Chapter 5 Writing A Speech


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Chapter 5 Writing A Speech

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION: • Aristotle, a Greek philosopher, devised a rule that all good writing must contain a beginning, a middle, and an end. A writer must consciously separate these three parts in the correct proportion so that your speech will be effective. Clear speech requires thorough organization. Clear organization develops ideas and makes the listeners and speakers interact with each other better.
  3. 3. A. Opening the Speech • Making a good impression is very important. • Your introduction sets the climate wether to feel positively or negatively toward the rest of what you have to say. • The introduction does the following:
  4. 4. • Sets the tone; • Makes an impression; • Arouses interest in both listener and speaker; • Develops the boundaries of the topic for the audience; • Gives the audience your intentions for the speech.
  5. 5. Pointers in making introductions •Wake up your audience. •Hold their attention. •Arouse their interest. •Establish a willingness to listen. •Lead them slowly into the body of your speech.
  6. 6. •Provide a preview of what you are going to say. •Explain your speech purpose. •Break down prejudice •State the limitations of your subject. •Arouse curiosity and get a favorable response from your audience.
  7. 7. Ways of starting talks…..
  8. 8. Concepts to remember on openings •Memorize your opening sentence •Get to the point •Have self-confidence •Open with short, forceful sentences •Make your introduction or opening appealing
  9. 9. Developing the Main Idea The body of your speech should be 70% to 80% of the whole. It should develop the main idea. Thus, the body is an orderly and detailed mass of evidence that helps to drive the main idea into the minds of the audience. Your audience will have difficulty remembering all the information you want to convey. That’s why you need to remember the old saying that states
  10. 10. “Tell them what you are going to tell them, tell them, and tell them what you told them.”
  11. 11. Guide in Developing the Body of your Talk • Express your ideas clearly so that your hard-won evidence is not obscured and weakened. • Execute your purpose by means of an orderly plan. • Expand your major points with strong evidence in detailed form. • Extract from your sources information the most important evidence. Your points will be weakened by the addition of trivial items or the omission of strong ones. • Expunge or strike out any details that do not support your main idea.
  12. 12. Ways of Developing a Speech • The Topical PatternThe Topical Pattern *Speech arrangement that is divided according to well-known topics or categories *Subject is broken according to types, kinds, categories, reasons, groups, traits, parts, advantages, disadvantages, and so on using the topical pattern.
  13. 13. Example: • BODY II. White-Collar Jobs A. History of the term B. Nature of the job C. Types of work belonging to it III. Blue-Collar Jobs A. History of the term B. Nature of the job C. Types of work belonging to it
  14. 14. • The Sequential PatternThe Sequential Pattern *Arrangement based on space and time *Also called ‘spatial’ arrangement and ‘chronological’ arrangement *Physical space or geographic proximity is used to show relationship and to produce unity. *The chronological approach is used for how-to- speeches or historic speeches *Another term is “The Way it happened” arrangement. *For insistance, you relate what happened on your trip, at the convention, during the fire, or any event in the order it happened. *In short, you start at the beginning and stop at the end.
  15. 15. II. BODY A. Off to Boracay 1.Getting on the bus 2.The plane ride 3.The ferry boat ride B. The First Day in Boracay 1.Breakfast at Titay’s 2.Jet-ski ride 3.Dinner and dancing at Lodge C. Second Day 1.Skiing on the Beach 2.Lunch at club Panoly 3.Jamming on the shore 4.Seeing celebrities at dinner
  16. 16. D. Third Day 1.Slight drizzling in the morning 2.Swimming on the Beach 3.Exploring the grounds 4.Going to the underground cave E. Fourth Day 1.Seafoods for lunch 2.Swimming in the rain 3.Last disco party 4.Last-minute shopping 5.Farewell dinner F. Home Again 1.Ride back 2.My husband meeting me at the airport
  17. 17. • Logical ArrangementLogical Arrangement * The order in which the major points of the body will appear is determined by what you think is reasonable and in orderly plan. * Another name is ‘It Seems Reasonable’ arrangement Types of Logical Arrangement a. The Causal Pattern- the causal arrangement make known the causes and effects. For example, you could cite that teenagers in your community do not have recreational outlets and cite its effect
  18. 18. BODY II. Cause: No recreational outlets for teenagers A. No basketball court B. No dancing hall C. No attention given to social activities III. Effect: Increase negative characteristics of teenagers A. Unhappiness B. Lack of cooperation C. Increase in juvenile delinquency
  19. 19. b. The Problem-Solution Pattern- this arrangement is desirable in trying to sell a solution, plan or scheme to an audience. It is effective when you are proposing a change or suggesting an alternative to a present-day problem. In this arrangement four questions are asked in this order: 1. Is there a problem? 2. What is a proposed solution to the problem and is it possible? 3. Is this solution desirable? 4. Is there a better solution?
  20. 20. Concluding the Speeches • Present a Summary of Your Theme- simple and commonly used method which fixes attention on the theme of the speech. The conclusion of your speech does the following:  Summarize your main points;  Highlight the central theme; and  Leave a clear, definite favorable impression on your listeners.
  21. 21. • Summarize the Individual Points You Presented  Restate the essential facts or major points which you have presented.  Don’t overuse this device as it can be monotonous. • Return to the Method Used in the Introduction  Very obvious but effective method of conclusion  Audiences usually have a feeling of pleasure and satisfaction when they hear this type of ending.  You may repeat the exact words of your opening, if they are especially memorable, or you may refer to the theme or idea with which you began.
  22. 22. • Appeal to the Emotions  We all feel more than we think  People will often remember an appeal which touches the heart • Use an Illustrations, Story, or Anecdotes  Concrete or personal examples may well make your main idea more vivid than a dozen generalizations.  Make the audience see the forest and not the trees • Refer to a Rhetorical Question  Forces the audience to engage themselves in your topic by mentally answering the question and by pondering the information you have given them  An effective ending for a persuasive speech
  23. 23. • Refer to the Occasion • Refer to a Quote Tips on concluding a speech 1.Be brief 2.Don’t introduce any new material in your conclusion 3.Don’t use long sentences 4.Plan your concluding sentences.
  24. 24. Thank you for listening!!!