though you don’t want them to) • “Step over the ankle” • “Push yourself up”
  53. 53. Transition:WhatToSee.WhattoSay.
  54. 54. What to See • Continued progression of body angles • Preservation of posture • Gradual changes in limb movement magnitude • Progressively higher heel recovery during swing phase
  55. 55. What to Say • “Push yourself tall” • “Tuck the hips” • “Cheek to cheek” • “Step over the ankle, step over the calf, step over the heel”
  56. 56. Top Speed: What To See. What To Say.
  57. 57. EFFECTIVE GROUND CONTACT POSITION
  58. 58. What to See • Upright posture • Powerful & dynamic arm swing (not locked at 90 deg) • High knee recovery • Front side dominance • Relaxation in face, shoulders, hands • Foot contact under the hips • ~Vertical shin angle at GCT • Pre-activation prior to contact
  59. 59. What to Say • “Balance a bowl on your head” • “Slam the elbows down” • “Step over the knee” • “Feel everything in front” • “Imaging you have a rubber band from you heel to your butt” • “Make your eyelids jiggle” • “Run tall and bounce” • “Push up” ….or “Push down” • “Be a super bouncy ball”
  60. 60. Creating a learning environment
  61. 61. Creating a learning environment Try to coach without “coaching” by creating an environment that facilitates motor learning Create contextual interference by varying trial type & order Tools & specific environments can make motor patterns idiot proof
  62. 62. Block Serial Random Falling Start! Falling Start! Crouch Start Falling Start! Crouch Start Falling Start! Falling Start! Starting Blocks Crouch Start Falling Start! Falling Start! Starting Blocks Crouch Start Crouch Start Falling Start! Crouch Start Starting Blocks Starting Blocks Crouch Start Falling Start! Crouch Start Crouch Start Crouch Start Falling Start! Starting Blocks Starting Blocks Starting Blocks Starting Blocks Falling Start! Crouch Start Starting Blocks Crouch Start Starting Blocks Starting Blocks Starting Blocks Falling Start! Increase Contextual Interference to Enhance Skill Acquisition
  63. 63. Practice Variability? Increasing Variability Enhances Learning Surface Weather Block position Gun vs Clap Alone or with partner
  64. 64. FRAMEWORK FOR SKILL ACQUISITION Contextual Interference Movement & Task Variability Low Practice Variability Beginners Experts Intermediate High Practice Variability Low Contextual Interference High Contextual Interference Wu, 2008
  65. 65. Use Tools And environments that facilitate learning
  66. 66. SPRINTING IS A SKILL SPRINTING FASTER IS THE RESULT OF PUTTING MORE FORCE IN TO THE GROUND AT AS LITTLE BODY MASS AS POSSIBLE BETTER PRACTICE DESIGN IMPROVES SKILL ACQUISITION WHICH ALLOWS MOVEMENT TO BE AUTOMATIC, REFLEXIVE & EFFICIENT THE WAY A MESSAGE IS DELIVERED IS JUST AS IMPORTANT AS THE MESSAGE UNDERSTAND THE BASICS OF MOTOR LEARNING BEST PRACTICES
  67. 67. @MIKEYOUNG! ATHLETICLAB.COM! ELITETRACK.COM! FITFORFUTBOL.COM! HPCSPORT.COM! SLIDESHARE.NET/HPCSPORT! THANKS
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