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F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
F & b service introduction
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F & b service introduction

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introduction and complete notes of 1 sem hotel management student.

introduction and complete notes of 1 sem hotel management student.

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  • 1. FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE -IOBJECTIVES: To develop and perfect skills and techniques in the basic operational activities of foodand beverage service of Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner.Familiarization of Restaurant EquipmentMethod of cleaning and upkeep of silverArrangement of SideboardsLaying of Table LinenLay-out for various mealsFolding serviettes in various designsReceiving guests and taking ordersService of FoodService of Breakfast AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HOTEL AND FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRYHotel and other food service industries are part of the Hospitality Industry. HOSPITALITY INDUSTRYANCIENT DEFINITIONThe word “Hotel” is derived from the Latin word “hospitum” i.e. the halls in oldendays where guests were given hospitality, or in short the notion of hospitality can bedescribed as the sprit, practice, quality and an act of receiving and treating strangersand guest in warm, friendly and generous way without any consideration for thereward and / or return.MODERN DEFINITIONHospitality in the modern sense comprises of four characteristic features. 1. Is conferred by a host on a guest “a home away from home”. 2. It is interactive i.e. involving the coming together of a provider and receiver. 3. It comprises of a blend of tangible and in-tangible factors. 4. The host provides the guest’s a sense of security and psychological and physiological comfort. The four attributes, if put to practice; deliver the desired feeling of being “at home”.EVOLUTION OF HOTEL AND CATERING INDUSTRYThe industry came into being in other words started in the 6th century B.C. Theearliest forms of hotels were just large halls where travelers slept on the floor alongwith the animals on which they traveled and in India they were know as “Saraikhana” or “Dharmashala” and in the west they were know as “Inns”.Then changes in the mode of transport and travel i.e. with the invention of wheels,speed of travel increased with the development of vehicles. The industrial revolutionin England and other countries travel for business gradually started increasing andwith the growth of economy an increase in travel for recreation and meaningfulutilization of leisure and this created a yearning among people to travel beyond thetraditional boundaries.The early travelers all belonged to particular segment of the society i.e. either theywere the kings and nobles, the religious messengers, missionaries, traders and
  • 2. soldiers. The first class of people i.e. the kings and nobles traveled on horseback orcarriages and were usually entertained by people of their own class in palaces orcastles or mansions and were well fed. Monasteries provided shelters to the religiousorder while the soldiers were lodged in or tents. But the traders had to putthemselves up in places like “Serai khana” or “Inns” and it is they who helpeddevelop this particular sector because they had no other alternatives.Than with the improvement of roads and transport more and more people startedmoving around and then to provide accommodation and food for this increasingnumber of travelers, many more “Sarai khana” and “Inns” were set up along thefrequently traveled roads and pathways. Thus the “Sarai khana” and “Inn keeping”began its steady growth and became more popular. In earlier days husband and wifeteam normally ran these “Sarai khanas” or “Musafir khanas” or “Inns” and they justprovided basic necessities of shelter and food.WHAT IS A HOTEL?A hotel is defined as a place where a bonafide traveler can receive food and shelterprovided he is in a position to pay for it and is in fit condition to be received.The lead in hotel keeping was taken by the emerging nations of Europe speciallySwitzerland. It was in Europe that the birth of a n organized hotel industry tookplace in the shape of chalets and small hotels, which provided a variety of servicesthen the basic necessities and were mainly patronized by the aristocracy as the socalled upper class society.The City hotel in New York was the first building meant solely for use as a hotel, andit was built in the year 1794. And then later hotel began to be built all over theworld. In the year 1827 the Delmonico brothers who were immigrants fromSwitzerland opened a pastry shop and café in New York City, and is proved be achange for the better from the eateries of that era, and led to the opening of theirfirst restaurant a few years later. Thus the art of food service became recognized asthe part of dining experience(N.B. It is believed that in 1650 Mr. Pascal started the first catering establishment asCafé in Paris. Simultaneously coffee shop in London, Oxford, Cambridge). The bigboom in the hotel industry came in the 1920’s when the concept of chain hotels wasborn, under the stewardship of E.M Sattler.After the Second World War the hotel industry regained its prominence andregistered a steady growth. Of late, there has been a phenomenal growth in the hotelindustry particularly in those countries, which attract business travelers, andtourists in large numbers from all over the world. In 1950’s motel and internationalhotel chain a big boost to the industry. These chains either bought up smallerindividually owned properties, or their own hotels. Many individual hotel operatorsmerged with these international hotel chains as it increased their ability to copewith the growing competition.The expansion of cities all over the world and their rapid growth led to furtherdevelopment of the travel and hospitality industry. Restaurants of all kinds and hotelof various sizes and types mushroomed and the guest became used to a standardizedtype of service. Based on this standardization the hotel industry felt the need fortrained hoteliers and skilled professional to manage the various establishments andprovide services set to a predetermined standard. As the demand for skilledprofessional in all departments of hotels increased the need was felt for specializedtraining institutions. Today the level of training in the catering industry is highlyadvanced and specializedN.B. • Cesar Ritz and Auguste Escoffier popularized dinning in Europe • John Naisbitt predicted the advent of ethnic and specialty restaurant with professionally trained personnel to satisfy the consumer.
  • 3. TYPES OF CATERING ESTABLISHMENTWHAT IS A CATERING ESTABLISHMENTAn organization providing Food and Beverage is called a catering establishment.Catering establishments are broadly classified into primary catering establishmentand secondary catering establishment.PRIMARY CATERING ESTABLISHMENTHotel, Restaurants and fast food outlets, which are primarily concerned with theprovision of food and beverage as a main source of revenue, are called primarycatering establishment.SECONDARY CATERING ESTABLISHMENTIn this case the provision of food and beverage is a part of another business such aswelfare catering and industrial catering. TYPES OF CATERING ESTABLISHMENT Primary SecondaryHotel Restaurants Outdoors CateringBars& Pubs Popular Fast Food Catering Restaurants RestaurantsDepartmental Club Transport Welfare Industrial LeisureStore Catering Catering Catering Catering Linked Catering Airlines Railways Ship Surface cateringHOTELS: - The main purpose of hotels is to provide accommodation, which may ormay not include the service of food and beverage .A hotel may be a small family rununit providing a limited service in one restaurant, or a large luxury hotel providingservice through a number of outlets such as the coffee shop, room service, banquets,specialty restaurant, grill room, and cocktail bars. The service in these types ofhotels is usually personalized and the tariff is very high, as they generally cater topersons of a high social standing. Medium class hotels are similar to luxury hotels,though there surrounding are less luxurious and the facilities are not of the samestandard as those available in the luxury category.RESTAURANT: - They are of various standards .A specialty or an A gradedrestaurants; objective is the provision of food and beverage of a particular region.The food service and prices are often comparable to those similar restaurants in
  • 4. luxury hotels. They offer a wide choice from an elaborate menu and a very highquality of service.BARS & PUBS: - The idea is fairly new in India and borrowed from the concept ofpublic houses in England .The are geared to provide service of all types of alcoholwith an emphasis on draught beer and good music. Foods may also be served from alimited menu.POPULAR CATERING RESTAURANT: - The objective of popular catering restaurantis to provide a quick and economic meal, in a clean and standardized dining roomand is very popular among urban population of India. They are of various styles andcategories. Some restaurants serve only vegetarian food while some specialize in thefood of a particular region such as the Punjab or Andhra Pradesh etc.FAST FOOD RESTAURANT: - This is basically an American concept .The service offood & beverage is at a faster pace, than an “a la cart Restaurant” as the menu iscompiled with a special emphasis on the speed of preparation and service, and tomake this type of service financially viable, a large turnover of customers isnecessary .The investments is rather large due to the specialized and expensiveequipment needed and high labour costs involved.OUTDOOR CATERING: - This means catering to a large number of people at a venueof their choice. Hotels, restaurants and catering contractors meet this growingdemand .The types of food and set up depends entirely on the price agreed uponoutdoor catering includes catering for functions such as marriages parties andconvention.DEPARTMENTAL STORE CATERING: - Some departmental stores apart fromcarrying on their primary activity of retailing their own wares provide catering as anadditional facility. This type of catering evolved when large departmental storeswished to provide food and beverages to their customer’s as a part of there retailingconcept. It is in convenient and time consuming for customer to take a break fromshopping and have some refreshments at a different location. Thus arose the need ofsome sort of a dining facility in the departmental location. This style of catering isbecoming more popular and varied nowadays.CLUB CATERING: - This refers to the provision of food and beverage to a restrictedclientele. The origin of this service can be trace back to England where membershipof a club was considered prestigious. Today, in India there is a proliferation of clubsto suit different needs. Clubs for people with similar interests such as golf clubs andcricket clubs, to name a few, have sprung up. The service and food in these clubstend to be of a fairly good standard and are economically priced.NIGHTCLUBS: - are usually situated in large cities that have an affluent urbanpopulation. They offer entertainment with good food and expensive drinks.TRANSPORT CATERING: - The provision of food and beverages to passengers,before, during and after a journey on trains, aircraft, ships and in buses or privatevehicles is termed as transport catering.The major forms of modern day transport catering are airline catering, railwaycatering, ship catering and surface catering in coaches or buses, which operate onlong distance routes.
  • 5. AIRLINES CATERING: - Catering to airline passenger on flight as well as atrestaurants situated at airport is termed as airlines catering and catering topassengers en route is normally contracted out to a flight catering unit of a reputedhotel as to a catering contractor.Civil aviation progressed rapidly after 2nd World War when large number of surplus,D.C.-III, C-47 aircraft were available for disposal. From 1946 private commercialAirlines began with subsequent food requirement. Initially food was provided in boxespre-packed as the majority of aircraft where without facilities of in-flight cateringservices. The international carriers operating through India had no flight kitchen sothey were largely dependant on the Airport Restaurants or hotels situated in nearbycities to cater to their requirements.It was necessary to improve and to expand the kitchen service inside the airport toprovide passengers with a comfortable service along with the food within the cost ofthe Airline ticket.Several flight kitchens have been established in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata to copewith the needs of the International Carriers. Air India floated a subsidiary companywith a view to operate flight kitchen known as “CHEF -AIR” and also accommodatetravelers in five star category hotels at major airports (The Centaur Group of Hotels).Now a days several flight kitchens are being established near the major airports ofIndia such as, Taj Sats Airlines Catering, Oberoi’s Flight Kitchen, Ambassador SkyChef, Sky Gourmet, Chef Air which are catering to the various domestic andInternational Airlines.RAILWAY CATERING: - Catering to railway passengers both during the journey aswell as during halts at different railway station is called railway catering. Travelingby train for long distances can be very tiring; hence a constant supply of a verity ofrefreshment choice helps to make the journey less tedious.In the mid 19th century the railway network began in India with an operation the wasto grow the length and breadth of the vast sub-continent with travel made easier,people were transported from one part to another part of country.At most of the larger stations of the big cities refreshment rooms were established.The trains would halt to an appropriate length of time so that the passengers couldhave a light and simple meal.Third class passengers were unable to afford the luxury food eating in therefreshment room would avail themselves from the numerous venders on the stationplatforms.Railway companies even went to extent of the city hotels attached to the stations sothat the passengers who are changing from one region to another region could spendthe night before and after in relative comfort. The luxury of sleeping cars andrestaurant cars were a much later development.The present railway catering service is managed both departmentally and throughthe licensed contractors. Catering facilities are available 2995 stations in India andthe licensed contractors cater the most numbers. Recently the India TourismDevelopment Corporation (ITDC) has appointed consultant for the improvement ofrailway catering. In this new type of service the meals are served in a disposablealuminum foil casseroles. The foods are cooked in base kitchen (in major stations)and kept in hot cases in pantry cars.Indian railway also owns several railway city hotels at Ranchi, Puri, Howrah,Tatanagar, Cochi and Tiruvanantapuram.SHIP CATERING: - Voyages by sea were once a very popular mode of traveling, butwith the on set of air travel, sea voyages have declined sharply. However, recently ithas again become popular with a large number of people opting for pleasure cruises.Cargo and passenger ships have kitchens and restaurants on board .The equality of
  • 6. food, service and facilities offered depends on the class of the ship and the price, andthe passengers are willing to pay.These are cruises to suit every pocket. There are cruises of two to five days durationwhich offer budget accommodation comparable to a limited service hotel, whileluxury cruises of seven days to three months duration offer luxuries state rooms andvarious other facilities that are comparable to first class resort. Luxury cruisesprepares travelers with deluxe accommodation and attentive and specialized serviceat a very high provision.All these ships provide a verity of food and beverage service outlets, to cater to theindividual needs of the passengers. They range from room service and cocktail barsto specialty dining restaurants .The ships to specialty that caters to the cruisesectors today, are virtually floating palaces with every conceivable guest serviceavailable aboard them. This sector has been growing in popularity in recent times,and has become affordable to a large cross section of people.SURFACE CATERING: - Catering to passenger traveling by surface such as busesand private vehicles is called surface catering. These catering establishments arenormally located around a bus terminus or on a highway. They may be eithergovernment run restaurants, or privately owned establishments of late there hasbeen a growing popularity of Punjabi style catteries called Dhabas on the highways.WELFARE CATERING: - The provision of food and beverage to people to fulfill asocial need, determined by a recognized authority, is known as welfare catering. Thisgrew out of the welfare state concept, prevalent in western countries. It includescatering in hospitals, schools, colleges, the armed forces and prisons.INDUSTRIAL CATERING: - The provision of food and beverage to people at work, inindustries and factories at highly subsidized rates is called industrial catering .It isbased on the assumption that better fed employees are happy and more productive.Catering for a large work force may be undertaken by the management itself, or maybe contracted out to professional caters. Depending on the choice of menu suggestedby the management, catering contractors undertaken to face the workforce for afixed period of time at a predetermined price.LEISURE –LINKED CATERING: -This types of catering refer to the provision of foodand beverage to people engaged in leisure. This includes the provision of food andbeverage includes stalls and Kiosks at exhibition, theme parks, galleries andtheaters. ATTRIBUTES OF A WAITERABILITY TO OVERCOME RESISTANCE TO DO MENIAL OR MANUAL WORK: 1. For all the hotels staff menial jobs are part of their normal work. This follows from the fact that in this industry, service is of the utmost importance and hence everyone must involve himself in achieving that objective. This would mean that right from the general manager to the utility worker everyone is actually serving the guest in one way or the other. 2. To ensure a proper attitude to menial tasks, the trainer at times may himself have to do the work that the waiter does, to drive home the fact that at all levels manual work is done. 3. The waiter should be told of the importance of his job and made to realize that the hotel cannot run without the essential service that he provides.
  • 7. WILLINGNESS TO SERVE: 1. The waiter should be briefed about the tip system and show how a good service can fetch greater tips. At this stage emphasize the point that a guest gives lavish tips only when he is pleased with the service and the service can only be good when the waiter is willing to serve. 2. A waiter is a responsible of the hotel and his restaurant. He projects its image and is responsible for maintaining its high standards. On his attitude and action will depend the image of the hotel.CAPACITY TO TAKE ORDERS FROM SENIORS: The waiter should be made to feel that his supervisors have more authority andmaturity to guide him. He should also be told that without a proper line of authority,there would be utter chaos. The example of some of his seniors should guide him atthe job. He should be made to understand that he has lot to learn from theirknowledge, attitude and skill in tackling in their jobs. Moreover, it is his seniors whowill assess him and mould him and it is they who to a great extent determine hisfuture by recommending him for advancements in his job, promotion, transfer andraise in salary.CHEERFUL ATTITUDE TOWARDS WORK AND PEOPLE: 1. A cheerful attitude is an asset. It is infectious as one cheerful person spread cheer and goodwill wherever he goes. As a result the work atmosphere is pleasant and free of tension and overwork. 2. A cheerful attitude towards colleagues is an advantage because a waiter would be able to obtain the maximum co-operation and help from them. 3. Job satisfaction comes from which oneself and depends on one’s attitude towards one’s work. If one has a cheerful outlook any kind of work can seem worthwhile and interesting.CORDIAL RELATIONS WHILE INTERACTING WITH ALL: 1. One of the best ways to develop cordial relations and a team spirit is through group effort. Let the group set the goals. Show how much easier it becomes to resolve problems when everyone puts their head together. The phrase “ united we stand divided we fall” should be the motto. 2. Through team spirit and teamwork efficiency is increased. Increase in efficiency implies higher sales turnover, which implies more earning for everyone. 3. By maintaining cordial relations, one not only benefits financially but also personally. A good friendship is also an asset and is of great help during times of trouble.
  • 8. 4. Cordial relations with guests are also very important. A guest who is pleased with the friendly atmosphere of a restaurant is bound to visit it again and again. However, friendliness does not mean over familiarity.PRIDE IN WORK:A waiter should realize that the work he is doing is not an ordinary kind of work. It isan art, which not everyone can do. It is an art, which has developed from timesunmemorable and is still being developed.TACT AND INITIATIVE: 1. Role-playing sessions on the basis of log book case lets help in developing a waiter’s and initiative. 2. Also former case studies can be undertaken to inculcate tact and initiative. 3. Interesting and amusing anecdotes from personal experience or from the experience of others are good illustrations.AS REPRESENTATIVE OF THE ORGANIZATION: 1. A waiter is like a salesman for his department and he projects the image of his restaurant. Thus, as a representative of the organization he must endeavor to maintain high standards. 2. Any negligence on his part would at once reflect on the status of the organization and its high standards. 3. He must act and behave in a manner befitting the type of setup he is working in. 4. Good actions and behavior are always noted and go a long way in improving a waiter’s prospects and status.HONESTY: 1. Honesty is always the best policy. The reward for being honest can vary from cash and publicity in hotel magazines to appreciation letters from the public. It can also get the waiter appreciation and recommendation, which could help the waiter’s prospect in the profession. 2. Examples of actual incidents where honesty has paid dividends should be quoted. 3. The waiter must be told exactly is regarded as dishonesty e.g. stealing cutleries, eating guest food, overcharging a guest are all forms of dishonesty.COURTESY: 1. It is the hallmark of a good waiter to be courteous on all occasions not towards guest but also towards his colleagues and other people working in the same unit. 2. Courtesy should be inherent in his nature and a sign of his desire to please those with whom he comes in contact. His manner should not be just part of the technique of his restaurant. 3. The advantage and necessity of being courteous should be emphasized as it not only smoothens operations but also ensure better ties.EXAMPLES OF COURTESY ARE GIVEN BELOW. 1. After the waiter has served breakfast and a guest is leaving, he should say “Thank you have a pleasant day”. It should be said with utmost sincerity.
  • 9. 2. When approaching a guest use the word “assist” e.g. “May I assist you” or “may I be of assistance”.3. When the guests are leaving after lunch or dinner or even if they have just stopped for a cup of coffee or a drink, say “thank you. I hope everything was all right. Do come again” or “it’s been a pleasure serving you. Please come again soon”.4. Always present the Bill without delay keeps it at the side station when the guests are nearing the end of their meal.5. While taking an order the waiter should approach the guest from the left and place the menu in front of him and in quire, “ May I have your order, sir/ madam?” wait patiently facing the guest until after any necessary advice asked has been given, and the order is complete. Give the guest enough time to decide what he wants and do not rush him.6. Guests should never get the feeling that they are being hustled. It is really proper to let them finish their drink before asking for their food order. In the evening this holds true. At noon a lot of people are on a tight schedule so the lunchtime menu should be presented as soon as the guest is seated. Before taking the food order the waiter should ask whether they would like a drink, “may we bring you a drink before lunch?” If the answer is “No” he should take the food order and serve it as soon as it is ready. If the answer is “yes” the drink order should be served. When the drink is placed on the table the waiter should ask, “Would you like to order now or shall I come back later?” If the answer is “Later” the waiter should not forget to come back while the guest is finishing his drink. If the guest orders right away, the food should be brought as soon as it is ready to serve, even if the guest has not finished his drink.7. If a guest says his food or drink isn’t right, the waiter should not tell him so, even if he is sure that the guest is wrong. The waiter should tell him “ I am sorry”. “Please let me bring you another or may I bring you something else?” The waiter should take the order back to the kitchen and tell the chef to replace it. If he has any trouble he should tell the manager.8. In case there are restaurants having bar counters or bars in the immediate neighborhood of the restaurant, guests who cannot be seated in the restaurant should be asked if they wish to wait in the bar until a table is available. If possible the supervisors should accompany the guest to the other facility to make that will be taken care of properly.9. In case a waiter is busy and cannot attend to a guest at once, he should inform him that he would attend to him immediately or in a moment.10. If the waiter knows the guests name it is advisable to address him by his name as this shows that the guest is getting personalized service.11. If a guest may become impatient if he cannot catch the waiter’s eye. A waiter should never ignore guests or just pass them by, because they are not on his station. He should stop and acknowledge the call by saying politely, “ I will send your station waiter, sir”.12. When two tables are occupied approximately at the same time, the waiter must take the order of the party, first.13. Each guest entering the restaurant must be received at the door by the hostess or the supervisor in a cordial and pleasant manner and be conducted to a seat. Chairs should be held for the convenience of lady guests and gentleman is possible.14. Guest must be asked prior to seating whether the table, which they have been allotted, is agreeable to them.NEGATIVE ATTITUDES:Given below are certain attitudes, which a waiter must be warned againstadapting.
  • 10. 1. Forgetting to say “thank you” or failing to acknowledge tipping. 2. Craving for tips, counting tips or jingling coins in pockets. 3. Bad temper or indifference. 4. Talking too much to guests while they are conversing with each other. 5. Ignoring guests by talking amongst them. 6. Hurrying guests to get their stations cleaned so that they can leave early. 7. Using a bad form of speech. 8. Adding up bills wrongly. 9. Using bad form of service e.g. spilling food 10. Eating during the service 11. Putting the service cloth in the trouser pockets 12. Compiling menus by keeping them in their shirt front. 13. Carrying pens or pencils behind their ears or their hairs. 14. Having bad breath, body odor, toe jam, dirty or untidy hair, dirty hands or nails. 15. Chewing gum. 16. Wearing greasy or spotted or other wise dirty clothes. Sneezing or coughing Carelessly. 17. Wearing high heel shoes or Un polished shoes 18.Quarrelling or being noisy and shirking responsibility. 19. Indulging in preferential treatment. INTER DEPARTMENTAL CO-ORDINATION AND COMMUNICATIONCo-ordination and communication: communication is the means by which problemsare diagnosed and decisions are diffused both with the organization and external to itor is a result of a process of delegations of specific responsibilities and thedevelopment of individual objectives.Communication can also be defined as a means of giving information in an attemptto influence someone’s activities or as a means of obtaining response from themeither in the form of an activity, another communication or a reply. With outcommunication it is not possible to achieve effective coordination, as withoutcommunication no one can know what activities are required to be co-coordinated.Nature of co-ordination: Co-ordination is a process whereby works, which has beensub-divided, is brought together and unified into specific task or objective. The needfor co-ordination and synchronization of the work of individual is one of the mostimportant managerial activities. Failing to achieve continuous or proper co-ordination on a continued basis will lead to dissatisfied clients, loss of trade andprofit with unenviable consequences.Co-ordination is not periodic activity of management. It must be ongoing. Thegreater the degree of work the greater the degree of efficiency achieved.The nature of communication: the process requires rendering or receiving a messageas a means of transmitting the message. Since communication is a three wayprocess, some feed back is required. The message may be verbal or written, either inwords or figures or in the form of gesture or facial expression. Feedback may beimmediate in case of conversation or delayed in the case of written matter. It isessential to show whether the message has been received and understood. Awillingness to read the part of the receiver is a fundamental process without it, truecommunication cannot take place.COMMUNICATION AND ORGANIZATION: 1. DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION: This follows a line of command from the point of origin down to the point where action is required through inter mediate points in the form of command or orders to be carried out, on the assignment of work to individuals. A General manager may issue an edict that all members
  • 11. of staff must improve their standards of personal appearance. The restaurant manager may decide to re-locate the tables of two waiters and then tell them of his decision. 2. UPWARD COMMUNICATION: This is described as how information is transmitted from the lower region of company to the senior manager. Such information may be a response to a request from management or may be a regular report, passed upward as a matter of routine. 3. HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION: This term indicates communication between employee at same level in organization namely, those of equivalent status often is different departments. STAFF ARRANGEMENT OF F & B SERVICE DEPARTMENT Food & Beverage Manager Secretary Asst. F & B Manager Out Let Managers (Banquets, Room Service, Bar, Restaurants, Coffee Shop, Night Club)Reception Head Waiter Head Waiter Station Head Waiter Station Waiter Junior Station waiter Assistant Station Waiter ApprenticeThe staff arrangement in the restaurant and their number depends on the type andstandard of the establishment. In every restaurant, whether belonging to a hotel,non-residential establishment or in the form of canteen there must be one personcharge under whom there will be principal assistance in charge of sections of theroom and under each of them there will be general assistants.  F & B MANAGERDepending on the size of the establishment the F&B Manager is either responsible forimplementation of agreed policies or for contributing to the setting of cateringpolicies. He is responsible for –i) Ensuring that the required profit margins are achieved for each F&B Service area ina specified financial period.ii) Updating and compiling new wine lists according to availability of stock, currenttrends and customer needs.
  • 12. iii) For compiling, in liaison with the kitchen, menus for the various food serviceareas and for special occasions.iv) The purchasing of all materials required in the department.v) Ensuring that quality in relation to the price paid is maintained.vi) Determining portion size in relation to selling price in consultation with the Exec..Chef.vii) Departmental training and promotions and maintaining high professionalstandards.viii) Employing and dismissing staff.ix) Holding regular meetings with section heads to ensure all areas are workingeffectively efficiently in a well-coordinated manner.  ASSISTANT F&B MANAGERIn absence of F&B Manager, the Asst. F&B Manager acts as the departmental head. Ingeneral, he helps the F&B Manager in running the department smoothly and acts ashis deputy.  The Restaurant Manager (Directeur de restaurant)He has over all responsibility for the organization and administration of the food andbeverage service areas. This includes the lounges, floor grillrooms, restaurants andpossibly some of the banqueting suits. It is the restaurant manager who setsstandards for service and he is responsible for any staff training that may have to becarried out on or off the job. With the assistance of reception headwaiter orheadwaiter he may make out duty rotas, holiday lists and hours of duty so that allthe service areas run efficiently and smoothly. All staff would be engaged afterinterviews with the personnel manager and the restaurant manager. He is responsiblefor the restaurant service and is in-charge persons concerned with it. He fixes theprice of the menu and also plans the menu in consulting with the executive chef andfood and beverage controller.  THE RECEPTION HEAD WAITER (MAITRE D’ HOTEL DE RECEPTION)He is responsible for accepting any bookings and maintaining the booking diary up todate. He will reserve tables and allot their reservation to particular stations. Hegreets the guests up on arrival and takes them to the table and seats them, leavingthem in charge of the station headwaiter. The reception headwaiter should have agood knowledge of food and beverage and be able to instruct the trainees wherenecessary. He would relieve the restaurant manager or headwaiter on their day off.  THE HEAD WAITER/ SENIOR CAPTAIN (MAITRE D’ HOTEL)He has over all charge of the staff team in the dining room and is responsible forseeing that all the duties necessary for the preparation for service are well andefficiently carried out, and nothing forgotten. He will aid the reception headwaiterduring the service and possibly take some orders if the station headwaiter is verybusy. He helps the restaurant manager or the reception headwaiter on their day off.(He is in direct charge of either the whole of a small restaurant or a part of a bigrestaurant). He supervises service, directly receives the guests or through therestaurant manager in case of certain VIP’s seats them. He should be a goodorganizer and diplomat. He must look after all the complaints and put things rightly.But he must not upset the smooth flow of kitchen disrupt harmony of pantry. He isresponsible for the “mise en place”. In large hotels in restaurants there may be morethan one head waiter, namely: a) second head waiter b) third head waiter.  STATION HEAD WAITER/ CAPTAIN (MAITRE D’ HOTEL DE CURRE)
  • 13. He has the overall responsibility of the team staff working under him and serving aset number of tables could be anything from four to eight in numbers. The set oftables under the station headwaiters control is called a station. He must have a verygood knowledge of food and wine and its correct services, and be able to instructthese under him. He would take the order usually from the host and carry out theservices at the table with the help of his assistants.  THE STATION WAITER/ SENIOR STEWARD (CHEF DE RANG)He must be able to carry out the same as a station headwaiter and relieve him on hisday off. Both he and the station head waiter work together as a team to provideefficient and speedy service.  JUNIOR STATION WAITER / STEWARD (DEMI CHEF DE RANG) This is a post, which is usually found in Europe and in the American hotels. As theterm implies he is next in seniority to chef de rang and aids him in his work.  ASSISTANT STATION WAITER/ ASSISTANT STEWARD (COMMIS DE RANG)He acts by instruction from the chef de rang. He is responsible for giving the KOT’sto the kitchen, bring dishes to the sideboard, removing plates from the guests tableand returning used plates to the washing up area. During the mise en place he wouldcarry out some cleaning and preparatory tasks.  APPRENTICE (DEBARRASEUR OR PICCOLO)He is the learner, having just joined the food and beverage service staff and possiblywishing to take up waiting as a career. During the service he will keep the sideboardwell filled with equipment and he may help to fetch and carry items as required. Hewould carry out certain cleaning tasks during the preparation periods.  CARVER (TRANCHEUR)He is responsible for the carving trolley and the curving of joints at the table asrequired. He will plate up each portion with the appropriate accompaniment. He hasto be very skilled to get maximum number of portion from each joint with as littlewastage as possible.  FLOOR WAITER (CHEF D’ ETAGE)He is responsible for the service of meals in the apartments. When working in thisposition the waiters has to serve both food and drinks and therefore have a throughknowledge of each and their correct service involved.  TROLLEY ASSISTANT WAITER (COMMIS DE WAGON)He is a commis, junior assistant assigned to a trolley usually of hors d oeuvre,pastries, assorted cheese, salads etc.  WINE WAITER OR WINE BUTLER (CHEF DE VIN)He is responsible for the service of all alcoholic drinks during the service of meals.He must have a thorough knowledge of best wines to go with certain foods and of thelicensing laws in respect of his particular establishment and areas.  RESTAURANT CASHIER (CASSIER DE RESTAURANT)Sometimes it is the responsibility of the restaurant staff i.e. the waiters to make thebill in small establishment, but in sophisticated restaurants, the restaurant cashierdoes it. In any case, the waiter will present the bill to the guest.
  • 14. TYPES OF FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE OPERATIONSThe food and beverage service department of a hotel is the most labour intensivedepartment. It is divided into sections called outlets for effective managementcontrol. Each outlet is headed by an outlet manager and has its own operationalprocedures. A food and beverage manager heads the department and he delegatesauthority and responsibilities to the outlet managers. • BANQUETSThis outlet is usually the largest revenue-earning outlet in the food and beverageservice department. It serves food and beverage to a gathering of people at specialfunction such as wedding, parties, receptions, cocktail dinner, seminars, conferencesand meeting. Banquet function can be held at lunch or dinnertime and the pattern ofoperation may vary from one kind to another. The outlet also rents out banquet hallsfor exhibitions, concerts and other programmers.TYPES OF FOOD SERVICE IN BANQUETS - The Indian banqueting menu consists of a fixed predetermined buffet menu selected from the varied cuisines of India or a selection of dishes from continental food.ORGANISING A BANQUET FUNCTION- It is normally planned in advance, since considerable time is required for planning and organizing a function. However the food and beverage service personnel should be prepared for any exigency as guest may suddenly demand the unexpected.The banquet outlet has its own staff that works in shifts to cater to these functionsthe banquets sales assistant are responsible for managing the banquet reservationsystem in the banquet office. • COFFEE SHOP:It’s an outlet, which is open 24hrs a day and is usually found in star category hotels.The basic concept behind this type of operation is less priced and more turnover.The service is informal i.e. not very elaborate and formal. Generally the foods arepre- plated other then the Indian dishes where the entrée or the main course areplaced on the table or sometimes being served by a waiter. Promptness of service isof prime importance. The prices of the food and beverage, which are being served,are not very high priced compared to a specialty restaurant. Being open for 24hrs it’sthe only venue where one can get a decent meal on a …long after all the otherrestaurants have closed has a provision of serving many types of foods like Indian,Chinese, Continental and different types of alcoholic beverages are only servedduring permitted hours. (Sometimes varies from state to state.)The revenue generated from this outlet is the second highest in the food andbeverage service department.  RESTAURANTA restaurant is a commercial establishment committed to the sale of food andbeverage. A restaurant may be a licensed part of a hotel operation, whereby the salesof the restaurant contribute to the sales performance of the hotel as a whole.Restaurants may also be independent business entities under individual ownershipand management.
  • 15.  CONTINENTAL RESTAURANTThe atmosphere is more sophisticated and caters for people who can eat at leisure.The accent is on good continental food and elaborate service. • SPECIALTY RESTAURANTS:Every five star hotel has at least one specialty restaurant, and it is specialist inserving one particular type of cuisine, but again now a day the concept of having amulti cuisine restaurant is also gaining popularity as they offer guests a wide varietyof choice of food.The service in this type of a restaurant is very formal and stylist. The prices of thefood items in the menu are comparatively higher because of its higher overheads.The menu offered may either be an a la carte, buffet, or a table d hotel. Sometimesflambé dishes are also served where the food is prepared right in front of the guestfrom a special food trolley known as guerdon trolley and hence the waiter should behighly skilled. These restaurants normally function dinning lunch and dinnersessions. Entertainment in the form of music by a band or an orchestra may also beprovided.For a specialty restaurant to be profitable it should provide not only excellent foodand service but also a good décor ambiance. The components used should be of highstandards, as this will enrich the entire dinning experience of the guests. • ROOM SERVICE:Is a very important part of food and beverage service department? The guest’s ordershis or her food and beverage requirement over the phone from his room and theperson taking the order is know as the Room Service Order Taker. He takes down thewhole order on a kitchen order ticket (KOT) and for a beverage on a bar order ticket(BOT) with date and time of order taken and the service time and hands over theorder ticket to the room service waiter, who in turn places the relevant order ticketeither to the kitchen or the bar for drinks and subsequently picks them and servesthem to the room at a specified time.As far as the question of revenue earning is concerned it has a very small turnover.Considerable effort and labour is necessary to run this outlet and can be termed as aguest facility and operate 24hrs. The menu is similar to that of a coffee shop but theprices are slightly higher comparatively because of higher overheads i.e. in terms ofstaff and equipment.The prime importance in this type of an outlet is accuracy and promptness i.e. thewhole order taken has to be carried out accurately within the specified time. Theoutlet is headed by a outlet manager known as Room service manager. Under himthere are captains followed by waiters. It is the responsibility of this captains andwaiters to check each room service tray or trolleys so as to ensure they have therelevant food ordered by the guest along with necessary cover and accompaniments.There is always an average waiting time for each set of orders and this may vary fromhotel to hotel.In most of the hotels to speed up the service of food and beverage we have roomservice floor pantries from where the required cutleries, crockery and glassware andcertain accompaniments required for serving of foods in a room is present.Again the efficiency of a room service outlet is also measured in terms of clearancei.e. it is the responsibility of the room service waiting staff to ensure that all traysand trolleys are cleaned from the guest rooms after service is done because there isnothing more annoying to a guest the sight of used trays and trolleys in thecorridors.
  • 16. This department is also responsible for providing food and beverage amenities toregular guests and VIP’s, which may include fruit basket cookies, dry fruits and nutsand soft beverages and hard liquor. • BAR:In a hotel this particular outlet can be divided into two and they are -1. Public bar2. Dispense bar 1. PUBLIC BAR: Are situated in the public area of a hotel and caters to persons who pays for itirrespective of the fact whether they are in-house guests i.e. staying with the hotelor an outside guest. Cocktail snacks can be served and the prerequisites are servedshould be fast and discreet, good décor, ambiance, efficient staff and availability ofwide variety of beverages. 2. DISPENSE BAR: Generally situated at the back area of the hotel and is used for dispensing andserving drinks to the other outlets of the hotel such as the coffee shop, room service,banquets, specialty restaurants etc. other than the above outlets one may also comeacross outlets like a barbecue restaurants and a pastry cake shop a night club and adiscotheque. • BARBEQUE RESTAURANT: The term barbeque is said to have originated from ancient French practice ofcooking the whole animal over an open fire. (In French “Barbe” means beard andrefers to the whiskers of the animal and “que” means the tail)This type of an outlet is generally located near the swimming pool and of late hasbecome very popular.Normally during the day the space may be used for some other and in the evening itis used for private functions or a barbeque restaurant for an a la carte guest. The twomain reasons of having a barbeque restaurant are: (i) Increase the revenue of the hotel. (ii) Gives a variation of dinning i.e. provides the guests with another venue to dine. The food served here is barbequed cooked over a charcoal grill. • PASTRY AND CAKE SHOP: This outlet has become very popular in Indian luxury hotels during the last fewyears. It caters to both in-house and non-resident guests. It may be a self-servicecounter on a small area where there are a few tables with waiter service and isnormally located at the lobby area of the hotel and mostly the business in this outletis in the form of take- a ways.
  • 17. Discotheques: A restaurant, which is meant for dancing to, recorded music beingplayed by a disc jockey a live band, may also perform. An essential part of adiscotheque is a bar while the food offered consists mainly of snacks. • NIGHTCLUBS: It is principally opens at night for dinners, dance and cabaret. A dispensing bar isalways provided. Décor is lavish while service is elaborate. A live band is importantto the set up.Most establishments insist on formal wear so as to enhance the atmosphere. • SELF HELP OR CAFETERIA SERVICEThe second type of service is self-help or cafeteria service. This service cuts downthe cost of labour and thereby the high price food. The clientele or the guest herewaits on himself or herself. This indicates that if the service is of their own. Here thecustomer takes a tray or plate and moves along-selecting the dishes from the displaycounter, and arrives at the place where the cashiers totals up the trays contents andthe customer having made his payments carries the tray to the table. The useddishes are collected and returned to the washing up area by the cafeteria staff.Mobile trolleys are convenient for this purpose.Layout is a very important to ensure that the service is quick. Sufficient tables andchairs are provided in the dinning hall. The cafeteria unit must have a hot plate,refrigerator, a water cooler and a display counter. There should be a rail to rest andslide the trays upon. Some units have conveyer belts upon which the trays areplaced. The service may be table d’hôte or a la Carte and the courses are provided inproper sequence. A strict supervision is very essential for a high-class cafeteriaservice. A spoon and knife and a fork wrapped in a napkin may be kept at one end ofthe counter for the customers to pick up. In India two types of cafeteria service are in operation. From the point of view ofsales, in the first case coupons are sold at the beginning and the customers buy foodequal to the value of the coupons, but he is restricted from buying anything moreunless he goes again to get the additional coupons. Many a times the customers feellazy to do this and so in such cases it sometimes results into a loss of the business.In the second care the guest collects whatever he likes from the counter and pays atthe end. If the cashier is not vigilant enough he can make mistakes in totaling,which may result into a loss of the business. But from the customers point of viewthis is a better arrangement. RESTAURANT ORGANIZATIONFOOD SERVICE AREAS AND ANCILLARY DEPARTMENTS • ROOM SERVICE:Is a very important part of food and beverage service department? The guests ordershis or her food and beverage requirement over the phone from his room and theperson taking the order is know as the Room Service Order Taker. He takes down thewhole order on a kitchen order ticket (KOT) and for a beverage on a bar order ticket(BOT) with date and time of order taken and the service time and hands over theorder ticket to the room service waiter, who in turn places the relevant order ticketeither to the kitchen or the bar for drinks and subsequently picks them and servesthem to the room at a specified time.As far as the question of revenue earning is concerned it has a very small turnover.Considerable effort and labour is necessary to run this outlet and can be termed as aguest facility and operate 24hrs. The menu is similar to that of a coffee shop but theprices are slightly higher comparatively because of higher overheads i.e. in terms ofstaff and equipment.
  • 18. The prime importance in this type of an outlet is accuracy and promptness i.e. thewhole order taken has to be carried out accurately within the specified time. Anoutlet manager known as Room service manager heads the outlet. Under him thereare captains followed by waiters. It is the responsibility of this captains and waitersto check each room service tray or trolleys so as to ensure they have the relevantfood ordered by the guest along with necessary cover and accompaniments. There isalways an average waiting time for each set of orders and this may vary from hotel tohotel.In most of the hotels to speed up the service of food and beverage we have roomservice floor pantries from where the required cutleries, crockery and glassware andcertain accompaniments required for serving of foods in a room is present.Again the efficiency of a room service outlet is also measured in terms of clearancei.e. it is the responsibility of the room service waiting staff to ensure that all traysand trolleys are cleaned from the guest rooms after service is done because there isnothing more annoying to a guest the sight of used trays and trolleys in thecorridors.This department is also responsible for providing food and beverage amenities toregular guests and VIP’s, which may include fruit basket cookies, dry fruits and nutsand soft beverages and hard liquor.  STILLROOMThe service room, the server, or pantry is the auxiliary section situated just behindthe serving doors and between the kitchen (hot kitchen) and the room, whichsupports the service. The pantry leads to the stillroom, plate room and glass roomand the wash-up area. An ideal pantry must have the following minimumconveniences – 1. There should be two serving doors, connecting the server with the restaurant, marked ‘IN’ and ‘OUT’. 2. The door must have a metal kicking plate at the bottom to prevent hard wear and tear. 3. A large box for collecting the soiled linen and napkin should be provided to prevent its loss. If the box has a flat top it can be used as extra service space. A chute may be provided to send the soiled linen from the service room to the Linen Room. 4. Cupboards for crockery, plates, cutlery, linen etc. must be provided. For cleaning materials like brooms etc. appropriate storage should be provided. 5. Two or three tier tables for receiving dirty plates and silver helps in quick disposal of this equipment to their respective places of washing and returning back. These tables and boxes should be as near to the exit door from the restaurant as possible or between the door and the service lift. 6. In order to save breakage, the glass pantry forms a separate section where glassware is stored and washed in a special wooden sink. The glasses when washed or dried are placed on wooden trays and stored in shelves provided which help in checking and preventing them from being knocked off. 7. Separate dustbins should be provided for the collection of waste food and other disposable matters. 8. A special heated table cupboard with a hot case inside which a supply of hot plates can be kept forms an essential part of the equipment necessary for the pantry.
  • 19. 9. Generally there is also a dispense bar, wire store adjoining the pantry so that the waiter can collect orders for wine, beer, minerals etc. ordered by the guests.After putting the dirty linen, silver, and china in their proper places, the waiter goesto the service table in the service room or in the kitchen to collect the rest set ofdishes ordered by the guest. Then he takes the appropriate plates from the hotcupboard and re enters the restaurant.  LINEN ROOMIt is the area where all the linens for the daily operation of a restaurant are kept. Thefresh linens are brought from the central linen stores of the hotel and the soiledlinens are also returned back to the central linen stores after proper counting.The linens used in the restaurants are as follows:  Tablecloths  Napkins  Placemats  Table Skirting  Table toppers  Aprons  Chair Covers  Table Pads  Valances, Lace Skirting  Two Tier Table Skirting  Table Runners etc.  KITCHEN STEWARDINGKitchen stewarding employees are not actively engaged in cooking to ensure clean,efficient, and economical food service: Assigns KITCHEN HELPER (hotel & rest.) andother noncooking employees to such activities as dishwashing and silver cleaning.Inspects kitchens, workrooms, and equipment for cleanliness and order.The duties of a kitchen steward are as follows: • Wash Wall and Ceilings • Sweep Floors • Mop Floors • Clean and Wax Hardwood and Parquet Floors • Clean Stainless Steel Surfaces • Clean Floor Mats • Use Garbage Disposals • Empty and Clean Trash Cans • Use and Clean the Trash Compactor • Use Pressure-Washing Equipment • Handle Recycling Programs • Report Evidence of Rodents, Insects, and Pests • Wash Dishes, Silverware, and Glasses • Wash Pots and Pans • Burnish Silverware • Clean Braising Pans
  • 20. • Clean Broilers • Clean Compartment Steamers • Clean Deep-Fat Fryers • Clean Microwave Ovens • Clean Ovens • Clean Ranges • Clean Kitchen Hoods • Clean Ventilation Grills • Clean Steam Kettles • Clean Large Mixers • Clean Slicing Machines • Clean Food Grinders and Choppers • Clean Vertical Cutters and Mixers • Clean Juice Dispensers • Clean Coffee Urns • Clean Coffee Makers • Clean Milk Dispensers • Clean and Sanitize Cutting Boards • Clean and Sanitize Can Openers • Clean Reach-In Freezers • Clean Reach-In Refrigerators • Clean Walk-In Freezers • Clean Walk-In Refrigerators • Clean and Treat Drains • Clean Vegetable Preparation Sinks • Clean Food Storerooms • Clean the Receiving Dock • Clean the Employee Cafeteria • Clean Restaurant Dining Rooms • Clean Large Trash Bins and Surrounding Areas • Clean Grease Traps • Stock Side Stations • Clean Banquet and Room Service Carts • Set Up Carts for Banquets • Deliver Banquet Food and Plating Areas • Assist in Plating Banquets • Help Banquet Servers Prepare Trays  HOTPLATEIt is the section, which is situated between the kitchen & the restaurant. Here thechef keeps the prepared food for service and the service person picks up theprepared food for the service. This is the border between kitchen & restaurant. Theperson, who bridges the gap between the kitchen and restaurant, is known as “ChefAboyer or Barker”. He takes the order from the restaurant and passes the order tothe kitchen. RESTAURANT SERVICERESTAURANT MIS-EN-PLACEThe term “Mis-en-place” (Preparation for service) is the traditional term used for allthe duties that have to be carried out in order to have the room ready for service. Aduty rota showing the tasks and duties to be completed before service, and whichmember of staff is responsible.The daily duties might be stated as follows:
  • 21. • SUPERVISOR• Check the booking diary for reservations.• Make out the seating plan for the day.• Make out a plan of the various stations and show where the staff will be working.• Go over the menu with staffs immediately before service.• Check that all duties on the duty rota are covered and that a full team of staff is present.• HOUSE KEEPING• Every day vacuum the carpet and brush the surrounds.• Clean and polish the doors and glasses.• Empty waste bins and ashtrays.• Each day on completion of all duties, line up all the table and chairs.• LINEN• Collecting the cleanliness from the H/K department, checking items against the list, distributing them to the various service points, laying tablecloths and folding the serviettes.• Ensuring that stocks are sufficient to meet the needs.• Ensuring that the glass cloths & waiters’ cloths are available.• The preparation of the linen basket for return to the linen room.• HOT PLATES• Switch on the hot plate.• Ensure all the doors are closed.• Items to be placed in the hot plate would be according to the menu offered.• Set out the required kitchen silvers on top of the hot plate.• Stock up after each service with clean and polished china wares in readiness for the next meal service.• SILVER• Collection of cutlery, flatware and hollowware from the silver room.• Polishing and sorting out of various cutleries for the service with the required quantities.• Daily cleaning of cutleries, flatwares, hollowwares as per the daily rota.• Daily cleaning of ashtrays, carving trolley etc.• CROCKERY• Checking and polishing of side plates and make ready for lay-up.• Checking and polishing of crockery for hotplate according to menu and service requirements.• Preparation of service plates/flats for sideboards.• SIDE BOARD• Place all the cutleries in the proper boxes of the sideboard.• Place all the crockeries in the appropriate place of the sideboard.• Place the service salvers & finger bowls in the sideboard.• Place soup & sauce ladels, bread buskets and butter dish.• Check for check pad, service cloths and menu cards.
  • 22. • Polishing and refilling of oil-vinegar stand, sugar basins, cruet set & pepper mills. • Ketchup, French & English, W. Sauce etc should be there. • DISPENSE BAR • Open the bar and remove the liqueur trolley from the bar area. • Bar silvers requiring cleaning to be taken to the silver man. • Clear any debris left from the previous day. • Wipe down the bar tops as well as the glasswares. • Clean the shelves and scrub out the bar floor. • Check the pads, wine lists, and line up the clean and wiped glasses. • Prepare the bar for service with the various bar equipments. • Check the availability of beverages and pick up from store. RESTAURANT LAYOUT AND PRESENTATIONIn any establishment a client’s first impression on entering the dining room are ofgreat importance. A customer may be gained or lost on this impression alone. Thecreation of the atmosphere by the right choice of furniture and equipment istherefore a important factor. The selection of the linen, tableware, small equipmentand glassware will be determined by considering: 1. The type of clientele expected 2. The site or location 3. The layout of food and beverage service area 4. The types of services offered 5. The funds available.Modern designs tends towards a versatile system of lighting by which a food andbeverage service area may have bright lightings at lunch time and a diffused lightingin the evening and for buffet. It is also an advantage to be able to change the coloursof the lights for special functions e.g. cabaret, floorshows etc. The caterer must findcolour and lighting scheme, which will attract and please as many people as possible.There is a definite association between colour and foods, which must not beoverlooked. The following colours are regarded as most acceptable pink, pale yellow,clear green, blue, saffron, peach colour. These colours reflect the natural coloursfound in good and well-presented foodstuff. Bright illumination may be found in barcounter with light colours on the walls and the ceilings. But food service areas arebetter with dimmer illumination • FURNITURE Furniture may be chosen according to the need of the establishment. Very often byusing different materials designs and finishes and by careful arrangements one canchange the atmosphere and the appearance of the food service area to suit differentoccasions. Wood is the most commonly used material in dining room furniture. It isfound as the principal material in chairs and tables used in all food and beverageservice areas with the exception of canteen, staff dining rooms, and cafeterias.A. CHAIRS: They come in an enormous range of designs, materials, colours to suitall situations and occasions because of wide range of styles. The chairs vary in size,height, weight but it is sufficient to say that as a guide a chairs seat is 46 cm (18inches) from the ground. The height from the ground to back is 1 meter (3 ft).B. TABLES: Tables comes in three accepted shapes round, square, rectangular. Anestablishment may have a mixture of shapes to give a variety. The tables may be for
  • 23. two or four people or two or three tables may be put together to seat larger partiesand extensions may be provided in order to cope with special parties etc.SQUARE TABLE 76 cm sq. (2 ft 5 in.) To seat 2 people 1-meter (3 ft) sq. to seat 4 peopleROUND TABLES 1-meter (3 ft) sq. in diameter to seat 4 people 1.52 meter (5ft) in diameter to seat 8 people.RECTANGLE TABLE 137cm* 76cm(4 ft 6 in.*2 ft 6 in.) to seat 4 people to which extensions can be added for larger parties.C. SIDE BOARDS: Also known as dummy waiter or side table. Styles and designs ofsideboard vary from establishment to establishment. It depends upon: 1. The style of menu and service offered. 2. The number of waiters and waitress working from one sideboard. 3. The number of tables to be served from one sideboard. 4. The amount of equipments it is expected to hold.D. RECEPTION DESK: There should be one reception desk at the entrance of thedining room or restaurant on which a reservation book and a telephone must beplaced. Reception head waiter who is know as the “maitre d hotel de reception” willbe responsible to attend all the reservation calls and enter them in the book.RULES FOR LAYING A TABLE:Table laying is usually a good exercise for a brigade of waiters. Each men thereforewill be allotted tasks throughout the room i.e. restaurant.LAYING OF TABLE CLOTH:Before laying the tablecloth, make sure that the table is properly placed, it is steadyand well cleaned. Where tables are to be covered with a cloth, the tabletop should befitted with baize. This is necessary: 1. To lessen the noise of the plates cutleries, glassware etc. placed on the table 2. To keep the table cloth in correct position, to hand evenly without slipping 3. To protect the guest wrist from the edge of the table.The tablecloth should have the right side on top. The tablecloth should be placed onthe table forming a line down the middle of the table. It should fall nine inches belowthe edge of the table on all sides.LAYING A COVERHaving covered all the tables with a tablecloth, the chairs should be placed in theircorrect position. They should be cleaned and then the general mise en place starts orbegins. 1. Show plates are placed at the center of each cover about one inch away from the edge of the table. Plates must be checked polished and kept on the sideboards. If the plates are edged always place them so that it remains in uppermost position facing the guest. 2. Some kind of showpiece should be provided for each table, i.e. a flower arrangement in a flower vase at the center of the table. A few attractively arrangement flower in a low flower vase is much more appreciated then a large bouquet. Heavily scented flowers must be avoided. 3. Each cover should form a balanced definite unit. It must not be over crowded. All chinaware, glassware, cutleries etc. required for a person to be placed on the table for complete meal is called cover. Each cover requires a length of 24 to 27 inches and a width of 15 inches.
  • 24. 4. Place only the required silvers needed for the meal. The sequence of silver should be from outside towards inside in the order of the menu. 5. The knives should be placed at the right hand side of the cover with their cutting edge toward the left hand side of the guest. The forks are placed on the left hand side of the corner with their prongs turned up. Spoons are placed sometimes at the right hand side and sometimes at the top of the cover. When no knife is used, for example spaghetti, macaroni, noodles etc. the fork is placed at the right hand side of the cover in place of the knife. 6. The silvers for appetizers should be placed either on the show plate or in their usual position with the rest of the silvers. 7. The glass tumbler for water should be placed at the top of the large knife (Joint knife) 8. The butter dish should be placed at the tip of the fork, butter knife and the dish with the handle directed towards the right hand side of the guest. 9. The serviette should be placed either at the center of the cover or on the side plate or inside the water tumbler. 10. All cutleries, linen, plates etc. should be placed ½ to 1 inch away from the edge of the table in a line. 11. Salt and pepper cruet set for each cover or between two covers. 12. The menu card should be placed either on the table or at the side board( but never tacked inside the waiters dickey) 13. The silver should be covered with a napkin to avoid the rattling noise. The silver should never be handled with bare hand while picking them up. Never touch the blades or prongs but hold the handles. 14. For every meal or for each cover there must be one side plate placed at the extreme left of the cover. The side knife (small knife) should be place on the side plates, with its cutting edge facing out side. 15. One ashtray should be provided on the table, which should be cleaned immediately after use. 16. On a round table cover are laid between legs. 17. Table number should be placed on the table in such a manner so that it becomes clearly visible from the entrance of the restaurants. COVERSOne of the technical terms very often used in the hospitality industry is a "cover".What does this mean? There are two definitions according to the context.1) When discussing how many guests a restaurant or dining room will seat or howmany guests will be attending a certain party, we refer to the total number of guestsconcerned as so many "covers".2) When laying a table in readiness for service there are a variety of place settings,which have to be laid according to the type of meal and service being offered. Thisplace setting is a type of cover being laid. In other words a cover denotes all thenecessary cutlery, flatware, crockery, glassware and linen necessary to a lay a certaintype of place setting for a specific meal.A LA CARTE COVERThis cover follows the principle that the cutlery and flatware for each course will belaid just before each course is served. The traditional cover given below representsthe cover for hors d oeuvres which is the first course in a classic menu sequence.· Fish plate· Serviette· Fish knife· Fish fork
  • 25. · Side plate· Side knife· Wine glassWhen an a la carte cover is being laid, the cutlery and flatware required by the guestfor the dishes ordered will be placed course by course. In other words there shouldnot be at any time during the meal, more cutlery and flatware on the table than isrequired by the guest at that specific time.TABLE DHOTE COVERThis cover follows the principle that the cutlery and flatware for the entire meal willbe laid before the first course is served. The traditional cover is given below:· Serviette· Soup spoon· Fish knife· Fish fork· Meat knife· Meat fork· Dessert spoon· Dessert fork· Side plate· Side knife· Wine glassWhen a Table d’hôte cover has been laid, the steward should remove, after the orderhas been taken, any unnecessary cutlery and flatware and really any extra items thatmay be required. After the above covers have been laid, the table-layout should becompleted by the addition of the following items:· Cruet set· Ashtray· Bud vaseAll applicable cutlery and flatware should be laid 1.25 cm from the edge of the table.Water goblets after polishing should be placed at the top right-hand of the cover.DEFINITION:One cover denotes all the necessary cutlery, flatware, crockery, glassware and linennecessary to lay a certain type of place setting for a specific meal, for a singleperson.SIZE OF ONE COVER = 18x24 Inches.STANDARD TABLE SETUPCentral Appointments· Ash Tray· Flower Vase· Cruet Set FOR ONE COVER· Cheese Plate· Butter Knife/Side Knife· All Purpose Fork· All Purpose Spoon· All Purpose Knife· Dinner Napkin· Water GobletDIMENSIONS· Round Table (4 Covers) 3 Feet in Diameter
  • 26. · Round Table (8 Covers) 5 Feet in Diameter· Rectangular Table (4 Covers) 4 Feet 6 Inches x 2 Feet 6 Inches.· Square Table (2 Covers) 2 Feet 6 Inches Square· Square Table (4 Covers) 3 Feet SquareTABLECLOTHS· Round Table (4 Covers) 54 Inches x 54 Inches· Square Table (2 Covers) 54 Inches x 54 Inches· Square Table (4 Covers) 72 Inches x 72 Inches· Rectangular Table (4 Covers) 72 Inches x 54 InchesNAPKINSDinner Napkin 18 Inches SquareCocktail Napkin 06 Inches SquareTABLES & CHAIRS· Height of Chair 18 Inches from the Ground to Base and 39 Inches· Height of Table 02 Feet 6 Inches From Ground To TopSPOONS· All Purpose Spoon - 8 Inches· All Purpose Knife - 10 Inches· All Purpose Fork - 8 Inches TYPES OF SERVICEThe quality of food service in a restaurant is an important as the food itself. Thus toensure the successful running of a restaurant, the style of food service to be adoptedmust be carefully chosen keeping in mind the following points. o Standard of the establishment o Standard of the guests. o Time available for service o Turnover of guest o Type of menu o Cost of the meals served o Location of the establishment o The number of staff employed o The amount of money involved in use of different equipment.Service of Food & Beverage in the hospitality industry is broadly classified into threesegments.1. Table Service2. Self Service3. Assisted Service4. Single point service5. Specialized service or service in situ1. TABLE SERVICE: It means service to the customers at a laid cover. This type of service is also divided into seven categories. They are as follows: Platter to plate or Silver service Family service Pre plated or American service Butler service Russian service
  • 27.  Gueridon or flambé service Bar counter service PLATTER TO PLATE OR SILVER SERVICE:DESCRIPTION Presentation and service of food by the staffs from oval, flat dishes or portion bowls from the left hand side.USES High-class establishments, cruise liners, first class travel catering and formal banquets.ADVANTAGES Dishes look good and the service is of very high class by the skilled staffs.DISADVANTAGES Required skilled staffs, cost are increased, service is slow and lots of cutleries and crockery are used. FAMILY SERVICE:DESCRIPTION Main courses are plated with vegetables, placed in multi- portioned dishes for customers to help themselves. Sauces are offered.USES Some functions, private parties, clubs and institutions.ADVANTAGES Staff requirements & skills are decreased. It is timesaving. Customers can decide portions and accompaniments.DISADVANTAGES Service is impersonal and wastage may occur. PRE-PLATED OR AMERICAN SERVICE:DESCRIPTION Service of pre-plated food direct from the kitchen.USES Semi-formal outlets, café, coffee shops, fast-food outlets.ADVANTAGES Economy of equipment, speed & simplicity, saves labour, increases turnover, labour may be semi skilled but it reduces cost.DISADVANTAGES Kitchen timings & staffs are increased. Appearance may be affected due to over crowding of plates. BUTLER SERVICE:DESCRIPTION Presentation of food & beverage by the highly skilled staffs to the V.I.P. resident guests in their room or in the V.I.P. lounge.USES High class establishments and in Royal functionsADVANTAGES Personalized and good presentation.DISADVANTAGES Required highly skilled staffs, increases costs, suitable for small gathering. RUSSIAN SERVICE:DESCRIPTION Table is laid with food for guests to help themselves.USES At functions and private parties but limited use.ADVANTAGES Staff requirements & skills are decreased. It is timesaving. Customers can decide portions and accompaniments.DISADVANTAGES Service is impersonal and wastage may occur. GUERIDON OR FLAMBÉ SERVICE:
  • 28. DESCRIPTION Food is served from the side table or trolley, may include carving, cooking and flambéing, preparation of salads and their dressing.TROLLEY TYPE Gueridon or flambé, horsd`oeuvre, salads, sweets or pastries, deserts, cheese, wines & liqueur, cold cuts.USES Specialty restaurants, high-class establishments, nightclubs.ADVANTAGES Help in merchandising, foods are spectacular and classy.DISADVANTAGES Required highly skilled staffs, time consuming, special & costly equipments, Portion control is difficult. BAR COUNTER SERVICE:DESCRIPTION Service to the customers at bar counter. Seated on bar stools.USES Bars, pubs & nightclubs.ADVANTAGES Quick and personalized service.DISADVANTAGES More pressure on staffs, staffs need to be efficient.2) ASSISTED SERVICE: It is a combination of Table & Self service. It is of two types. Buffet Service Carvery Service BUFFET SERVICE:DESCRIPTION It is a service where guests select food & beverage from the display; consumption is either at the table or standing or in the lounge area.USES Banquets, private parties.ADVANTAGES Staff requirements are low.DISADVANTAGES Possible queue, delays and erratic food control. CARVERY SERVICE:DESCRIPTION Some parts are served and some are to be self-served. Also used for breakfast service.USES Banquets, private parties.ADVANTAGES Staff requirements are low.DISADVANTAGES Possible queue, delays and erratic food control.3) SELF SERVICE:It is a service by the customers themselves. It is also known as counter service orcafeteria service. CAFETERIA OR COUNTER SERVICE.DESCRIPTION The guest’s queue passes by a service counter, select their menu requirements and pay the cashier at the end of the counter.USES Institutional catering, fast food establishments.ADVANTAGES Clean, quick and economical for the staffs.DISADVANTAGES Speed depends on the cashier and the back up staffs, cost of equipment is high.Types of table service • FRENCH OR SILVER SERVICE
  • 29. The fundamental of true French service is that here the guest gets the opportunityto be helped to the restaurant staff. To the dishes. In French service the waiter fulfilsthe rule that is he serves the food and divides the potion for the guests. GenerallyFrench service is also known as silver service. The portion are individually servedfrom electroplated silver or earthenware containers and served on the plates placedon the table before the guest.This form of service can also be done from a gueridon trolley. In this case the waiterplaces the dishes on the cover immediately after it is prepared. Sometimes flambédishes are also served from the gueridion trolley.For this type of service movement space is required inside the restaurant, whichadds to the luxury. It requires more number of waiters hence this is a very expensivetype of service. • ENGLISH SERVICE OR HOST OR FAMILY SERVICEThe basic of the English service is that it gives the opportunity to help themselves tothe service of the dishes. This form of service originates from the English tradition ofthe master of the family or the host carving and portioning at the table. For largeparties certainly, for a family of four or more, a sideboard should be used. But for asmall party the food may be placed directly on the table. In this case the waiterbrings the plates and dishes to the sideboard or to the table and sets them in front ofthe host. The host then portions the food and distributes it. Sometimes this serviceis also known as the carving and the service of the food is the responsibility of thehost.Note:- It is interesting to note that silver service is claimed to be of French origin bythe British as well as the French people and hence is the point of controversyregarding the actual origin of silver service. • RUSSIAN SERVICEThe basic element in Russian service is derived from the old Russian style of havinglarge joints, whole fish or whole birds, often decoratively treated in dishes with theirelaborates garnishes kept on the side board visible to the guest to help themselves asan English service. The Russian service is still seen for the service of whole birds,meat joints and whole fish to be presented in large portion after carving from thesideboard. Otherwise Russian service as a distinctive and separate form of service ofthis style no longer exists. • AMERICAN SERVICEFundamentally, this is a simplified form of service evolved in recent years(Depending upon the pre plating and pre setting of tables with the silver neededthroughout the meal). Plated food is brought from the kitchen by a waiter on a tray,which is then placed on a tray stand, beside a guest’s table. • PLATE SERVICEThis service cuts down the cost of labour (and there by its high priced). The clientsor guests here get pre-plated food. The food is directly served from the kitchen. Thisis also a form of personalized service as waiters serve the guests. This kind of serviceis usually used in canteen, boarding houses and fast food restaurants and coffeeshop.TYPES OF SELF HELP OR CAFETERIA SERVICEThe second type of service is self-help or cafeteria service. This service cuts downthe cost of labour and thereby the high price food. The clientele or the guest herewaits on himself or herself. This indicates that if the service is of their own. Here thecustomer takes a tray or plate and moves along-selecting the dishes from the displaycounter, and arrives at the place where the cashiers totals up the trays contents and
  • 30. the customer having made his payments carries the tray to the table. The useddishes are collected and returned to the washing up area by the cafeteria staff.Mobile trolleys are convenient for this purpose.Layout is a very important to ensure that the service is quick. Sufficient tables andchairs are provided in the dinning hall. The cafeteria unit must have a hot plate,refrigerator, a water cooler and a display counter. There should be a rail to rest andslide the trays upon. Some units have conveyer belts upon which the trays areplaced. The service may be table d’hôte or a la Carte and the courses are provided inproper sequence. A strict supervision is very essential for a high-class cafeteriaservice. A spoon and knife and a fork wrapped in a napkin may be kept at one end ofthe counter for the customers to pick up. In India two types of cafeteria service are in operation. From the point of view ofsales, in the first case coupons are sold at the beginning and the customers buy foodequal to the value of the coupons, but he is restricted from buying anything moreunless he goes again to get the additional coupons. Many a times the customers feellazy to do this and so in such cases it sometimes results into a loss of the business.In the second case the guest collects whatever he likes from the counter and pays atthe end. If the cashier is not vigilant enough he can make mistakes in totaling,which may result into a loss of the business. But from the customers point of viewthis is a better arrangement. • ROOM SERVICE:It implies serving of food and beverage in guest rooms of hotels. Small orders areserved in trays. Major means are taken to the room on trolleys. The guest places hisorder with the room service order taker. The waiter receives the order and transmitsthe same to the kitchen. In the meanwhile he prepares his tray or trolley. He thengoes to the cashier to have a cheque prepared to take along with the food order forthe guests’ signature or payment. Usually clearance of soiled dishes from the room isdone after half an hour or an hour. However, the guest can telephone Room Servicefor the clearance as and when he has finished with the meal. There are two types ofRoom Service:CENTRALIZED:Here al the food orders are processed from the main kitchen and sent to the roomsby a common team of waiters.DECENTRALIZED:Each floor or a set of floor may have separate pantries to service them. Orders aretaken at a central point by order-takers who in turn convey the order to therespective pantry.MOBILE PANTRIES:Some hotels have pantries installed in service elevators. A central point that conveysit to the mobile pantry receives orders. The pantry has to just switch on the floorand give instant service. For the sake of information, in countries, which have ashortage of manpower, large hotels install mechanized dispensing units in rooms.The guest inserts the necessary value of coins into the machine, which will eject pre-prepared food and beverages for guest consumption.  BREAKFAST SERVICEBreakfast means ‘breaking the fast’ and is the most important meal of the day.Breakfast service is very important for the waiter to create a favourable impressionon the guest and ensure he comes back to the restaurant for all his other meals.Therefore, the service should be quick; the food should be of good quality and asordered by the guest. Defined as the first meal of the day and literally means,breaking the fast of the night. It was during the 15th century that certain foods
  • 31. were created and served only at breakfast and this tradition continues even today.Today the foods eaten at home for breakfast have a lot to do with convenience, aspeople do not have the time to make and eat a leisurely breakfast. Bread-like itemsare popular breakfast foods during the workweek: bagels, muffins, scones, cereal ormuësli, with a cup of tea or coffee. Weekends are when the so-called "big breakfast"or "English breakfast" is served where eggs take center stage as well as bacon,sausages, tomatoes, toast, jams and preserves.Some breakfast foods and their countries of origin are:NORTH AMERICA - quick breads, especially muffins.FRANCE - croissantSCANDINAVIA - Danish pastriesGERMANY - kugelhopf (a rich yeast-leavened cake, similar to brioche, containingraisins and lemon peel with almonds on top.)SCOTLAND AND IRELAND - baps (a soft roll that contains butter or some other typeof fat to produce a tender baked good.)ENGLAND - crumpet (a perforated pancake-type baked good made with yeast andcooked on a griddle in a ring mold.)SPAIN - churros (A deep-fried sweet dough, much like a doughnut, that is coated withconfectioners sugar or a cinnamon/sugar mixture when still hot.)MIS –EN-PLACE FOR BREAKFAST SERVICEThe evening before, a clean tablecloth is laid on the table, and then the cover is set.A full breakfast cover will require side plates, side knife salt pepper, mustard, cruetset, fish-knife, fish fork, large knife and large fork, a dessert spoon, arranged in theusual way. Ashtray and butter dish are also placed for breakfast. Next morning thetable settings are completed with breakfast cups and saucer with teaspoon and tablenapkins. A bowl of grain sugar and another with sugar cubes or sugar milk, a jug ofcream is also kept on the table. Arrangement is made for service of preserves, butterdish and butter knife. The sideboard should be ready with service accessories, extranapkins, water jug, tumblers, crockery and a number of proprietary sauces.The commis will assemble all the things on the sideboard just before the service.Unnecessary items should never be kept on the table.BREAKFAST SERVICE IN RESTAURANTSThe guests are received in the usual way. The rules for serving breakfast are thesame as any other meal. In first class restaurants or hotels, silver service is done butnow-a-days most hotels provide plate service to expedite the service. Coffee, toasts,rolls, brioche and croissant are placed on the table at the same time as porridge orcereals unless the guest orders otherwise.At breakfast time toasts are always served in toast racks, and never stacked in a pile.Which makes it soggy? Make sure that the toasts and tea is freshly made and coffeeand hot milk really hot. After the main dish, the waiter moves the side plate in frontof the guest and serves the toast rack and preserves nearer to the guest.BREAKFAST SERVICE IN ROOMSThis is done by the floor waiter (Chef d’etage) of the room service department.Trolleys or trays are used for serving breakfast in the guest rooms. Tray is used for
  • 32. one and trolleys for more than one room. They are laid with chine and cutlery theprevious night in the floor pantry. At the last minute, the waiter places the hot foodand beverage on the tray or trolley and takes sit to the guest room at the requestedtime.Breakfast in the rooms are usually ordered the previous night or given as a standingorder or through doorknob breakfast order cards.After knocking and waiting to be admitted, the tray is placed on a special table onthe bed if required by the guest. The trolley is wheeled into the room, placed in thecenter or by the window or bed as requested.Before leaving the room, the waiter will show all the dishes to the guest so thatchanges can be made immediately, if required. The bill is also presented to the guestbefore the waiter leaves the room. BASIC METHODS OF FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICESThere are some basic principles in food and beverage service that a waiter mustknow:1. When the waiter at the table serves food from a platter onto a guest plate, theservice is done from the left.2. When food is pre-plated the service to the guest is usually done from the right,though modern convention permits service from the left also.3. All beverages are served from the right.4. Soups are served from the right unless it is poured by a waiter from a large tureeninto a soup cup in which case it is done from the left of the guest.5. Ladies are always served first and the remaining guests clockwise. Soiled platesshould always be cleared from the table from the right. Empty crockery and freshcutlery are always served from the right. Never reach across a Customer. Hence,when a guest is present at the table, all items and equipment on the right of guestmust be placed from the right and that on the left from the left. RESTAURANT EQUIPMENTS  CUTLERYAsparagus holder Pastry slicer Oyster forkPastry fork Corn on the cob holder Lobster pickButter knife Caviar knife Fruit knife & ForkNutcrackers Grape scissors Grape fruit spoonIce cream spoon Sundae spoon Cheese knifeSnail dish Snail fork Snail tongsStilton scoop Silver skewers Preserve spoonMustard spoon Sugar tongs Fish knifeFish fork Sweet fork Table forkSide knife Joint knife Table spoonSweet spoon Soup spoon Tea spoonCoffee spoon Dessert spoon Dessert fork  CROCKERYJoint plate / Large plate Cereal bowlHalf plate / Fish plate / Dessert plate Tea cup / SaucerQuarter plate / Side plate / B & B plate Coffee cup / SaucerSoup plate Tea potCoffee pot Sugar potSauce boat Cruet set  GLASSWARE
  • 33. Wine goblets Champagne saucer Champagne fluteWhite wine glass Red wine glass Cocktail glassesMartini glass Dock glass Port glassHigh ball Collins ZombieRolly polly Shot glass Juice glassWorthington Lager glass Pilsner glassSundae glass Beer goblet Water gobletBrandy balloon Brandy sniffer Liqueur glassWater tumbler Beer mugs Beer tankerOld fashioned Champagne tulip Fancy Collins  LINENThis is perhaps one of the most costly items in the overheads; therefore its control isof utmost importance. At the end of each service the dirty linen should be noted andsent to the housekeeping department to be exchanged for clean ones. Dirtyserviettes (napkins) when being exchanged for cleans ones should be tied in bundlesof tens.1. TABLE CLOTH: 137cm x 137cm (54in. x 54in.) to fit a table 76cm (2ft 6in.)Square, or a Round table 1-meter (3 ft) diameter. 183cm x 183cm (72in. x 72in.) to fit a table 1 meter (3 ft.) in diameter. 183cm x 244cm (72in x 96in.) to fit a rectangular shaped table. 183cm x 137cm (72in.x 54in.) to fit a rectangular shaped table.2. SLIP CLOTH: 1 Mt x 1Mt (36in. x 36 in.) used to cover a grubby table cloth3. SERVIETTE: 46-50 cm (18-20 in.) square of linen. 36-42 cm (14-17 in.) square of paper.4. BUFFET CLOTH: 2 mt x 4 mt (6ftx 12 ft). This is the general size and where thereare Longer tables more buffet cloth is required.5. TROLLEY CLOTH OR SIDE BOARD CLOTH: They are usually made from tablecloth Which are not suitable for use on the tables anywhere.6. WAITERS CLOTH OR SIDE BOARD CLOTH: USED by every waiter or on tray for theservice.7. GLASS CLOTH: Used for polishing and wiping glassware. VARITEY OF MENUTYPES OF MEALWHAT IS A MEAL?A meal is defined as a dish or a set of dishes taken in a particular time of a day tosatisfy one’s hunger.Following are the types of meal: - 1. EARLY MORNING TEA (EMT)
  • 34. The general timing is around 6:00 to 8:30am, again may vary from person to person.It should be a very heavy meal, because the longest period of time for which thestomach remains without food in between previous night’s dinner and the morningbreakfast. The different types of Breakfast are as follows:-a) CONTINENTAL BREAKFAST: -It is also known as “European Breakfast”. It contains fruit juice (fresh or canned), cutfruits, toast or breads along with jam, jelly, marmalade, butter, honey etc. It endswith tea or coffee. When the breakfast with tea, it is known as “THE SIMPLE” andwhen it ends with coffee it known as “THE CAFÉ SIMPLE”.THE COVER LAYOUT CONSISTS OF:(a) A side plate and a side knife(b) A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate(c) A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon(d) A sugar pot with tongs(e) A bread boat or toast rack(f) Serviette(g) Jam, marmalade and honey potsb) AMERICAN BREAKFAST: -This breakfast is heavier then the continental breakfast. It contains fresh or cannedfruit juices, cut fruits, cereals (corn flakes, wheat flakes etc.) with hot or cold meal,sugar or honey. The bread or toast with preservatives followed by “EGG TO ORDER” which means efficient preparation of eggs can be served according to thechoice of the guest. Finally it ends with coffee or tea.c) ENGLISH BREAKFAST: -This breakfast is the heaviest of all breakfast at first fresh fruits juice and cut fruitsare served. Then the serials are given with hot or cold milk with sugar or honey.Then breads or toasts are served with preserves followed by the “EGG TO ORDER”.Then the meat or fish preparations are served and finally it ends up with coffee it isknown as “THE CAFÉ COMPLETE”.THE COVER CONSISTS OF:(a) A side plate and a side knife(b) A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate(c) A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon(d) A sugar pot (a tongs, if there are sugar cubes)(e) A cruet set(/) A fish knife and fish fork(g) Dinner knife and fork(h) Jam, marmalade and honey(i) Dessert spoon and fork(j) ServietteTYPICAL ENGLISH BREAKFAST MENU:· Chilled fruit juices: Orange, pineapple. Tomato, grapefruit.· Stewed fruit: Prunes, pears, apples, figs.· Cereals: Porridge, cornflakes.· Fish: Grilled herring, fried sole.· Eggs: Poached, boiled, scrambled, fried, omelets· Meat: Sausages, bacon, salami, kidney, breakfast steak.· Breads: Toast, rolls, brioche, croissant, bread sucks.· Preserves: Jam, marmalade, honey, butter.
  • 35. · Beverage: Tea, coffee, hot chocolate.· Eggs can be served with: grilled tomatoes, sautéed mushrooms, baked beans, fried Potatoes.d) INDIAN BREAKFAST: -These various types of preparations, which differ from region to region in India. Suchas puri & bhaji, paratha & sabji, stuffed paratha like aloo paratha, paneer paratha etcwith curd & pickles, idli and dosa with sambhar & chatni, lassi fresh fruit juice,regional sweet dishes are also included. 2. ELEVANCES (BRUNCH)This is an intermediate meal between breakfast and lunch. The name has derivedfrom the timing of the meal. As it is taken around 11o’clock in the morning. At thistime a cup of tea or coffee is taken with biscuits or cookies. 3. LUNCHThis is the first major meal of the day; generally it is served around 12 noon to 1:30pm. During this time various dishes are taken but the amount must be controlled Agood amount of food is that when you think that a little more can be eaten, stop atthat time. 4. AFTERNOON TEAIt is normally taken at around 2:30 to 3:00pm, a cup of tea or coffees along withcookies are taken. 5. SNACKS/HIGH TEA/EVENING TEAIt is also known as “La’ five o’ clock”. It is taken generally between 4:30 to 6pm.It issomewhat an elaborate meal. Tea or coffee is taken along with a good amount ofsnacks like cutlets, fish fingers. Fritters. Cocktails. Sandwiches, kebabs, pakodas. 6. DINNERIt is the most elaborate meal of the day. It is taken in a relaxed mood. The time ofdinner is generally 8:30 to 9:30pm.A heavy wholesome food is taken, which involvesmany courses. Alcoholic beverage is also served in dinner. It is the second majormeal after the lunch. 7. SUPPERIt is taken just before sleeping. It is very light and consists of only one or twocookies or goodnight chocolates. MENU PLANNINGIn olden times, the bill of ---- as it is termed in English, or menu in French was notpresented at the table. It is said that in the year 1541AD,in a state banquet DukeHenry of Brunswick was seen to refer to a long slip of paper. On being asked aboutthe contents of that paper he said it was a programme of dishes prepared for theparty and with reference to it he could see what items was coming and save hisappetite accordingly. Thus we may presume that the menu developed from thisevent.UTILITY OF MENU PLANNING1 It enables the guest to select dishes according to his liking and budget.2 It enables the cook to verify what he is cooking everyday3 It enables the waiter to take order clearly and quickly without confusion.
  • 36. 4 It enables the management to arrive at the cost for the preparation of food in thekitchen and maintaining proper profitability.TYPES OF MENUAlthough menu can be made for various types of establishment, occasions clients andfunction. There are basically two types of menu 1. Table d’hôte 2. A la Carte.The former is a menu at fixed price with limited or no choice and the a la carte is alist of all dishes that may be prepared by the establishment and from which the guestmay choose his own menu. Each dish is priced separately and a certain cookingtime has to be allowed because it is cooked to order.MAXIMS OF MENU PLANNINGThe menu is the most important part of the caterers work, and its planning orcompilation is regarded as an art, which can only be acquired through experience andstudies. The menu may be treated as a bridge linking the establishment to thecustomers. Thus this important link should be handled by a number of people inliaison namely the F&B manager, Executive chef.It must be remembered that a suitable menu is one, which considers the followingfactors:1) The principle of balanced diet.2) The principle of digestibility.3) Seasons of the year and availability of raw materials.4) The nature of occasion (especially of the party catering)5) The resources of the kitchen staff and equipment available within the specific Period.6) The resources of serving staff including the space and availability of equipment.7) Clear cost and price policy of the management.8) Balancing of food in terms of flavour, color, texture and consistency.9) Storage facility.The following are other important points to be considered while compiling a tabledhote menu: -  Menu should not contain two dishes, which are composed of the same principle ingredient. Example if cauliflower soup is in the menu cauliflower should not be used in vegetable curry or in any vegetable boiled preparation afterwards.  Two white meats or two red meats should never follow each other. Example Pork with veal or mutton with beef or chicken with turkey.  A light dish should be followed by heavier dish and again a lighter dish should follow it.  Repetition of cooking methods should be avoided. Example If grilled fish is there in the menu grilled chicken or grilled mutton should be avoided.LANGUAGEThe menu should be written either in French or in English or in any local vernacularlanguage, and should be clearly and easily understandable to the guest. There shouldnot be any mixture of language. Dished of nation or of outstanding or personalimportance should not be translated. Example Irish stew, Fish Colbert etc. Ensureproper spelling and correct terms and correct sequence within the course.
  • 37. FRENCH CLASSICAL MENU AND THEIR APPROPRIATE SILVERSAccording to the French classical menu there are twelve elaborate courses as givenbelow: 1. APPETIZERS OR HORS DOEUVRE:-This course is composed usually of dishes of tangy and salty nature with which ameal often commences with an aim to stimulate appetite. The term Hors doeuvrevarieties usually applied to a variety of dishes offered under this course such aspotato salad, Russian salad, meat salad, chicken salad, sausages, salami, smokedsalmon, egg mayonnaise, goose liver paste, anchovies, sardines etc. Single items mayalso be served from the above list of appetizers before the service of soup. Somefruits juices, fruit cocktails, certain varieties of fresh fruits, different shellfishcocktails etc. are also served as appetizers. There are mainly two types of appetizers:- (a) General Appetizers (b) Classical Appetizers.a) GENERAL APPETIZERS: Fish knife and fish fork are the silver used in this course.Many establishments have introduced their own specially designed cutleries for theservice of hors d’ oeuvres which are know as hors d’oeuvre knife and hors d’oeuvrefork. The general crockery is a half plate.b) CLASSICAL APPETIZERS: Different dishes served under this heading are oysters,caviar, prawn cocktails, crab cocktails, melon grape fruit tomato juice cocktailspineapple punch etc.Service of these dishes may be as follows: a. FRUIT JUICE: These are served in a fruit juice glass (pony tumbler / glass) Placed on an under plate with a teaspoon. b. MELON: There are mainly five types of melon served in restaurant namely Cantaloupe, Cherantaise, Honeydew, Pasteque and Watermelon. When the melon is over ripe and served with skin, a dessertspoon should be provided in addition to its usual silver, fruit knife and fruit fork. If the melon is cut into small pieces, provide a teaspoon. The general crockery is a half plate. c. GRAPE FRUIT: Grape fruit is served in a grape fruit cup placed on an under liner with a grape fruit spoon. In case of non-availability of grapefruit spoon and fork a teaspoon is provided. If the grape fruit cup is not available place the grape fruit on a napkin folded into a lotus shape, which is further placed on a half plate. Some examples of general Hors d’oeuvres A. SALADS (PLAIN AND COMPOUND): Examples of plain salads includes fish and meat salads, cucumber salad, tomato salad, potato salad, beetroot salad etc. Examples of compound salads include Russian salads (mixed vegetables in mayonnaise), Italian salad (vegetable salad with cube of salami, anchovy fillets and mayonnaise). B. FISH: It may include items such as anchovy, herring, lobster, mackerel, smoked eel etc. C. MEAT: Includes items such as pates, ham, (raw, boiled or smoked) and salami.
  • 38. D. CANAPÉS: These are slices of bones with crusts removed, cut into a variety of shapes, then toasted or fried in oil or butter and garnished. Garnishes can include smoked salamis, fois gras, prawns, cheese, asparagus tips, egg, gherkins etc. E. EGGS: These can be poached or hard boiled cut into two and garnished or stuffed with onions fillings, which include the yolk. SOME EXAMPLE OF CLASSICAL HORS D’OEUVRES A. ASPARAGUS: Fresh asparagus cab is extra hot with melted butter or hollandaise sauce or cold with vinaigrette or mayonnaise. It is useful to place an upturned fork under the right hand side of the plate tip the plate so that the sauce will form in a well at the bottom of the plate towards the left hand side. Eating can be with a side knife and fork, with an asparagus tong (holder) or with the fingers. If with the fingers, then a finger bowl and a spare napkin should be offered. B. CAVIAR: Caviar is the roe of sturgeon fish, the best-known species of fish. (Caviar is the roe of sturgeon family. It is also made of the roe of beluga, herring ...........starka, osetra. Served with a caviar knife (carved blade knife) or side knife on the right hand side of the cover. Served onto a cold fish plate. A finger bowl is also provided on the table. If caviar knife is not available a fish knife and fish fork is laid on the table. C. CHARCUTERIE: This can include a selection of orange or meat (mainly pork items including ham, salamis, smoked ham etc. Cover is a side knife and dessert fork or a joint knife and fork. D. OYSTERS: They are sold in dozens in the market and generally six oysters are served in a portion. Oysters are served on a bed of crushed ice in a soup plate or tea plate, which should again be placed on an under plate. Silver used for oysters is an oyster fork placed on the right hand side of the cover making an angle of 45 degree with the edge of the table. If oyster fork is not available a fish fork is provided. A finger bowl should also be placed on the table. E. SHELLFISH COCKTAIL: prawn cocktail, lobster cocktail, shrimp cocktail, crab cocktail, Cray fish cocktail etc are served in a tall lobster cocktail glass placed on an under plate with a tea spoon. 2. SOUPS OR POTAGEIn general soup may be called an extract of meat or vegetable. Usually two types ofsoups are provided on the menu. (A) Thick or cream soup (B) Thin or clear soupTHICK OR CREAM SOUP:Are served in a soup plate with a soupspoon kept on the right hand side. Examplesare cream of tomato soup, puree of lentil soup, Scotch broth, mulligatawny soupTHIN OR CLEAR SOUP:This type of soup can be further divided into two kinds.
  • 39. 1) Consommé without garnish 2) Consommé with garnishConsommé with garnish are served in deep plate or a soup plate with a soupspoonplaced on the right hand side of the cover. Example consommé julienne, consomméroyal, consommé celestine etc.Consommé without garnish are served in a double handled soup cup with adessertspoon placed at the right hand side of the cover. Example consommé Claireand Consommé en tasse.Note: - now days many catering establishment serve all different types of consomméor clear soup, in consommé cup or soup cup with a dessert spoon. 3. FISH OR POISSONFish being a lighter dish prepares the palate for the heavier dishes to follow. Silversused are fish knife and fish fork and the food is served on a half plate. 4. ENTRÉEDishes following fish are served before the main course is known as entrée, whichliterally means entrance. This dish is complete in itself with its appropriateaccompanying sauces and vegetables. Example meat chop, breast cutlets, chickencutlets, etc. and various other dishes made of egg, example scotch egg, peas omeletsetc.Silvers used are small knife, small fork and the food is served in half plate. 5. REMOVE OR RELEVEIt is better known as joints such as legs of mutton, ribs of beef, shoulder of lamb,saddle of mutton etc. braised or roasted or grilled or boiled and served along withpotatoes and at least two vegetables with their appropriate sauce. This actually themain course of the menu. In Indian style of cooking, curries may be made out ofsuch joints and are served with accompaniments like pulao, rice, chapattis, naan,pickles, chutney, papad, Bombay duck etc.Silvers used are large knife and large fork and the food is served on a full plate. InIndian type of main dish a dessertspoon may also be provided in addition to its usualsilver. A finger bowl with lukewarm water should also be placed on the table. 6. SORBET This is actually a rest course and it counter acts the effects of dishes alreadyconsumed. A sorbet is a water ice flavoured with a few drops of champagne orbrandy. Served in a tumbler with a teaspoon placed on an under plate, Cigarettepreferably strong variety are served in the course. 7. ROAST OR ROTIThis course signifies the poultries and game, for example chicken, duck, turkey,partridge, pheasants etc. accompanied by suitable sauces and gravy. Nicely dressedsalad is also served with it, along with some potato preparation.Silver used is large knife large fork and the food is served in a full plate. In Indiantype of preparation, a finger bowl and an additional dessertspoon should be given. 8. VEGETABLES OR LEGUMEIn this course dressed vegetables are served as a separate dish itself and thevegetables mostly chosen are asparagus, artichoke, cauliflower, cabbage, tomato,French beans, green peas etc.
  • 40. These items are served on a half plate with a small knife and a small fork lay on thetable. For serving asparagus no cutlery is required as it is eaten with hand. A fingerbowl should be provided with each. 9. SWEET OR ENTREMETS DE SUCREThis course may consist of either hot or cold sweets. Example: caramel custard,honeycomb mould, coffee mouse, opera cream etc.Silvers provided for general sweets are dessertspoon or dessert fork or small fork.Crockery is half plate.Plain ice cream, vanilla ice cream, strawberry ice cream, pistachio ice cream etc. Areserved in an ice cream cup with an ice cream spoon on an under plate.Parfait ice cream like tutti fruity is served in a tall parfait glass with a parfait spoonplaced on under plate. 10. SAVOURY There are mainly three types of savouries. Savouries are small tit-bits, which aresalty and tangy in taste, served to cut down the sweetness of tongue.FISH SAVOURY- Sardine, Tuna, is generally served on toast as fish savoury. Generallysilver are fish knife and fish fork. And the dish is served on a half plate.MEAT SAVOURY – Liver on toast, kidney on toast, angel on horseback, are served asmeat savoury on half plate with a small knife and a small fork.CHEESE SAVOURY- Assorted cheese is offered to the guests on a cheese boat placedon the cheese tray with a cheese knife. For the guest a cheese plate or a quarterplates should be placed on the cover along with a small knife. Cheese should alwaysbe served with some accompaniment like cream cracker biscuits, butter, celery stick,watercress. A finger bowl should also be provided on the table. 11. DESSERTSIt means the service of fruits may be fresh or dry. Assorted fruits are served on fruitbaskets.Silver used on the cover is fruit knife and fruit fork. Finger bowl should also bepassed on the table. If grapes are served, a grape scissor and an additional finger bowlwith cold water should also be laid on the table. In case of nuts provide a nutcracker.Fruits should always be served in a fruit plate. 12. CAFÉ OR COFFEEIt is served at the end of a meal in a coffee cup or demi tasse. Liquors or brandy mayalso be served along with coffee. Cigarettes or cigars are also offered to the guest atthis stage.Note: - While planning a menu coffee should not be considered to be one of thecourses. It is just the concluding part of a meal.When a meal completes with tea, it’s known as “COMPLETE”. And when a mealcompletes with coffee, it’s known as “CAFÉ COMPLETE”. MODIFIED FRENCH CLASSICAL MENU (17 COURSES)1. HORS’D OEUVRES (APPETIZERS): Traditionally this course consisted of a varietyof compound salads but now includes items such as pates, mousses, fruits,Charcuterie and smoked fish.
  • 41. 2. POTAGES (SOUP): include all soups both hot and cold3. OEUFS (EGG DISHES): There is great number of egg dishes beyond the usual omelettes but these have not retained its popularity in modern menus.4. FARINEUX (PASTA AND RICE): Include all pasta and rice dishes. Can be referred toas farinaceous dishes.4. POISSON (FISH): This course consists of fish dishes both hot and cold. E.g. smoked salmon, smoked trout.6. ENTRÉE: Entrée are generally small and well-garnished dishes generally come fromthe kitchen ready for serve. They are usually accompanied by a rich sauce or gravy.7. SORBET: Traditionally sorbets (now called granites) were served to give a pausewithin a meal, allowing the palate to be refreshed. They are lightly frozen water icesoften based on unsweetened fruit juice and may be served with a spirit, liqueur oreven champagne poured over. Cigars and cigarettes are offered.8. RELEVE: This refers to main roasts or other larger joints of meat, which could beserved with potatoes and vegetable.9. ROTI: This term traditionally refers to roasted game or poultry dishes.10. VEGETABLE: Apart from vegetables served in releve certain vegetables can beserved separately in this course such as asparagus and artichokes.11. SALAD: Often refers to a small plate of salad, which is taken after a main course.E.g. Green salad with dressing.12. BUFFET FROID (COLD BUFFET): this course includes a variety of cold meats, fishand egg items together with a range of salads and dressings.13. FROMAGE (CHEESE):Includes various cheese varieties and biscuits, breads,celery, grapes and apples. This course refers to dishes like soufflés.14. ENTREMETS (SWEETS): Refers to both hot and cold puddings.15. SAVOUREUX (SAVOURY): Sometimes simple savouries such as welsh rarebit orother items on toast, or in pastries or in savoury soufflés may be served at this stage.16. DESSERT (FRUIT): Fresh fruits and nuts and sometimes-candid fruits are served.17. CAFÉ (BEVERAGES): Traditionally it refers to coffee but now tea, tisanes,chocolates, and proprietary beverages are also served.

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