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Projectsformba.blogspot.comIMPACT OF JOBENRICHMENTON EMPLOYEEMOTIVATIONLOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY                     ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com                               CONTENTSPREFACECERTIFICATEACKNOWLEDGEMENTCHAPTER 1  1.1 INTRODUC...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com                                  EXECUTIVE SUMMARYSomeone has rightly said that practical expe...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comBased on above understanding of job enrichment, we have identified factors which by which joben...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com                                             PREFACECorporate Training in an organization is an...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comIn the Nutshell the whole experience was enlightening and interesting.                         ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com      Chapter 11.1 Introduction: Job EnrichmentThe current research project is based on JOB ENR...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comOne of the key factors in good job design is job enrichment. This is the practice of enhancing ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com    designers could all work together for one client or one campaign. Allowing employees to    ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comJob enrichment is the process of "improving work processes and environments so they are moresat...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com2. Link employee’s performance directly to reward:•   Clear definition of the reward is a must•...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comJob enrichment can only be truly successful if planning includes support for all phases of thei...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comIn order for a job enrichment program to produce positive results, worker needs andorganization...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comand additional recognition while affording Ms. Keenans team financial results and workloadflexi...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comTHEORIES APPLIEDSome attempts to bolster employee motivation still consider only extrinsic rewa...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com   3. It must provide the employee feedback about his or her accomplishments. A constructive,  ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comresources to carry out are diminished. Energy is diverted from self-preservation to improved ta...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comwhich influence motivation to learn found that it is directly related to the extent to which tr...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comManagers, who recognize the "small wins" of employees, promote participatory environments,and t...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com1.2 Review of LiteratureHonold(1997), suggests that an empowered organization is one where mana...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comspecialists since job content considerations should affect recruitment, training, placement and...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comdifferently focused or higher positions, merely adding more of the same responsibilities relate...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comChapter 2                              Projectsformba.blogspot.com
Projectsformba.blogspot.com2.1 COMPANY PROFILEAmrit Banaspati is an ISO 9001-2000 certified company. It has a history of f...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comTypes of Refined Oil: -       Ginni Ground Nut Oil       Ginni Ground Cotton Seed Oil       ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com   1. Gagan Vanaspati   2. Ginni Gold Refined Sunflower   3. Ginni Refined Cotton Seed Oil   4....
Projectsformba.blogspot.com    Khao Gagan Raho magan                  :     Banaspati    The Oil of Today               ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com                   THE MISSION STATEMENT OF THE COMPANY“To product and sell goods to achieve th...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com2.2 HISTORYAmrit Banaspati Company is a public limited company started on 29 March 1940 by Late...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comFINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR AMRIT CORP. LTDYear over year, Amrit Corp. Ltd has seen revenues fall ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comNET INTEREST EXPENSE                                -57.3   -59.4       -57.5     -2.7Other Non...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comChapter 3 3.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY •       To understand the JOB ENRICHMENT IMPACT ON EMPLOY...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com    •   By increasing client relationships, this increases direct relationship between employee...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comResearch design provides the glue that holds the research project together. A design is used to...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comName and proper identification of the employees was taken from the attendance register of theco...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com   •   Implementing the sampling plan   •   Sampling and data collecting   •   Reviewing the sa...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comIn statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models, and theirass...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comTwo-way anova without replicationNull hypotheses: When there is only a single observation for e...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comtreatments on small plots within larger blocks of land. Because the larger blocks may differ in...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comBy applying Anova test we can analyzes if there is impact of Job redesign on Motivation,Absente...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com2) Impact of Job Autonomy on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover                        Motiva...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication   SUMMARY          Count      Sum      Average     Varian...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com3) Impact of Feedback on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover                           Motivat...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without ReplicationSUMMAR         Count       Sum     Average     Variance   ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com4) Impact of Work Challenges on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover                     Motiva...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication   SUMMARY          Count     Sum     Average    Variance ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com5) Impact of customer interaction on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover                      ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication   SUMMARY          Count      Sum      Averag    Varianc ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com   6) Impact of Participative Decision on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover                 ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication   SUMMARY          Count      Sum     Average     Varianc...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com7) Impact of Flexible Working Hours on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover                    ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication  SUMMARY          Count      Sum     Average     Varianc ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com8) Impact of Technical skills on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover                         M...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication  SUMMARY          Count      Sum     Average     Varianc ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com9) Impact of on the Job training on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover            Variables  ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication  SUMMARY          Count      Sum     Average    Varianc  ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comFindings:1. After doing the survey it is found that 68.89% of the employees believe that Job En...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com       EFFECT OF JOB ENRICHMENT ON MOTIVATION                              Increase   Decrease ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com         EFFECT OF JOB ENRICHMENT ON ABSENTEEISM                              Increase   Decrea...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com                 EFFECT OF JOB ENRICHMENT ON  TURNOVER                                         ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.comChapter 5Conclusion:From the above study we can deduce that the job enrichment helps in increas...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com                        LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYAlthough the sincere efforts have been done to ...
Projectsformba.blogspot.com                                 BIBLIOGRAPHYBOOKS    Jain.T.R, Statistics for MBA, 2nd Editio...
A report on impact of job enrichment on employee motivation
A report on impact of job enrichment on employee motivation
A report on impact of job enrichment on employee motivation
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  1. 1. Projectsformba.blogspot.comIMPACT OF JOBENRICHMENTON EMPLOYEEMOTIVATIONLOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  2. 2. Projectsformba.blogspot.com CONTENTSPREFACECERTIFICATEACKNOWLEDGEMENTCHAPTER 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURECHAPTER 2 2.1 COMPANY PROFILE 2.2 HISTORY 2.3 GROWTHCHAPTER 3 3.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 3.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.3 RESEARCH DESIGN 3.4 SAMPLE SIZE 3.5 SAMPLING TECHNQUE 3.6 SOURCES OF DATACHAPTER 4 4.1 ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 4.2 FINDINGSCHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONCHAPTER 6 BIBLIOGRAPHYCHAPTER 7 APPENDICE Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  3. 3. Projectsformba.blogspot.com EXECUTIVE SUMMARYSomeone has rightly said that practical experience is far better and closer to the realworld than more theoretical exposure. The practical experience helps the students to viewthe real business world closely, which in turn widely influences their perceptions andarguments their understanding of the real situation.Research work constitutes the backbone of any management education programme. Amanagement student has to do research work quiet frequently during his entire span.MBA is the stepping-stone to management care in order to reach practical and concreteresults.This project is on Job Enrichment Impact on Employee Motivation of Amrit Banaspati CompanyLtd.Job Enrichment refers vertical expansion of jobs. It increases the degree to which the workercontrols the planning, execution, and evaluation of work. An enriched job organizes the tasks soas to allow the worker to do a complete activity, increases the employee’s freedom andindependence, increases job responsibility and provides feedback.Employee’s job enrichment could be done in number of ways as follows. • By job rotation, allows workers to do different varieties of tasks. • By combining tasks, work activities are combined to give more challenging work assignments. • By implementing participative management, this allows employees to participate in decision making and strategic planning. • By providing autonomy for work , this allows employees to work independently • By providing feedback for their work, this allows employees to understand how poor or well they are doing. • By increasing client relationships, this increases direct relationship between employee and his clients. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  4. 4. Projectsformba.blogspot.comBased on above understanding of job enrichment, we have identified factors which by which jobenrichment could be done .These factors are as follows. • Job redesigning • Autonomy • Feedback • Work place challenge • Customer interaction • Participate management • Flexible working hours • Use of technical skills • On the job trainingThe main objectives of the project is to understand the JOB ENRICHMENT IMPACT ONEMPLOYEE MOTIVATION in detail by interacting with the management, supervision andworkers and to see how far the various measures are implemented and bring out thedrawbacks if any and recommended measures for the betterment of the system. Secondlyto critically evaluate the JOB ENRICHMENT impact on employee motivation as well ason absenteeism and turnover. At last study the most extensive changes those are criticalfor high motivation and performance. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  5. 5. Projectsformba.blogspot.com PREFACECorporate Training in an organization is an integral and inseparable part of technical educationsyllabi; it provides an opportunity and practical exposure to the students who are the futureprofessional captains or leaders of the industry.There is a definite gap between theoretical knowledge/information imparted in classes andpractical happenings/ground realities in any industrial organization. This gap is bridged bypractical training, which also strengthens the process of communication between the futureprofessionals and corporate world.I have done my summer training project from Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, ChandigarhRoad, Rajpura. The company produces the edible oil quality products, having brand names ofGagan, Gini (GNO, CSO), Bansari, Sunehri Teer, and Merrigold, Sunflower oils under itsbanner.I am assigned the task to study Job Enrichment Impact on Employee Motivation of ABC, whichis controlled by the personnel department.During this training period I learned a lot of other things beside the project assigned to me. Ihave learned the office procedure in maintaining various registers and dissemination ofinformation at various managerial levels. I fenced the professional attitude in air and did grasp toan extent, what it takes to become a professional? One thing more which I learned during mytraining is that the working area of HR is very wide. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  6. 6. Projectsformba.blogspot.comIn the Nutshell the whole experience was enlightening and interesting. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I have prepared this project with the help of the many persons working in theorganization. I collected primary data from the personnel department but secondary andsupporting data was provided by many others. A project work is never the work of a one person; rather it is a combination ofideas, suggestions, views & contribution involving various folks. I want to thank several people for their professional assistance. This includes……………………………………………………………………………………………………..who gave me privilege of working as a trainee in Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, Rajpura.They devoted their precious time and rendered generous support for my research and writing. I also want to thank all the person of the personnel department who gave their fullsupport in completing my project. All the persons mentioned above not only helped me but alsoprovided guidance for completing the project by their vast experience and professional attitude.I shall ever remain thankful to them and express my sincere gratitude Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  7. 7. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Chapter 11.1 Introduction: Job EnrichmentThe current research project is based on JOB ENRICHMENT. The new changes both in science andtechnology and business environment have brought a change in functional approach of an industrialorganization. The human resource executive plays a significant role to set and achieve the objectives as thefunctional horizon is extended from legalistic mundane approach to human relation. Employees are notperceived as human resource, as some human resource experts have termed the human resource as“knowledge capital” of the organization.It is, therefore, imperative for human resource executive to adopt a rationale approach to muster andaccumulate the so-called knowledge capital. This places an immense responsibility on HR executive, as thereno direct scale to measure human HR activities vis-à-vis the output.Definition: Job Enrichment is the addition to a job of tasks that increase the amount of employee control orresponsibility. It is a vertical expansion of the job as opposed to the horizontal expansion of a job, which iscalled job enlargement.Most of us want interesting, challenging jobs where we feel that we can make a real difference to otherpeople’s lives. As it is for us, so it is for the people who work with or for us. So why are so many jobs soboring and monotonous? And what can you do to make the jobs you offer more satisfying? (By reducingrecruitment costs, increasing retention of experienced staff and motivating them to perform at a high level;you can have a real impact on the bottom line.) Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  8. 8. Projectsformba.blogspot.comOne of the key factors in good job design is job enrichment. This is the practice of enhancing individual jobsto make the responsibilities more rewarding and inspiring for the people who do them.With job enrichment, you expand the task set that someone performs. You provide more stimulating andinteresting work that adds variety and challenge to an employee’s daily routine. This increases the depth of thejob and allows people to have more control over their work. The central focus of job enrichment is givingpeople more control over their work (lack of control is a key cause of stress, and therefore of unhappiness.)Where possible, allow them to take on tasks that are typically done by supervisors. This means that they havemore influence over planning, executing, and evaluating the jobs they do. In enriched jobs, people completeactivities with increased freedom, independence, and responsibility. They also receive plenty of feedback, sothat they can assess and correct their own performance.Here are some strategies you can use to enrich jobs in your workplace: • Rotate Jobs – Give people the opportunity to use a variety of skills, and perform different kinds of work. The most common way to do this is through job rotation. Move your workers through a variety of jobs that allow them to see different parts of the organization learn different skills and acquire different experiences. This can be very motivating, especially for people in jobs that are very repetitive or that focus on only one or two skills. • Combine Tasks – Combine work activities to provide a more challenging and complex work assignment. This can significantly increase “task identity” because people see a job through from start to finish. This allows workers to use a wide variety of skills, which can make the work seem more meaningful and important. For example, you can convert an assembly line process, in which each person does one task, into a process in which one person assembles a whole unit. You can apply this model wherever you have people or groups that typically perform only one part of an overall process. Consider expanding their roles to give them responsibility for the entire process, or for a bigger part of that process. • Identify Project-Focused Work Units – Break your typical functional lines and form project-focused units. For example, rather than having all of your marketing people in one department, with supervisors directing who works on which project, you could split the department into specialized project units – specific storyboard creators, copywriters, and Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  9. 9. Projectsformba.blogspot.com designers could all work together for one client or one campaign. Allowing employees to build client relationships is an excellent way to increase autonomy, task identity, and feedback.• Create Autonomous Work Teams – This is job enrichment at the group level. Set a goal for a team, and make team members free to determine work assignments, schedules, rest breaks, evaluation parameters, and the like. You may even give them influence over choosing their own team members. With this method, you’ll significantly cut back on supervisory positions, and people will gain leadership and management skills.• Implement Participative Management – Allow team members to participate in decision making and get involved in strategic planning. This is an excellent way to communicate to members of your team that their input is important. It can work in any organization – from a very small company, with an owner/boss who’s used to dictating everything, to a large company with a huge hierarchy. When people realize that what they say is valued and makes a difference, they’ll likely be motivated.• Redistribute Power and Authority – Redistribute control and grant more authority to workers for making job-related decisions. As supervisors delegate more authority and responsibility, team members’ autonomy, accountability, and task identity will increase.• Increase Employee-Directed Feedback – Make sure that people know how well, or poorly, they’re performing their jobs. The more control you can give them for evaluating and monitoring their own performance, the more enriched their jobs will be. Rather than have your quality control department go around and point out mistakes, consider giving each team responsibility for their own quality control. Workers will receive immediate feedback, and they’ll learn to solve problems, take initiative, and make decisions.Job enrichment provides many opportunities for people’s development. You’ll give them lots ofopportunity for their task to participate in how their work gets done, and they’ll most-likelyenjoy an increased sense of personal responsibility. Job enrichment is connected to the conceptof job enlargement. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  10. 10. Projectsformba.blogspot.comJob enrichment is the process of "improving work processes and environments so they are moresatisfying for employees".Many jobs are monotonous and unrewarding - particularly in the primary and secondaryproduction industries. Workers can feel dissatisfied in their position due to a lack of a challenge,repetitive procedures, or an over-controlled authority structure.Job enrichment tries to eliminate these problems, and bring better performance to the workplace.There are three key parts to the process of job enrichment1. Turn employees effort into performance:• Ensuring that objectives are well-defined and understood by everyone. The overall corporate mission statement should be communicated to all. Individuals goals should also be clear. Each employee should know exactly how she fits into the overall process and be aware of how important her contributions are to the organization and its customers.• Providing adequate resources for each employee to perform well. This includes support functions like information technology, communication technology, and personnel training and development.• Creating a supportive corporate culture. This includes peer support networks, supportive management, and removing elements that foster mistrust and politicking.• Free flow of information. Eliminate secrecy.• Provide enough freedom to facilitate job excellence. Encourage and reward employee initiative. Flextime or compressed hours could be offered.• Provide adequate recognition, appreciation, and other motivators.• Provide skill improvement opportunities. This could include paid education at universities or on the job training.• Provide job variety. This can be done by job sharing or job rotation programmes.• It may be necessary to re-engineer the job process. This could involve redesigning the physical facility, redesign processes, change technologies, simplification of procedures, elimination of repetitiveness, redesigning authority structures. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  11. 11. Projectsformba.blogspot.com2. Link employee’s performance directly to reward:• Clear definition of the reward is a must• Explanation of the link between performance and reward is important• Make sure the employee gets the right reward if performs well• If reward is not given, explanation is needed3. Make sure the employee wants the reward. How to find out?• Ask them• Use surveys( checklist, listing, questionnaire)Job enrichment is a type of job redesign intended to reverse the effects of tasks that are repetitiverequiring little autonomy. Some of these effects are boredom, lack of flexibility, and employeedissatisfaction (Leach & Wall, 2004). The underlying principle is to expand the scope of the jobwith a greater variety of tasks, vertical in nature, that require self-sufficiency. Since the goal is togive the individual exposure to tasks normally reserved for differently focused or higherpositions, merely adding more of the same responsibilities related to an employees currentposition are not considered job enrichment.The basis for job enrichment practices is the work done by Frederick Herzberg in the 1950s and60s, which was further refined in 1975 by Hackman and Oldham using what they called the JobCharacteristics Model. This model assumes that if five core job characteristics are present, threepsychological states critical to motivation are produced, resulting in positive outcomes (Kotila,2001). Figure 1 illustrates this model. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  12. 12. Projectsformba.blogspot.comJob enrichment can only be truly successful if planning includes support for all phases of theinitiative. Ohio State University Extension began a job enrichment program in 1992 andsurveyed the participants five years later. The results, broken down into 3 sub-buckets of databeyond the main grouping of advantages/disadvantages as shown in Table 1, indicate theUniversity had not fully considered the planning and administrative aspects of the program(Fourman and Jones, 1997). While the benefits are seemingly obvious, programs fail not becauseof a lack of benefits, but rather due to implementation problems. These problems can include aperception of too great a cost, lack of long-term commitment of resources, and potential jobclassification changes (Cunningham and Eberle, 1990). Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  13. 13. Projectsformba.blogspot.comIn order for a job enrichment program to produce positive results, worker needs andorganizational needs must be analyzed and acted upon. According to Cunningham and Eberle(1990), before an enrichment program is begun, the following questions should be asked: 1. Do employees need jobs that involve responsibility, variety, feedback, challenge, accountability, significance, and opportunities to learn? 2. What techniques can be implemented without changing the job classification plan? 3. What techniques would require changes in the job classification plan? (p.3)When asked about the successes of a Training Generalist job enrichment program begun in 2002,Karen Keenan, Learning Manager with Bank of America, stated the accomplishments were,"greater than expected". The Training Generalist program has resulted in three successfulparticipants to date. According to Ms. Keenan, positive results can be directly tied to a programthat addressed the strategic goal of greater resource flexibility without adding to staff, as well asto proper planning, guidance, and feedback for the participants. Having a voluntary programcontributed as well, attracting a high caliber of individuals eager to expand their skills and bepositioned for advancement. To date, all three Training Generalists have experienced promotions Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  14. 14. Projectsformba.blogspot.comand additional recognition while affording Ms. Keenans team financial results and workloadflexibility it could not have otherwise achieved.A job enrichment program can be a very effective intervention in some situations where aPerformance Technician is faced with a request for motivational training. Ralph Brown (2004)summed it up very nicely:Job enrichment doesnt work for everyone. Some people are very resistant to more responsibilityor to opportunities for personal growth, but…researchers report that some people they expectedto resist, seized the opportunity. Enriching jobs is a particularly effective way to developemployees provided the jobs are truly enriched, not just more work for them to do.EVOLUTION OF MOTIVATION THEORIESMainstream theories about employee motivation have varied greatly over the past century. Earlyconceptions, sometimes termed "traditional" management theory, assumed that work was anintrinsically undesirable pursuit and that workers naturally sought to do as little as possible. Thistranslated into a sort of carrot-and-stick managerial policy whereby companies tried to maximizemotivation by providing adequate compensation as an incentive but also by guarding against anysign of wayward behavior through authoritarian control regimes.A backlash in the 1940s and 1950s against such policies, which did not always prove particularlysuccessful, emphasized building a conducive social environment in which workers felt valuedand respected. This model still maintained managements authority over all critical matters, butattempted to make the workplace more palatable by humanizing it.Current notions of employee motivation started to take root in the 1960s. Elaborating on theimportance of human factors, contemporary theories envision workers as large and oftenuntapped reserves of skills, ideas, and other potential benefits to an organization. The motivationprocess, according to this view, involves tailoring the work environment and incentive structureto harness as much of this potential as possible. This approach emphasizes granting employeesgreater flexibility, power, responsibility, and autonomy so that, to some extent, they may shapetheir own work environments as they see fit, while remaining accountable for both favorable andunfavorable outcomes of their actions. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  15. 15. Projectsformba.blogspot.comTHEORIES APPLIEDSome attempts to bolster employee motivation still consider only extrinsic rewards. Endlessmixes of employee benefits such as health care and life insurance, profit sharing, employeestock ownership plans (ESOPs), exercise facilities, subsidized meal plans, child careavailability, company cars, and more have been used by companies in their efforts to maintainhappy employees. Although some experts argue that many of these efforts, if only directed atmotivating employees, are just a waste of company money, it is clear that for certain individualsin certain scenarios, monetary incentives can stimulate better job performance—at least for awhile.The debate, rather, has been over whether such material factors have more than a superficialimpact on motivation. Many modern theorists propose that the motivation an employee feelstoward his or her job has less to do with material rewards such as those described above, thanwith the design of the job itself. Studies as far back as 1924 show that simplified, repetitive jobs,for instance, fostered boredom and the taking of frequent, unauthorized breaks by those whoperformed them. In 1950 a series of attitude surveys found that highly segmented and simplifiedjobs resulted in lower employee morale and output. Other consequences of low employeemotivation include absenteeism and high employee turnover, both very costly for businesses."Job enlargement" initiatives began to crop up in major companies in the 1950s, with onechampion of the cause being IBM founder Thomas Watson, Sr. On the academic front, Turnerand Lawrence proposed task attributes that characterize jobs that motivate.Turner and Lawrence suggest that there are three basic characteristics of a "motivating" job: 1. It must allow a worker to feel personally responsible for a meaningful portion of the work accomplished. An employee must feel ownership of and connection to the work he or she performs. Even in team situations, a successful effort will foster an individuals awareness that his or her contributions were important in accomplishing the groups tasks. 2. It must provide outcomes which have intrinsic meaning to the individual. Effective work that does not lead a worker to feel that his or her efforts matter will not be maintained. The outcome of an employees work must have value to him or hers and to others in the organization. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  16. 16. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3. It must provide the employee feedback about his or her accomplishments. A constructive, believable critique of the work performed is crucial to a workers continuance or improvement of that which has already been performed.In 1971 Hackman and Lawler tested these ideas. Using a telephone company as a test site, theysurveyed 200 employees to determine relationships between employee attitudes and behaviorand the characteristics of the employees job. The study also assessed whether an employeesreaction to his or her work was dependent upon particular kinds of satisfactions valued by theemployee. Positive correlations were found to exist between the quality of an employees job,with quality jobs meeting the three criteria above, and positive employee attitudes and behavior.Further, "doing well" at a job was interpreted by the employee as having put in a high qualityperformance, rather than a high quantity performance. Employees felt positively when they hadaccomplished something they felt was meaningful, and strove to do so if given an encouragingopportunity.MOTIVATION TOOLSThe methods of motivating employees today are as numerous and different as the companiesoperating in the global business environment. What is the nature of the company and itsindustry? Is it small or big? What kind of culture is fostered? Is it conservative or innovative?What is important to the employees? What steps have been taken to find out?The best employee motivation efforts focus on what employees deem to be important. It may bethat employees within the same department of the same organization will have differentmotivators. Many organizations today find that flexibility in job design and reward has resultedin employees increased longevity with the company, increased productivity, and better morale.Although this "cafeteria-plan" approach to the work-reward continuum presents variety, somestrategies are prevalent across all organizations that strive to improve employee motivation.  EMPOWERMENTGiving employees more responsibility and decision-making authority increases their control overthe tasks for which they are held responsible and better equips them to carry out those tasks.Trapped feelings arising from being held accountable for something one does not have the Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  17. 17. Projectsformba.blogspot.comresources to carry out are diminished. Energy is diverted from self-preservation to improved taskaccomplishment. Empowerment brings the job enlargement of the 1950s and the job enrichmentthat began in the 1960s to a higher level by giving the employees some of the power to expandtheir own jobs and create new, personally identified challenges.  CREATIVITY AND INNOVATIONAt many companies, employees with creative ideas do not express them to management for fearof jeopardizing their jobs. Company approval and toeing the company line have become soingrained in some working environments that both the employee and the organization suffer.When the power to create in the organization is pushed down from the upper echelon to linepersonnel, employees are empowered and those who know a job, product, or service best aregiven the opportunity to use their ideas to improve it. The power to create motivates employeesand benefits the organization in having a more flexible workforce, using more wisely theexperience of its employees and increasing the exchange of ideas and information amongemployees and departments. These improvements also create an openness to change that cangive a company the ability to respond quickly to market changes and sustain a first moveradvantage in the marketplace. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., better known as 3M,has fostered company wide creativity for decades. Its relentless support of new ideas has paid offin profitability and loyal employees who are so motivated that they have the most nimble andsuccessful new product development system in the industry. MCI (now part of MCI WorldCom),too, encourages employees to develop new ideas and take chances with them. A top managerthere stated, "We dont shoot people who make mistakes around here, we shoot people who donttake risks."  LEARNINGIf employees are given the tools and the opportunities to accomplish more, most will take on thechallenge. Companies can motivate employees to achieve more by committing to perpetualenhancement of employee skills. Accreditation and licensing programs for employees are anincreasingly popular and effective way to bring about growth in employee knowledge andmotivation. Often, these programs improve employees attitudes toward the client and thecompany, while bolstering self-confidence. Supporting this assertion, an analysis of factors Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  18. 18. Projectsformba.blogspot.comwhich influence motivation to learn found that it is directly related to the extent to which trainingparticipants believe that such participation will affect their job or career utility. In other words, ifthe body of knowledge gained can be applied to the work to be accomplished, then theacquisition of that knowledge will be a worthwhile event for the employee and employer.  QUALITY OF LIFEThe number of hours worked each week by American workers is on the rise again and manyfamilies have two adults working those increased hours. Under these circumstances, manyworkers are left wondering how to meet the demands of their lives beyond the workplace. Often,this concern occurs while at work and may reduce an employees productivity and morale.Companies that have instituted flexible employee arrangements have gained motivatedemployees whose productivity has increased. Programs incorporating flextime, condensedworkweeks, or job sharing, for example, have been successful in focusing overwhelmedemployees toward the work to be done and away from the demands of their private lives.  MONETARY INCENTIVEFor all the championing of alternative motivators, money still occupies a rightful place in the mixof motivators. The sharing of a companys profits gives incentive to employees to produce aquality product, perform a quality service, or improve the quality of a process within thecompany. What benefits the company directly benefits the employee. Monetary and otherrewards are being given to employees for generating cost savings or process-improving ideas, toboost productivity and reduce absenteeism. Money is effective when it is directly tied to anemployees ideas or accomplishments. Nevertheless, if not coupled with other, non monetarymotivators, its motivating effects are short-lived. Further, monetary incentives can provecounterproductive if not made available to all members of the organization.  OTHER INCENTIVESStudy after study has found that the most effective motivators of workers are non monetary.Monetary systems are insufficient, in part because expectations often exceed results and becausedisparity between salaried individuals may divide rather than unite employees. Proven nonmonetary motivators foster team spirit and include recognition, responsibility, and advancement. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  19. 19. Projectsformba.blogspot.comManagers, who recognize the "small wins" of employees, promote participatory environments,and treat employees with fairness and respect will find their employees to be more highlymotivated. One companys managers brainstormed to come up with 30 powerful rewards thatcost little or nothing to implement. The most effective rewards, such as letters of commendationand time off from work, enhanced personal fulfillment and self-respect. Over the longer term,sincere praise and personal gestures are far more effective and more economical than awards ofmoney alone. In the end, a program that combines monetary reward systems and satisfiesintrinsic, self-actualizing needs may be the most potent employee motivator. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  20. 20. Projectsformba.blogspot.com1.2 Review of LiteratureHonold(1997), suggests that an empowered organization is one where managers supervise morepeople than in a traditional hierarchy and delegate more decisions to their subordinates (Malone,1997). Managers act like coaches and help employees solve problems. Employees, he concludes,have increased responsibility. Superiors empowering subordinates by delegating responsibilitiesto them leads to subordinates who are more satisfied with their leaders and consider them to befair and in turn to perform up to the superior’s expectations (Keller and Dansereau, In practice,the definition of delegation appears to be of critical importance.It can be discerned by thelanguage used by the researcher. The words “subordinate” and “superior” in the languagesuggests giving additional tasks to employees. This is not perceived as empowering byemployees (Menon 1995). Providing for the development of self-worth by negotiating forlatitude in decision making and changing aspects of the employee’s job leads to increased levelsof perceived self-control and hence empowerment.Johnson (2008), studied that absenteeism due to stress increased slightly in South Africancompanies in 2008 compared with the previous year. So far 3.4% of all sick leaves taken untilthe end of June this year were due to stress, depression and anxiety, according to Cams, acompany which looks at corporate absenteeism. This was line with indications that the countrywas experiencing an economic downturn. In 2007 this figure was 3.1% and 3.9% in 2006. Theresearch was done with the help of statistics from 100,000 employees in 60 companies, usingdata from doctor-issued sick certificates. "Companies should therefore continue to askthemselves what they could do to make their staff happy and productive."Mills(1973), predicts that Industrial sociologists and psychologists have often paid little morethan scant attention to the actual work of the people they have been studying. The literature isfull of brief comments about the work situation which lack both data and an analyticalframework. This deficiency is surprising. Work content has been shown to have a significantimpact on behaviour, morale, and productivity in the workplace. The purpose of job designresearch is to seek to understand this relationship more clearly and then to use research-basedinsights to create jobs which are more satisfying to perform, and more efficient in performance.As such this body of knowledge should be a subject of particular relevance for personnel Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  21. 21. Projectsformba.blogspot.comspecialists since job content considerations should affect recruitment, training, placement andeffort-reward policies. However, although job content has very wide repercussions for thepersonnel area, job design is frequently left by default to the technical and engineeringspecialists, who seek to make their work system function effectively in production rather thanhuman terms.Mogelof et.al (2005), discusses context-driven job satisfaction tradeoffs associated with careersin élite versus non-élite organizations and the role organizations may play in facilitating orimpeding workers’ participation in valued activities. It emphasizes the importance ofparticipation in valued activities as a key driver of job satisfaction. The original purpose of thisstudy was not to focus on job satisfaction, but rather to conduct an exploratory investigation ofhow symphony orchestra players cope with the frustrations and disappointments of orchestra life.Symphony orchestra players report surprisingly low levels of job satisfaction given theperception held by many that life and work in symphony orchestras is glamorous and rewarding.Orpen(2007), examined that (1) Employees in the enriched condition perceived their jobs asmore enriched than before; (2) enrichment caused significant increases in employee jobsatisfaction, job involvement, and internal motivation; (3) enrichment led to significant decreasesin absenteeism and turnover; but (4) enrichment had little impact on performance, whetherassessed by superiors ratings or by actual output. These findings, which are described in terms ofthe Hackman-Oldham theory of job design, are regarded as suggestive evidence that enrichmentcan cause substantial improvements in employee attitudes, but that these benefits may not lead togreater productivity. It is argued that in order to explain the effect of enrichment on performance,it is necessary to consider other factors besides the psychological states produced by jobs whichare seen to have certain characteristics.Peter et.al (2004), said Job enrichment is a type of job redesign intended to reverse the effects oftasks that are repetitive requiring little autonomy. Some of these effects are boredom, lack offlexibility, and employee dissatisfaction (Leach & Wall, 2004). The underlying principle is toexpand the scope of the job with a greater variety of tasks, vertical in nature, that require self-sufficiency. Since the goal is to give the individual exposure to tasks normally reserved for Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  22. 22. Projectsformba.blogspot.comdifferently focused or higher positions, merely adding more of the same responsibilities relatedto an employees current position is not considered job enrichment.Pettman(1979), examines that “quality of working life” (QWL) has grown steadily over a periodin which the industrialised nations have increasingly come to question the role and status ofhuman beings in the modern technological environment. In recent years concern with the natureof work, its impact upon people, and their attitudes towards it, seem to have sharpened.Investigation of, and experimentation with, the qualitative aspects of working life—its ability toconfer self-fulfilment directly, for example, as opposed to being a means of acquiring goods—has gained momentum under the influence of a unique set of economic, social, political andtechnological factors. The outpouring of books, reports and articles from a wide variety ofsources has, not surprisingly, grown apace.Roberts(2006), study that absence is a major issue for many UK organizations, yet less than halfmonitor the cost of absence to their business (CIPD, July 2007). On average the cost of absenceis £659 per employee per year and in addition to this the indirect cost of absenteeism on theorganization is significant, affecting productivity levels and knowledge management and puttingcustomer service, morale and corporate reputations at risk.Managing absence is about starting with the little things.Ullah(1991), Considers that implementing total quality management is more a matter ofchanging people than changing technologies. Shows how psychology can be used to facilitate theprocess. Examines attitudes and behaviour, values and motivation. Discusses work redesign andgoal setting as methods of motivating staff to achieve desired standards of work behaviour.Finally, considers the importance of psychological measurement to test customer attitudes.Concludes that there are other areas of organisational psychology which have implications forimplementing a programme of total quality, and that the human side of TQM is at least asimportant as the technical side. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  23. 23. Projectsformba.blogspot.comChapter 2 Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  24. 24. Projectsformba.blogspot.com2.1 COMPANY PROFILEAmrit Banaspati is an ISO 9001-2000 certified company. It has a history of five decades inbusiness of edible oil products. Today, it is one of the largest manufacturing unit of edible oil inthe country. Its main brands are Gagan, Ginni (GNO, CSO), Bansari, Sunehri Teer, Merrigold,and Sunflower Oil, which are very popular and virtually common household names in variousparts of the country.In terms of turnover Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, has been rated amongst the top 100companies of the India. Late Shri Laxmi Narain Bajaj set up Amrit Banaspati Company Limitedin the year 1940. It was the ninth company of the country established in the Banaspati industry.The main branches that are under the Amrit group are:a) Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, Ghaziabad (UP.)b) Amrit Paper Sailkhurd, Hoshiarpur (Punjab)c) Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, Rajpura (Punjab)Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, Ghaziabad (UP.)In Ghaziabad Amrit Banaspati Company has a corporate office.Amrit Paper Sailkhurd, Hoshiarpur (Punjab)One of the leading producers of the print paper in the country. The production capacity hasincreased from 10,000 mts in 1980 to 24,000 mts at present. The company is saving preciousforeign exchange for the country.Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, Rajpura (Punjab)This unit of the Amrit Group was put in the year 1969-1970 with a capacity of 100 mts per dayof Banaspati (Hydrogenated vegetable oil). Later in the year 1982-83 capacity was increased 125mts per day. Then later on a separate facility to produce set of refined oils to the capacity of 60mts per day. At present company is manufacturing 3600 mts of Banaspati oil out of which 3000of mts is produced in small packets under the brand name Gagan, which is a well-known andaccepted brand in entire Northern India. In Refined oil company is producing 1600-1700 mts permonth. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  25. 25. Projectsformba.blogspot.comTypes of Refined Oil: -  Ginni Ground Nut Oil  Ginni Ground Cotton Seed Oil  Ginni Gold Sunflower Oil  Ginni Corn OilGinni is again a renewed and well-known brand in Northern India. Very recently the companyhas launched table margarine under the brand name Merrigold. The product has received a goodresponse. Rajpura Company is catering in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal & Chandigarh. NorthernEastern states are roughly estimated around 60% of the turnover of Rajpura is around 400 crores.Rajpura plant is equipped with latest technology, developed in field of oil processing. Besidestechnology developed by machinery suppliers, the company has its own complete research anddevelopment facility. Where company keeps improving the process needed for oil processingand other R&D work. Hence the plant regularly introduces new products in the market at regularintervals of time.State of Punjab has plenty of edible oils available and hence maximum need ofthe company is met locally within the Punjab state and rest of the need is fulfilled from theother parts of the country.In future it seems that oil industry is going to be in good demand as itsproducts are a basic part of the day today life and part of household. LIST OF PRODUCTS:- Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  26. 26. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1. Gagan Vanaspati 2. Ginni Gold Refined Sunflower 3. Ginni Refined Cotton Seed Oil 4. Ginni Refined Ground Oil 5. Ginni Lite Refined Oil 6. Ginni Refined Ricebran Oil 7. Ginni Refined Soyabean Oil 8. Merrigold Table Margarine 9. Gagan Kachi Ghani Mustard Oil 10. Merri Lite Calorie Vegetable 11. Gagan Salt 12. Gagan Basmati Rice VARIOUS SLOGANS USED BY COMPANY Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  27. 27. Projectsformba.blogspot.com  Khao Gagan Raho magan : Banaspati  The Oil of Today : Cotton Seed Oil Woman of today  The Complete Oil : Sunflower Oil Complete family  Its Takes on the Flavour of Food : Groundnut Oil  As Pure as Mother’s Love : Mustered Oil  It’s Not Butter, It’s Better : Merrigold Table Margrine  The Taste of Good Health : Merritreat Bread Spread Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  28. 28. Projectsformba.blogspot.com THE MISSION STATEMENT OF THE COMPANY“To product and sell goods to achieve the highest return on sales in the industry and thetotal satisfaction of the customers, employees and the share holders in that order”. KEY ORGANIZATION ELEMENTS OF AMRIT BANASPATI CO.LTD • Chairman cum Managing director — Mr.Naresh Kumar Bajaj • Vice Chairman cum Managing director — Mr. Jagesh Kumar Khaitan • Senior Executive Director — Mr.Suresh.C. Aggrwal • Director —Mr. Manmohan Lal Sarin • Director —Mr.Romesh Lal • Director —Mr.Hari Shankar Goenka • Director —Mr.Lalit Mohan Suri • Director —Mr.Virander kumar Sibal • Director —Dr.Balbir Singh Bhatia • Director —Mr.Pavan Khaitan • Director —Mr.Ashwani Kumar Bajaj • Director —Mr.Vikram Bajaj • G.M- HR & Admn —Dr.R.K.Kalia • Sr Manager-HR& Pers —Mr.B.s.Jaswal Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  29. 29. Projectsformba.blogspot.com2.2 HISTORYAmrit Banaspati Company is a public limited company started on 29 March 1940 by Late Sh.Laxmi Narain Bajaj. The company Commenced business on the day of basakhi i.e. 13th April1940 by production of Banaspati at its Ghaziabad plant.In 1940, 25-mt capacity of plant was started at Ghaziabad (U.P.). Very soon the product becamepopular and sales increased accordingly. Hence the capacity of the plant was increased to 50-mtper day in 1954.The company was managed by M/S Amrit Agency Private Limited till 1956. Thereof themanaging agency was terminated and now Board of Directors manages it.Governor of Punjab Dr D.C. Pavte realizing the increased demand in the field a 100-mt per dayplant was started at Rajpura in the year 1969. The foundation stone of the company was laid byDr D.C. Pavte on March 06, 1969 while the company was inaugurated by the honorable chiefminister of Punjab Mr. S. Gurnam Singh on December 06, 1969. The commercial production ofthe Banaspati at Rajpura unit started on January 10, 1970.By noticing the power shortages in the state the company has installed diesel generator sets ofhigh capacity at both of its units so as to reduce production losses due to power failures.The company’s most prestigious product today is Merrigold Cholesterol free Margarine launchedin 1991 at its Rajpura unit.Since its establishment the company has grown very fast and also diversified its business. Themain objective of the company is the consumer satisfaction, quality of the product to reach atbreak-even point and price stabilization2.3 GROWTHBUSINESS TURNOVERThe Present turnover of Amrit group is around 1100 crores and that of Rajpura unit is of 800crores. In terms of turnover Amrit Banaspati Company has been ranked amongst the topcompanies of the India. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  30. 30. Projectsformba.blogspot.comFINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR AMRIT CORP. LTDYear over year, Amrit Corp. Ltd has seen revenues fall from 4.7B to 242.6M. This along with anincrease in income tax expense has led to a reduction in the bottom line from 146.1M to 71.5M.Currency in As of:Mar 31 Mar 31 Mar 31 Mar 31Millions of Indian Rupees 2004 2005 2006 2007 Press Press Press Press Release Release Release ReleaseRevenues 4,474.9 4,628.4 4,671.4 242.6Other Revenues 29.8 20.2 23.6 12.2TOTAL REVENUES 4,504.7 4,648.6 4,695.0 254.7Cost of Goods Sold 3,164.4 3,238.3 3,055.0 122.7GROSS PROFIT 1,340.3 1,410.4 1,640.0 132.1Selling General & Admin Expenses, Total 108.7 119.4 123.1 15.0Depreciation & Amortization, Total 37.1 54.9 62.4 11.4Other Operating Expenses 1,081.3 1,125.4 1,264.5 75.5OTHER OPERATING EXPENSES, TOTAL 1,227.0 1,299.7 1,450.0 101.9OPERATING INCOME 113.2 110.7 190.1 30.2Interest Expense -57.3 -59.4 -57.5 -2.7 Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  31. 31. Projectsformba.blogspot.comNET INTEREST EXPENSE -57.3 -59.4 -57.5 -2.7Other Non-Operating Income (Expenses) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0EBT, EXCLUDING UNUSUAL ITEMS 55.9 51.3 132.5 27.6Other Unusual Items, Total -- 24.0 99.8 72.5Other Unusual Items -- 24.0 99.8 72.5EBT, INCLUDING UNUSUAL ITEMS 55.9 75.3 232.3 100.1Income Tax Expense 11.5 16.3 86.1 28.6Earnings from Continuing Operations 44.4 59.0 146.1 71.5NET INCOME 44.4 59.0 146.1 71.5NET INCOME TO COMMON INCLUDING 44.4 59.0 146.1 71.5EXTRA ITEMSNET INCOME TO COMMON 44.4 59.0 146.1 71.5The revenues fall from 4.7B to 242.6M of Amrit Corp. Ltd because Amrit group splits intovarious individual companies in 2006 due to this there is sudden fall in the revenue of AmritCorp. The Present turnover of Amrit group is around 1100 crores and that of Rajpura unit is of800 crores. In terms of turnover Amrit Banaspati Company has been ranked amongst the topcompanies of the India. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  32. 32. Projectsformba.blogspot.comChapter 3 3.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY • To understand the JOB ENRICHMENT IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION in detail by interacting with the management, supervision and workers and to see how far the various measures are implemented and bring out the drawbacks if any and recommended measures for the betterment of the system. • To critically evaluate the JOB ENRICHMENT impact on employee motivation as well as on absenteeism and turnover. • To study the most extensive changes those are critical for high motivation and performance.3.2 Research MethodologyJob Enrichment refers vertical expansion of jobs. It increases the degree to which the workercontrols the planning, execution, and evaluation of work. An enriched job organizes the tasks soas to allow the worker to do a complete activity, increases the employee’s freedom andindependence, increases job responsibility and provides feedback.Employee’s job enrichment could be done in number of ways as follows. • By job rotation, allows workers to do different varieties of tasks. • By combining tasks, work activities are combined to give more challenging work assignments. • By implementing participative management, this allows employees to participate in decision making and strategic planning. • By providing autonomy for work , this allows employees to work independently • By providing feedback for their work, this allows employees to understand how poor or well they are doing. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  33. 33. Projectsformba.blogspot.com • By increasing client relationships, this increases direct relationship between employee and his clients.The research methodology adopted in this research consists of the following steps:Procedure followed: Based on above understanding of job enrichment, we have identifiedfactors which by which job enrichment could be done .These factors are as follows. • Job redesigning • Autonomy • Feedback • Work place challenge • Customer interaction • Participate management • Flexible working hours • Use of technical skills • On the job trainingA questionnaire was prepared to see the effect of all of the above factors of employeemotivation, absenteeism and turnover which in turn effects employee satisfaction.Independent variables for the study: Job Enrichment ( Job redesigning, Autonomy, Feedback,work place challenge, customer interaction, participative management, flexible working hours,use of technical skills, on the job training)Dependent variables for the study: Motivation, Absenteeism, Turnover, Job Satisfaction.3.3 Design of Research Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  34. 34. Projectsformba.blogspot.comResearch design provides the glue that holds the research project together. A design is used tostructure the research, to show how all of the major parts of the research project -- the samples orgroups, measures, treatments or programs, and methods of assignment -- work together to try toaddress the central research questions. Here, after a brief introduction to research design, Illshow you how I classify the major types of designs.Our research design is concentrated with the specification of method and procedures used forconducting study. The research design of our study is both explanatory as well as descriptive.Our research is exploratory in initial stages to provide background to the study. Here we exploregeneral subjects to study.i) Study of available literature.ii) Survey of experienced individuals.iii) Analysis of insight stimulating examples.Gradually as we proceed we shift to a descriptive research design as we concrete data fromprimary sources as well. We choose to make the study descriptive as it is too made regardingJOB ENRICHMENT IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION of the company.3.4 Sample SizeWhere the frame and population are identical, statistical theory yields exact recommendations onsample size. However, where it is not straightforward to define a frame representative of thepopulation, it is more important to understand the cause system of which the populations areoutcomes and to ensure that all sources of variation are embraced in the frame. Large number ofobservations is of no value if major sources of variation are neglected in the study. In otherwords, it is taking a sample group that matches the survey category and is easy to survey.The sample size of a statistical sample is the number of observations that constitute it. It istypically denoted n, a positive integer (natural number). Typically, different sample sizes lead todifferent precision of measurement. This can be seen in such statistical rules as the law of largenumbers and the central limit theorem. Population consists of 3000 employees. Our sampleelement comprises middle level management and staff managers. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  35. 35. Projectsformba.blogspot.comName and proper identification of the employees was taken from the attendance register of thecompany.Our sample unit is AMRIT BANASPATI CO. LTD.Initial characteristics of the sample sizeSample size taken for study: 30Age Group: 30-45 yrsWork Experience: 4-8 yearsAverage rate of absenteeism: once in 3 monthsJob Monotony: averageJob Satisfaction: Satisfied3.5 Sampling techniqueSampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individualobservations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for thepurposes of statistical inference. Each observation measures one or more properties (weight,location, etc.) of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish objects or individuals. Surveyweights often need to be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design. Results fromprobability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide practice.The sampling process comprises several stages: • Defining the population of concern • Specifying a sampling frame, a set of items or events possible to measure • Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame • Determining the sample size Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  36. 36. Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Implementing the sampling plan • Sampling and data collecting • Reviewing the sampling processThe sampling technique will be probabilistic sampling more specifically the random sampling.As in probabilistic sampling the select unit for observation with known probabilities so thatstatistically sound assumptions are supported from the sample to entire population so that we hadpositive probability of being selected into the sample. Since the number of employees at differentlevel management is quite high so it is not possible to collect data from each individual workingin the company. Here we will use SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING method for selecting theemployees. In this method each member of the population has an equal probability of being thesample.3.6 Sources of Data My purpose is to provide information that will assist you in interpreting Statistics data. Theinformation (also known as metadata) is provided to ensure an understanding of the basicconcepts that define the data including variables and classifications; the underlying statisticalmethods and surveys; and key aspects of the data quality. Direct access to questionnaires is alsoprovided.I will used primary source of data that is structured questionnaire will be used. As our researchproblem is to study job enrichment impact on employee motivation. This research data collectedfrom the primary source only. Our method of collecting the data is from the questionnaire thatwill be filled by the respondent from the sample, it will be structured questionnaire. The projectreport much attention was paid on the subjective study because the topic deals with psycho-sociobehavior of the workers. The research work was carried out by visiting the various department ofA.B.C LTD.3.7 Test AppliedANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  37. 37. Projectsformba.blogspot.comIn statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models, and theirassociated procedures, in which the observed variance is partitioned into components due todifferent explanatory variables. The initial techniques of the analysis of variance were developedby the statistician and geneticist R. A. Fisher in the 1920s and 1930s, and is sometimes known asFishers ANOVA or Fishers analysis of variance, due to the use of Fishers F-distribution aspart of the test of statistical significance.R.A FISHER,”Analysis of variance is the separation of the variance ascrible to one group ofcauses from the variance ascrible to other group.Two-way anova (also known as a factorial anova, with two factors) when you have onemeasurement variable and two nominal variables. The nominal variables (often called "factors"or "main effects") are found in all possible combinations. For example, lets say you are testingthe null hypothesis that stressed and unstressed rats have the same glycogen content in theirgastrocnemius muscle, and you are worried that there might be sex-related differences inglycogen content as well. The two factors are stress level (stressed vs. unstressed) and sex (malevs. female). Unlike a nested anova, each grouping extends across the other grouping. In a nestedanova, you might have "cage 1" and "cage 2" nested entirely within the stressed group, while"cage 3" and "cage 4" were nested within the unstressed group. In a two-way anova, the stressedgroup contains both male and female rats, and the unstressed group also contains both male andfemale rats. The factors used to group the observations may both be model I, may both be modelII, or may be one of each ("mixed model").A two-way anova may be done with replication (more than one observation for each combinationof the nominal variables) or without replication (only one observation for each combination ofthe nominal variables).AssumptionsTwo-way anova, like all anovas, assumes that the observations within each cell are normallydistributed and have equal variances Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  38. 38. Projectsformba.blogspot.comTwo-way anova without replicationNull hypotheses: When there is only a single observation for each combination of the nominalvariables, there are only two null hypotheses: that the means of observations grouped by onefactor are the same, and that the means of observations grouped by the other factor are the same.It is impossible to test the null hypothesis of no interaction. Testing the two null hypothesesabout the main effects requires assuming that there is no interaction.How the test works: The mean square is calculated for each of the two main effects, and a totalmean square is also calculated by considering all of the observations as a single group. Theremainder mean square (also called the discrepance or error mean square) is found by subtractingthe two main effect mean squares from the total mean square. The F-statistic for a main effect isthe main effect mean square divided by the remainder mean square.Repeated measures: One experimental design that is analyzed by a two-way anova is repeatedmeasures, where an observation has been made on the same individual more than once. Thisusually involves measurements taken at different time points. For example, you might measurerunning speed before, one week into, and three weeks into a program of exercise. Becauseindividuals would start with different running speeds, it is better to analyze using a two-wayanova, with "individual" as one of the factors, rather than lumping everyone together andanalyzing with a one-way anova. Sometimes the repeated measures are repeated at differentplaces rather than different times, such as the hip abduction angle measured on the right and lefthip of individuals. Repeated measures experiments are often done without replication, althoughthey could be done with replication.In a repeated measures design, one of main effects is usually uninteresting and the test of its nullhypothesis may not be reported. If the goal is to determine whether a particular exercise programaffects running speed, there would be little point in testing whether individuals differed fromeach other in their average running speed; only the change in running speed over time would beof interest.Randomized blocks: Another experimental design that is analyzed by a two-way anova israndomized blocks. This often occurs in agriculture, where you may want to test different Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  39. 39. Projectsformba.blogspot.comtreatments on small plots within larger blocks of land. Because the larger blocks may differ insome way that may affect the measurement variable, the data are analyzed with a two-wayanova, with the block as one of the nominal variables. Each treatment is applied to one or moreplot within the larger block, and the positions of the treatments are assigned at random. This ismost commonly done without replication (one plot per block), but it can be done with replicationas wellChapter 4ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 1) Impact of Job redesign on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover Motivation Absenteeism Turnover Increase 25 2 6 Decrease 2 8 14 No Effect 3 20 10GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  40. 40. Projectsformba.blogspot.comBy applying Anova test we can analyzes if there is impact of Job redesign on Motivation,Absenteeism and Turnover or not.Step1: State Hypothesis:Ho: There is no impact of Job redesign on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.Ha: There is an impact of Job redesign on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication SUMMARY Count Sum Averag Varianc e e Row 1 3 33 11 151 Row 2 3 24 8 36 Row 3 3 33 11 73 Column 1 3 30 10 169 Column 2 3 30 10 84 Column 3 3 30 10 16 ANOVA Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit Variation Rows 18 2 9 7.69231 0.934205 6.944276 Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276 Error 520 4 130 Total 538 8 Interpretation: The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 7.69231, since calculated value is greater than the tabulated value, hence null hypotheses is rejected. There is impact of Job redesign on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 70% employees while on 6.70% level of motivation was decreased and 23.30% were not affected. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  41. 41. Projectsformba.blogspot.com2) Impact of Job Autonomy on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover Motivation Absenteeism Turnover Increase 24 2 8 Decrease 4 14 12 No Effect 2 14 10GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONANOVA: Two-Factor without ReplicationBy applying Anova test we can analyzes if there are is impact of Job autonomy on Motivation,Absenteeism and Turnover or not.Step1: State Hypothesis:Ho: There is no impact of Job autonomy on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.Ha: There is an impact of Job autonomy on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  42. 42. Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication SUMMARY Count Sum Average Variance Row 1 3 34 11.33333 129.3333 Row 2 3 30 10 28 Row 3 3 26 8.666667 37.33333 Column 1 3 30 10 148 Column 2 3 30 10 48 Column 3 3 30 10 4 ANOVA Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit Variation Rows 10.66667 2 5.333333 8.54795 0.947378 6.944276 Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276 Error 389.3333 4 97.33333 Total 400 8 Interpretation: The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 8.59231, since calculated value is greater than the tabulated value, hence null hypotheses is rejected. There is impact of Job autonomy on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 66.67% employees while on 13.33% level of motivation was decreased and 20.00% were not affected. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  43. 43. Projectsformba.blogspot.com3) Impact of Feedback on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover Motivation Absenteeism Turnover Increase 16 6 5 Decrease 4 9 13 No Effect 10 15 12GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONANOVA: Two-Factor without ReplicationBy applying Anova test we can analyzes if is impact of Feedback on Motivation, Absenteeismand Turnover or not.Step1: State Hypothesis:Ho: There is no impact of Feedback on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.Ha: There is an impact of Feedback on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  44. 44. Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without ReplicationSUMMAR Count Sum Average Variance Y Row 1 3 27 9 37 Row 2 3 26 8.666667 20.33333 Row 3 3 37 12.33333 6.333333Column 1 3 30 10 36Column 2 3 30 10 21Column 3 3 30 10 19 Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit Variation Rows 24.66667 2 12.33333 0.387435 0.701774 6.944276 Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276 Error 127.3333 4 31.83333 Total 152 8 Interpretation: The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 0.387435, since calculated value is less than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is accepted. There is no impact of feedback on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 20.00% employees while on 30.00% level of motivation was decreased and 50.00% were not affected. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  45. 45. Projectsformba.blogspot.com4) Impact of Work Challenges on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover Motivation Absenteeism Turnover Increase 21 8 6 Decrease 5 8 16 No Effect 4 14 8GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONANOVA: Two-Factor without ReplicationBy applying Anova test we can analyzes if is impact of work challenges on Motivation,Absenteeism and Turnover or not.Step1: State Hypothesis:Ho: There is no impact of work challenges on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.Ha: There is an impact of work challenges on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  46. 46. Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication SUMMARY Count Sum Average Variance Row 1 3 35 11.66667 66.33333 Row 2 3 29 9.666667 32.33333 Row 3 3 26 8.666667 25.33333 Column 1 3 30 10 91 Column 2 3 30 10 12 Column 3 3 30 10 28 ANOVA Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit Variation Rows 14 2 7 7.112903 0.895985 6.944276 Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276 Error 248 4 62 Total 262 8 Interpretation: The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 7.112903, since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is rejected. There is impact of work challenges on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 70.00% employees while on 16.67% level of motivation was decreased and 13.33% were not affected. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  47. 47. Projectsformba.blogspot.com5) Impact of customer interaction on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover Motivation Absenteeism Turnover Increase 18 4 2 Decrease 3 7 8 No Effect 9 19 20 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication By applying Anova test we can analyzes if is impact of Customer interaction on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover or not. Step1: State Hypothesis: Ho: There is no impact of Customer interaction on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. Ha: There is an impact of Customer interaction on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  48. 48. Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication SUMMARY Count Sum Averag Varianc e e Row 1 3 24 8 76 Row 2 3 18 6 7 Row 3 3 48 16 37 Column 1 3 30 10 57 Column 2 3 30 10 63 Column 3 3 30 10 84 ANOVA Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit Variation Rows 168 2 84 1.4 0.346021 6.944276 Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276 Error 240 4 60 Total 408 8 Interpretation: The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 1.4, since calculated value is less than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is accepted. There is no impact of Customer interaction on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 13.33%employees while on 23.34% level of motivation was decreased and 63.33%were not affected. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  49. 49. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 6) Impact of Participative Decision on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover Motivation Absenteeism Turnover Increase 24 2 5 Decrease 4 10 16 No Effect 2 18 9GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONANOVA: Two-Factor without ReplicationBy applying Anova test we can analyzes if there is impact of Participative Decision onMotivation, Absenteeism and Turnover or not.Step1: State Hypothesis:Ho: There is no impact of Participative Decision on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.Ha: There is an impact of Participative Decision on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  50. 50. Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication SUMMARY Count Sum Average Variance Row 1 3 31 10.33333 142.3333 Row 2 3 30 10 36 Row 3 3 29 9.666667 64.33333 Column 1 3 30 10 148 Column 2 3 30 10 64 Column 3 3 30 10 31ANOVA Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit Variation Rows 0.666667 2 0.333333 9.002747 0.997258 6.944276 Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276 Error 485.3333 4 121.3333 Total 486 8 Interpretation: The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 9.002747, since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is rejected. There is impact of Participative Decision on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 80.00%employees while on 13.33% level of motivation was decreased and 6.67%were not affected. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  51. 51. Projectsformba.blogspot.com7) Impact of Flexible Working Hours on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover Motivation Absenteeism Turnover Increase 15 3 2 Decrease 7 11 18 No Effect 8 16 10GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONANOVA: Two-Factor without ReplicationBy applying Anova test we can analyzes if there is impact of Flexible Working Hours onMotivation, Absenteeism and Turnover or not.Step1: State Hypothesis:Ho: There is no impact of Flexible Working Hours on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.Ha: There is an impact of Flexible Working Hours on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  52. 52. Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication SUMMARY Count Sum Average Varianc e Row 1 3 20 6.666667 52.33333 Row 2 3 36 12 31 Row 3 3 34 11.33333 17.33333 Column 1 3 30 10 19 Column 2 3 30 10 43 Column 3 3 30 10 64 ANOVA Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit Variation Rows 50.66667 2 25.33333 7.503311 0.638308 6.944276 Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276 Error 201.3333 4 50.33333 Total 252 8 Interpretation: The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 7.503311, since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is rejected. There is impact of Flexible Working Hours on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 50.00%employees while on 23.33% level of motivation was decreased and 26.67%were not affected. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  53. 53. Projectsformba.blogspot.com8) Impact of Technical skills on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover Motivation Absenteeism Turnover Increase 24 2 9 Decrease 2 10 10 No Effect 4 18 11GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONANOVA: Two-Factor without ReplicationBy applying Anova test we can analyzes if there is impact of Technical skills on Motivation,Absenteeism and Turnover or not.Step1: State Hypothesis:Ho: There is no impact of Technical skills on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.Ha: There is an impact of Technical skills on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  54. 54. Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication SUMMARY Count Sum Average Varianc e Row 1 3 35 11.66667 126.3333 Row 2 3 22 7.333333 21.33333 Row 3 3 33 11 49 Column 1 3 30 10 148 Column 2 3 30 10 64 Column 3 3 30 10 1 ANOVA Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit Variation Rows 32.66667 2 16.33333 9.166102 0.852516 6.944276 Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276 Error 393.3333 4 98.33333 Total 426 8 Interpretation: The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 9.166102, since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is rejected. There is significant difference in impact of Technical skills on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 80.00%employees while on 6.7% level of motivation was decreased and 13.33%were not affected. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  55. 55. Projectsformba.blogspot.com9) Impact of on the Job training on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover Variables Motivation Absenteeism Turnover Increase 27 6 11 Decrease 0 7 10 No Effect 3 17 9GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONANOVA: Two-Factor without ReplicationBy applying Anova test we can analyzes if there is impact of on the Job training on Motivation,Absenteeism and Turnover or not.Step1: State Hypothesis:Ho: There is no impact of on the Job training on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.Ha: There is an impact of on the Job training on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  56. 56. Projectsformba.blogspot.comANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication SUMMARY Count Sum Average Varianc e Row 1 3 44 14.66667 120.3333 Row 2 3 17 5.666667 26.33333 Row 3 3 29 9.666667 49.33333 Column 1 3 30 10 219 Column 2 3 30 10 37 Column 3 3 30 10 1 ANOVA Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit Variation Rows 122 2 61 9.622449 0.581629 6.944276 Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276 Error 392 4 98 Total 514 8 Interpretation: The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 9.622449, since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is rejected. There is impact of on the Job training on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 90.00% employees while on 0% level of motivation was decreased and 10%were not affected. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  57. 57. Projectsformba.blogspot.comFindings:1. After doing the survey it is found that 68.89% of the employees believe that Job Enrichment increases their motivation and 11.48% decrease their motivation.2. 19.6% of the employees believe that job enrichment does not effect their motivation.3. Job Enrichment does not affect absenteeism for 56.3% of the employees and 32.96% of the employee’s feels that absenteeism will decrease with job enrichment.4. 42.96% of the employees feel that job enrichment will decrease the turnover and 36%of employees feel that job enrichment will have no effect on turnover.5. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased through Job redesigning on 70% employees while on 6.70% level of motivation was decreased and 23.30% were not affected.6. It is found that there is significant difference on impact of Job autonomy on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 66.67% employees while on 13.33% level of motivation was decreased and 20.00% were not affected.7. It is found that absenteeism was increased on 20.00% employees while on 30.00% level of motivation was decreased and 50.00% were not affected through feedback.8. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 80.00%employees while on 6.7% level of motivation was decreased and 13.33%were not affected through technical skills.9. It is found that level of motivation was increased on 90.00% employees while on 0% level of motivation was decreased and 10%were not affected through on the job training.10. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 50.00%employees while on 23.33% level of motivation was decreased and 26.67%were not affected through flexible work hours. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  58. 58. Projectsformba.blogspot.com EFFECT OF JOB ENRICHMENT ON MOTIVATION Increase Decrease Will not affect Job redesigning 70.00% 6.70% 23.30% Autonomy 66.67% 13.33% 20.00% Feedback 53.33% 13.33% 33.33% Work challenge 70.00% 16.67% 13.33% Customer interaction 60.00% 10% 30.00% Participative decision 80.00% 13.33% 6.67% Flexible working hours 50.00% 23.33% 26.67% Use of technical skills 80.00% 6.7% 13.33% On the job training 90% 0% 10% Average 68.89% 11.48% 19.6% Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  59. 59. Projectsformba.blogspot.com EFFECT OF JOB ENRICHMENT ON ABSENTEEISM Increase Decrease Will not affect Job redesigning 0.00% 33.33% 66.67% Autonomy 6.66% 46.67% 46.67% Feedback 20.00% 30.00% 50.00% Work challenge 26.67% 26.67% 46.66% Customer interaction 13.33% 23.34% 63.33% Participative decision 0.00% 40.00% 60.00% Flexible working hours 10.00% 36.67% 53.33% Use of technical skills 0.00% 36.67% 63.33% On the job training 20.0% 23.33% 56.67% Average 10.74% 32.96% 56.3% Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  60. 60. Projectsformba.blogspot.com EFFECT OF JOB ENRICHMENT ON TURNOVER Increase Decrease Will not affect Job redesigning 23.33% 43.34% 33.33% Autonomy 26.67% 40.00% 33.33% Feedback 16.66% 43.34% 40.00% Work challenge 20.00% 53.33% 26.67% Customer interaction 6.67% 26.67% 66.66% Participative decision 16.67% 53.33% 30.00% Flexible working hours 6.67% 60.00% 33.33% Use of technical skills 30.00% 33.33% 36.67% On the job training 36.67% 33.33% 30.00% Average 20.37% 42.96% 36.7% Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  61. 61. Projectsformba.blogspot.comChapter 5Conclusion:From the above study we can deduce that the job enrichment helps in increasing motivationand reducing turnover but does not help much to reduce absenteeism. All these effectscombined together help in increasing job satisfaction of an employeeEmployers often use in their speeches the cliché that “Employees are our most important asset”without doing much to improve working conditions and the motivation of employees to do theirbest for the organization. In today’s fast changing environment employees are faced withincreasing demands from various sources. Also with the rising level of education employeesaren’t anymore satisfied with repetitive, not meaningful, tasks. Job enrichment offers a good wayto increase the variety of work and to motivate employees to truly commit themselves for thebenefit of the whole organization. In increasingly competitive environment, management findsthat the best way to achieve corporate goals is to work together with the persons who are closestto the actual work. Companies that implement programs that enhance employees’ knowledge,abilities, and experience and allow them to apply these new skills in their work will be profitablein the future. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  62. 62. Projectsformba.blogspot.com LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYAlthough the sincere efforts have been done to collect authentic and relevant information,the study may have the following limitation: o Hard enough to fetch information. It was not an easy task to get information from middle level management. The respondents were not always open and forthcoming with their views, even agitates and not disclosing. o Limited scope. Scope of study is limited ABC only and because of limited time and money. So, results of study may not generalize for India as a whole. o Results may be inaccurate. The study is based on the assumption that responses are true and factual although at times that may not be the case. o Existence of biases. The chances of biased responses cannot be eliminated though all necessary steps were taken to avoid the same. o Small sample size: the sample size taken is small and may not be sufficient to predict the results with 100 % accuracy and findings may not be generalized. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  63. 63. Projectsformba.blogspot.com BIBLIOGRAPHYBOOKS  Jain.T.R, Statistics for MBA, 2nd Edition  Ashwatthapa, Human Resource Management, 7th EditionWEBSITES  www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem  www.articlesbase.com/management-articles/job-enrichment  www.eurofound.europa.eu/emire/IRELAND/JOBENRICHMENT  www.smartmanager.us/eprise/main/web/us/  www.collegeresearch.us/show_essay/11689.html  www.bookpump.com/dps/pdf-b/1120699b.pdf  www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/eb003472  http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/eb055  www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/1463444971019547  http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/EUM0000000003126  www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/01437720510587307  http://www.joe.org/joe/1997october/iw1.html.  http://edweb.sdsu.edu/people/arossett/pie/Interventions/jobdesign_1.htm  www.bls.gov/osmr/abstract/ec/ec060010.htm  www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_81.htm  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job enrichment  www.businessdictionary.com/definition/job-enrichment.  http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/eb055232  http://hum.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/32/3/189  http://faculty.washington.edu/~janegf/jeguide.pdf.  http://www.siu.edu/departments/cola/psych/psyc323/chat07/index.htm.  http://academic.emporia.edu/smithwil/001fmg456/eja/kotila456.html.  http://www.changeboard.com/hrcircles/blogs/hrarticles/archive/2008/02/15/absenteeism- how-to-manage.aspx Projectsformba.blogspot.com

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