Other interviewees brought up how easy and fun these events are—for the organizers and the customers—and thus, their appeal. For the charity organizers, they can contract with a company to do most of the work, or at least put in the capital and assume all of the risk as one interviewee noted, so it is relatively easy. The events can also be a fun way for organizers to contribute time to the campaign as noted by one interviewee (#1). For the jewelry sale, several staff from Human Resources, including the HR director, and students volunteered. Underlying these reasons for doing CRM as part of the campaign seemed to be the notions that no one has to make an “ask” in this type of fundraising and people who participate are gaining something out of the transaction—there are doing more than just giving.
Social enterprise slides2
Refusing the Market II:From Marketization toDemocratic Discourse & Beyond?Angela M. EikenberrySchool of Public AdministrationUniversity of Nebraska at Omaha
“Doing something wonderful never tasted so good!”– Sweet Charity CupcakesSprinkles’ Cupcakes for Charity
Impact of Marketization onNonprofit/Voluntary Orgs1. Need for nonprofits (and consumption) to “replace”government in the provision of public goods.2. Pressures on nonprofits to take on market-likeapproaches to gain funding.3. Pervasive normative ideology surrounding market-based solutions and business-like models.4. Nonprofit and voluntary orgs increasingly look tomarket-like strategies to operate.• Commercial activities• Social enterprise• Cause-related marketing
Problems with Marketization• The ideology of the market is essentially anti-social, based on self-interest rather than disinterestor the public good (Anderson, 1990; Hjorth,2009).• The market erodes all social ties other than purelyeconomic ones and/or converts social relationshipsinto instrumental ones (Bull et al., 2010).• Marketization de-politicizes the public realmthrough economic and managerial discourses(Clarke, 2004; Curtis, 2008; Nickel, 2012; Dey &Steyeart, 2012).
Problems with Marketization forNonprofit/Voluntary OrgsCompromise diversity and pluralism perceived as makingvaluable contributions to society and democracy.
Problems with Marketization forNonprofit/Voluntary OrgsSocial enterprise:•Emphasize individual over collective—”messiah-like” figureof the social enterpreneur (Dey & Steyeart, 2010).•Introduces a de-politicized image of social change (Curtis,2008; Dey & Steyeart, 2010; Grenier, 2009; Nicholls, 2010).•Focus on symptoms rather than root causes (Edwards, 2008)
Problems with Marketization forNonprofit/Voluntary OrgsCause-Related Marketing:•Opportunity costs•Consumers have little incentive tounderstand impetus for the problembeing addressed through consumption.•Lulls people into a false sense of doinggood, even as they are potentially doingmore harm.•Individualizes solutions to collectiveproblems.•Makes virtuous action easy,thoughtless & self-satisfying.
If you just kind of go around and do “woah is me”and kind of do a pity party for all of the…I mean,there are many horrible things happening…thiscan be a bright spot for people. And my fivedollar bracelet I got… hey, I like it! And youknow that it went to help somebody as well as Iget a pretty bracelet out of the deal.(Interviewee #1, June 25, 2010)
Create Space for Democratic Discourse• Consider democratic values in strategy andoperations.• Cultivate more meaningful philanthropicrelationships with individuals.• Promote alternative discourses for/with fundersand volunteers.• Talk more about democracy and the publicsphere in classrooms.
Is Democratizing NPs & SEs Enough?Country Giving as% of GDPGov SocialExpend% of GDPGiniIndex% Children w/Income< 50% of MedianInfantMortalityUnited States 1.85 19.2 .38 20.6 6.8Canada 1.17 19.2 .32 15.1 5.3UnitedKingdom0.84 24.1 .34 10.1 5.1Australia 0.51 17.8 .34 11.8 5.0Netherlands 0.49 23.2 .29 11.5 4.9France 0.32 32.1 .29 7.6 3.6Germany 0.13 27.8 .30 16.3 3.9