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Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice
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Politics, markets and schools: education policy and social (in)justice

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Presentation at the University of Leicester School of Education Social Justice Research Group. 20th May 2013.

Presentation at the University of Leicester School of Education Social Justice Research Group. 20th May 2013.

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  • 1. Monday, May 20, 2013 1Event Name and VenuePolitics, markets and schoolsEducation policy and social (in)justiceUniversity of Leicester 20thMay 2013Howard StevensonSchool of Education, University of Nottinghamhoward.stevenson@nottingham.ac.uk
  • 2. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 2An exercise in policy analysis . . .Understanding where we are . . .. . . and where we might be going . . .. . . by understanding where we have come from
  • 3. Post-war welfarism and citizenshipPost-war welfarism and citizenshipIn contrast to the economic process, it is a fundamental principle of thewelfare state that the market value of an individual cannot be the measureof his [sic] right to welfare. The central function of welfare, in fact, is tosupersede the market by taking goods and services out of it, or in some wayto control and modify its operations so as to produce a result that it wouldnot have produced itself.(Marshall, 1981:107, original 1950)
  • 4. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 4F A Hayek and the battle of ideas . . .If in the long run we are the makers of our own fate, in the short runwe are the captives of the ideas we have created.Hayek, 1994:2
  • 5. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 5‘. . . if we take the people whose views influence developments,they are now in this country in some measure all socialists. If it isno longer fashionable to emphasise that “we are all socialists now”,this is so merely because the fact is too obvious. Scarcely anybodydoubts that we must continue to move towards socialism, and mostpeople are merely trying to deflect this movement in the interest ofa particular class or group.It is because nearly everybody wants it that we are moving in thisdirection. There are no objective facts that make it inevitable.’Hayek, 1944:5
  • 6. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 6Hayek – The Road to Serfdom (1944)‘Freedom’ is the objective (freedom from . . .).Competition is the key – the market.State involvement necessary – but only where it supportscompetition and not where it supplants it.The state has a natural tendency to grow . . . – opens the door toproducer/political/vested interests . . .The state is a threat to democracy, liberty, rule of law‘ . . . the Road to Freedom was in fact theHigh Road to Servitude.’ (p27)
  • 7. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 7Friedman – Free to Choose (1980)‘A very different meaning of equality has emerged in the UnitedStates in recent decades – equality of outcome. Everyone shouldhave the same level of living, or of income, should finish the race atthe same time. Equality of outcome is in clear conflict with liberty.The attempt to promote it has been a major source of bigger andbigger government and of government-imposed restrictions on ourliberty.’ (p120)
  • 8. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 8Friedman – What’s wrong with ourschools? (in Free to Choose,1980)‘For schooling, this sickness has taken the form of denying manyparents control over the kinds of schooling their children receiveeither directly, through choosing and paying for the schools theirchildren attend, or indirectly through local political activity. Powerhas instead gravitated to professional educators. The sickness hasbeen aggravated by increasing centralization and bureaucratizationof schools, especially in the big cities.’ (p141-2)
  • 9. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 9Chubb and Moe – Politics, Markets andAmerica’s Schools (1990)Economic crisis as the catalyst for change – ‘From an economicstandpoint, America clearly needed better – and more rigorous-education. But beyond that it also needed education of a differentkind’ (p9)‘When it comes to educational decisionmaking, particularly at thestate and local levels where effective authority resides, the mostpowerful political groups by far are those with vested interests inthe current institutional system: teachers’ unions and myriadassociations of principals, school boards, superintendents,administrators and professionals – not to mention educationschools, book publishers, testing services, and many otherbeneficiaries of the institutional status quo.’ (p11-12).
  • 10. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 10Adam Smith Institute on ‘ProducerCapture’‘Education has proved easier for the producers (teacher andadministrators) to capture than other industries, partly because itsshortcomings can be disguised by jargon. The school with poorexamination results can claim that knowledgeable educationalistsnowadays hold ‘school spirit’ or ‘awareness’ more important. Althoughthe consumers (parents and children) demand examination passes andother measureable achievements from their schools, educationproducers are able to argue that they, as ‘professionals’, knowbetter . . . .’ (Omega Report, 1980)
  • 11. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 11The New Right analysisThe Causes . . .•‘Big government’ – tendency togrowth•‘Politics’ and political decision-making•Producer interests•Lack of incentives•Lack of sanctionsAnd Cures . . .• Quasi-markets• ‘Choice’• Vouchers• Entry and exit to market• Union marginalisation• Privatisation
  • 12. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 12Crisis? What (kind of) crisis?From the Right . . .• Social and moral crisis (Black Papers)• ‘Big government’ crisis (Bacon and Eltis, 1976 - ‘too fewproducers’)From the Left . . .• Fiscal Crisis of the State (O’Connor,1973)• Organic crisis (Hall, 1980; Gamble 1988)From the Social Democrats/Centre Left . . .• ????
  • 13. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 13Thatcherism – The Free Economy andthe Strong State (Gamble, 1988)‘Thatcherism has been widely interpreted as a hegemonic project,aiming at the replacement of the discredited social democraticconsensus of the postwar period with a new consensus for the1990s. At first it signified especially an intense ideological struggle,but it also involved from the first political calculation aimed atwinning and maintaining support, as well as a programme ofpolicies for reorganising the state, improving economicperformance and reversing British decline.’ (p24)
  • 14. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 141987 Conference Speech(Education contribution at 13’45”)
  • 15. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 15Educating the ‘Right’ Way (Apple,2006)The Conservative modernisers . . . a hegemonic alliance:•Neo-liberals•Neo-Conservatives•Religious Right•New Managerialists‘The assumption that individual freedoms are guaranteed byfreedom of the market and of trade is a cardinal feature of neo-liberal thinking . . . The freedoms it embodies reflect interests ofprivate property owners, businesses, multinational corporationsand financial capital.’ (Harvey, 2005:7)
  • 16. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 16The1988 Education Reform Act - fromtheory . . . to policy . . . to practice . . . ?• National curriculum• Testing – 7, 11, 14, 16• Open Enrolment• Local Management of Schools• Grant-maintained Schools (‘opting out’) /City TechnologyColleges‘ …a subtle set of linked measures are to be relied on to have the desiredeffect – that is to push the whole system towards a degree at least, ofprivatisation, establishing a base which could be further exploitedlater.’Simon (1987:13)
  • 17. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 17Comprehensive values•Student needs•Universalism•Mixed ability•Co-operation with other schools•Resource emphasis on ‘lessable’/SEN students•Caring ethos•Priority on social/educational concerns•Oriented to needs of community•Integrationist•Good relationships as basis of schooldiscipline•Distinctive(Gewirtz, 2002)Market values• Student performance• Differentiation• Setting• Competition with other schools• Resource emphasis on ‘moreable’• Academic ethos• Priority driven by image/budgetconcerns• Oriented to attracting ‘motivated’parents• Exclusivist• Emphasis on extrinsic disciplineeg uniform• Emulative
  • 18. The return of the New Right . . ."The structural change is weve got to bust open the state monopoly oneducation and allow new schools to be established. Its whatshappened in Sweden, in parts of America its hugely successful interms of making sure theres excellence, theres competition, theresinnovation and new excellent schools come along. Its a big chance. Itwill mean some big battles with forces of resistance. Some LEAs mightnot like it, some of the education establishment wont like it.”“There are forces in the education establishment that have to be takenon and defeated on this.”David Cameron, Daily Telegraph interview (6/2/2009)
  • 19. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 19Michael Gove – speech to the National College forTeaching and Leadership (April 2013)
  • 20. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 20The Producers 1: The new localauthorities . . .what does this market look like? what is the shape of it? as it startsto clump together .. and how many groupings of schools are wegetting .. and should we play a role and how should we play a rolein encouraging schools to actually group together .. and make theways that they intended in meeting out those other options .. andwhat would be our kind of market .. and I don’t want to sayregulated .. because I don’t think that it is that - market shaper oran influencer .. where we are .. you know very clearly .. in the roleas a champion for children not for institutions.(Local Authority Officer, interview 2012)
  • 21. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 21The Producers 2: The new teachers . . .• Schools Direct teacher training• QTS de-regulation• Alternative credentialing eg Teach First• ‘New Leaders’ eg Future Leaders• Performance-pay – ‘rewarding the best’• Professional ‘voice’ – non-unionised (Royal College ofTeachers, Edapt)• Easier routes into, and out of, teachingTeaching as a job . . . not a profession or a career.
  • 22. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 22The Producers 3: The new academics . . .• Reduced role in teacher education• Politicised evaluation research• Increased influence of private research bodies and think tanks(see common personnel between DfE and Teach First)• ‘Academic capitalism’ (Slaughter and Leslie, 1999) and thethreat to academic freedom• Policy entrepreneurs and ‘the rest’
  • 23. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 23The Post-Welfarist Education PolicyComplex . . .. . . functions as a powerful disciplinary mechanism of re-acculturation and how processes of re-acculturation appear to begenerating various forms of oppression and injustice, including thereproduction and exacerbation of entrenched socio-economicinequalities, the subjugation of teachers, a closer alignment ofschooling with the values of capitalist society, and a move towardsmore traditional and socially regressive pedagogies.Gewirtz, 2002:22
  • 24. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 24Politics, markets, schools and social(in)justice. . .What kind of citizen in what type of society?What are the implications for . . . ?•Distributive justice•Cultural justice•Associational justice(Cribb and Gewirtz, 2003)
  • 25. Monday, May 20, 2013 Event Name and Venue 25The dictatorship of no alternativecannot be overthrown withoutideas . . .(Fielding and Moss, 2011)

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