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Prepared by:
Sugandha Vidge

CAREER MANAGEMENT

80
CONTENTS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Introduction
Definition
Importance
Careers
Protean careers
Traditional career versus protean career
Career development model – examples
Challenges in career management – onboarding,
dual career path, plateauing, career breaks
INTRODUCTION
• Career development is important for companies to
create and sustain a continuous learning environment
• The biggest challenge companies face is how to
balance advancing current employees‟ careers with
simultaneously attracting and acquiring employees
with new skills
• The growing use of teams is influencing the concept of
careers, e.g. project careers
• Changes in the concept of career affect:
 employees‟ motivation to attend training programs
 the outcomes they expect to gain from attendance
 their choice of programs
 how and what they need to know
DEFINITION
Career management is the process through which
employees
• Become aware of their own interests, values,
strengths and weaknesses.
• Obtain information about job opportunities within
the company.
• Identify career goals.
• Establish action plans to achieve career goals.
IMPORTANCE
• From the company’s perspective, the failure to
motivate employees to plan their careers can result in:
 a shortage of employees to fill open positions
 lower employee commitment
 inappropriate use of monies allocated for training and
development programs

• From the employees’ perspective, lack of career
management can result in:
 frustration
 feelings of not being valued by the company
 being unable to find suitable employment should a job change
be necessary due to mergers, acquisitions, restructuring, or
downsizing
CAREERS
• Hughes (1937) defined career as “the moving
perspective in which persons orient themselves with
reference to the social order, and of the typical
sequences and concatenation of office”.
• A more recent definition look at career as “a process
of development of the employee along a path of
experience and jobs in one or more organizations”
(Baruch & Rosenstein, 1992).
• On the one hand, the career is the „property‟ of the
individual, who may be inspired by new social norms,
but on the other hand, for employed people, it is
planned and managed to a large extent by their
organizations.
PROTEAN CAREER
• The protean career is a process which the person,
not the organization, is managing.
• It consists of all the person's varied experience in
education, training, work in several organizations,
changes in occupational field, etc…
• The protean person's own personal career choices
and search for self-fulfillment are the unifying or
integrative elements in his or her life.
• Based on self-direction with the goal of
psychological work success in one‟s life.
Dimension

Traditional
career

Protean
career

Goal

Promotions
salary increase

Psychological
success

Psychological
contract

Security for
commitment

Employability for
flexibility

Mobility

Vertical

Lateral

Responsibility for
management

Company

Employee

Pattern

Linear and expert

Spiral and transitory

Expertise

Know how

Learn how

Development

Heavy reliance on
formal training

Greater reliance on
relationships and job
experience
A MODEL OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Exploration
stage
Developme Identify
ntal tasks
interests, skills,
fit between self
and work

Establishment
stage

Maintenance Disengagement
stage
stage

Advancement,
growth, security,
develop life style

Hold on to
accomplishme
nts, update
skills

Retirement
planning, change
balance between
work and non-work

Activities

Helping
Learning
Following
directions

Making
independent
contributions

Training
Sponsoring
Policy making

Phasing out of work

Relationshi
ps to other
employees

Apprentice

Colleague

Mentor

Sponsor

Typical age Less than 30

30 – 45

45 – 60

61+

Years on
job

2 – 10 years

More than 10
years

More than 10 years

Less than 2
years
CAREER DEVELOPMENT AT JOHNSON
& JOHNSON INC.
• Johnson & Johnson Inc have well-defined processes and tools to
help its employees drive their career in the direction that is most
meaningful to them . These include:
 a personal, customized development program
 leadership training and online learning
 guidelines for productive career development conversations with
your managers
 clear succession planning, supported by development programs
that are designed to give you specific experiences and skills
acquisition for your next target job
 flexible career paths that can enable you to broaden your scope
of experience through exposure to different disciplines and
companies
 career opportunities across three business segments
CAREER DEVELOPMENT AT IBM
• IBM has structured its career development framework
around an expertise taxonomy, whereby everyone in the
company uses the same “language” as it relates to skills and
expertise.
• The career development framework provides a structure for
employees to follow specific guidance on how to grow skills
in the various job roles and how to validate that they have
gained such capability.
 Expertise Assessment
 Learning@IBM Explorer Website
 Your Career Portlet
 Individual Development Plan
 Blue Opportunities
 Classroom Training
 e-learning
 Mentoring
 Tuition refund
CHALLENGES IN CAREER
MANAGEMENT
Onboarding
• Onboarding, also known as organizational
socialization, refers to the mechanism through which
new employees acquire the necessary knowledge,
skills, and behaviors to become effective
organizational members and insiders.
• Tactics used in this process include formal meetings,
lectures, videos, printed materials, or computer-based
orientations to introduce newcomers to their new jobs
and organizations.
ONBOARDING PROCESS AT
DIFFERENT COMPANIES
• InMobi is a performance based mobile ad network
backed by Soft Bank and Kleiner Perkins Caufield &
Byers. InMobi partnered with MindTickle, a Gamification
startup to leverage it‟s employee engagement and
learning platform, AllAboard to deliver new hire
orientation at InMobi as an online social game. The
entire experience used a test-to-teach methodology,
wherein the quiz questions / puzzles were designed
such that while users with prior knowledge would score
better, users with no prior knowledge of the subject
matter could use their lateral thinking, hints and links to
relevant online reading material that were provided
along with the question.
DEUTSCHE BANK
• Deutsche Bank is a large and complex organisation and the
gap between a new recruit receiving a job offer and starting
work can be anything between two weeks and three months
across geographies.
• In a first for the banking industry, last year Deutsche Bank (DB)
launched its @DB app, which can be downloaded for free by
new post-offer recruits, from the iTunes Store.
• The app has been designed to give new starts an idea of
what it is like to work at DB. It features clear navigation,
making it easier to use for a non-technical audience, a
welcome video, an RSS news feed, checklist to help recruits
get set for their first day, an office location finder, a direct link
to social networking sites, biographies of senior managers,
podcasts and a feedback function.
DUAL-CAREER PATHS
• A career path is a sequence of job positions involving
similar types of work and skills that employees move
through in the company
• Traditional career path - Employee progresses vertically
upward in organization from one specific job to the
next.
• Dual career path - Technical specialists contribute
expertise without having to become managers.
• The dual approach says that you can move up the
scientific track and be paid at an equivalent level to a
supervisor or a manager by being a really excellent
scientist and bringing value through innovation, ideas,
and scientific leadership.
COMPANIES OFFERING DUAL CAREER
PATHS
• Eli Lilly and Company is an American global pharmaceutical
company. Years ago, the company saw a trend where
people who had excellent scientific skills were stepping
away [from research] to pursue administrative work because
there wasn't an opportunity for them to grow along
technical paths. That‟s when the company put in the dual
career ladder.
• Air Products & Chemicals is another example among many
chemical and drug producers with very similar outlooks
toward having a ladder system. "A primary driver was simply
that we wanted opportunities for career growth for our
practicing scientists and engineers," says Linda Dragotta,
human resources manager at Air Products. "We didn't want
to have to move people into management roles to afford
them that career growth."
PLATEAUING
• The point where the likelihood of additional
hierarchical promotion is very remote;
• The point where there are few internal opportunities
for advancement;
• A period in which an individual's learning rate does
not improve;
• A time of perceived or actual professional
stagnation.
DIFFERENT KINDS OF CAREER
PLATAEUX
• Structural Plateau
When one has progressed to a point where the organizational structure
prevents him or her from moving up, due to non-availability of vacancies in
higher grades.
• Content Plateau
When one has mastered the job and there is no longer a sense of challenge in
the current position.

• Contribution Plateau
When one has ceased growing and searching for learning opportunities to
develop competencies and add value, becoming unable to respond to
changing situations or to keep up with technological changes.
• Damaged Reputation Plateau
When critical behaviours or events put a temporary stall on career progression.
• Life Plateau
When one experiences a loss of identity, direction, meaning or self-esteem, or
when one undergoes self-doubt in his or her life, not just in the job.
DEALING WITH A CAREER PLATEAU
• The strategies for dealing with a career plateau,
whatever the kind, revolve around two main
actions: reflection and reassessment.
 Restructure your view of success
 Manage expectations
 Seek a career move
 Explore new learning
 Manage your reputation
 Find your balance
MANAGING CAREER BREAKS
• A career break is a period of time out from employment.
Traditionally, this is for mothers to raise children, but it is
sometimes used for people taking time out of their career
for personal development and/or professional
development.
• A career break is usually between one month and two
years long. Six months to 2 years is the most common
period of time for a career break. It's also possible to take
a mini career break of less than one month, which
enables people to try out career break activities without
committing to longer periods of time.
• A career break is not simply a period of unemployment.
Career breakers usually do one or more of the following:
 Travel
 Voluntary work
 Paid work abroad
 Studying or training
 Offering palliative care
 Raising children
 Staying up-to-date with (profession related) news
 Recovering from accidents or illnesses

• Tesco PLC is a British multinational grocery and general
merchandise retailer headquartered in Cheshunt,
Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom. Tesco's Lifestyle
Breaks give employees the chance to spend time with
their children, renovate their house, go travelling, have
plastic surgery - whatever takes their fancy.
THANKYOU

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CAREER MANAGEMENT

  • 2. CONTENTS • • • • • • • • Introduction Definition Importance Careers Protean careers Traditional career versus protean career Career development model – examples Challenges in career management – onboarding, dual career path, plateauing, career breaks
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • Career development is important for companies to create and sustain a continuous learning environment • The biggest challenge companies face is how to balance advancing current employees‟ careers with simultaneously attracting and acquiring employees with new skills • The growing use of teams is influencing the concept of careers, e.g. project careers • Changes in the concept of career affect:  employees‟ motivation to attend training programs  the outcomes they expect to gain from attendance  their choice of programs  how and what they need to know
  • 4. DEFINITION Career management is the process through which employees • Become aware of their own interests, values, strengths and weaknesses. • Obtain information about job opportunities within the company. • Identify career goals. • Establish action plans to achieve career goals.
  • 5. IMPORTANCE • From the company’s perspective, the failure to motivate employees to plan their careers can result in:  a shortage of employees to fill open positions  lower employee commitment  inappropriate use of monies allocated for training and development programs • From the employees’ perspective, lack of career management can result in:  frustration  feelings of not being valued by the company  being unable to find suitable employment should a job change be necessary due to mergers, acquisitions, restructuring, or downsizing
  • 6. CAREERS • Hughes (1937) defined career as “the moving perspective in which persons orient themselves with reference to the social order, and of the typical sequences and concatenation of office”. • A more recent definition look at career as “a process of development of the employee along a path of experience and jobs in one or more organizations” (Baruch & Rosenstein, 1992). • On the one hand, the career is the „property‟ of the individual, who may be inspired by new social norms, but on the other hand, for employed people, it is planned and managed to a large extent by their organizations.
  • 7. PROTEAN CAREER • The protean career is a process which the person, not the organization, is managing. • It consists of all the person's varied experience in education, training, work in several organizations, changes in occupational field, etc… • The protean person's own personal career choices and search for self-fulfillment are the unifying or integrative elements in his or her life. • Based on self-direction with the goal of psychological work success in one‟s life.
  • 8. Dimension Traditional career Protean career Goal Promotions salary increase Psychological success Psychological contract Security for commitment Employability for flexibility Mobility Vertical Lateral Responsibility for management Company Employee Pattern Linear and expert Spiral and transitory Expertise Know how Learn how Development Heavy reliance on formal training Greater reliance on relationships and job experience
  • 9. A MODEL OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT Exploration stage Developme Identify ntal tasks interests, skills, fit between self and work Establishment stage Maintenance Disengagement stage stage Advancement, growth, security, develop life style Hold on to accomplishme nts, update skills Retirement planning, change balance between work and non-work Activities Helping Learning Following directions Making independent contributions Training Sponsoring Policy making Phasing out of work Relationshi ps to other employees Apprentice Colleague Mentor Sponsor Typical age Less than 30 30 – 45 45 – 60 61+ Years on job 2 – 10 years More than 10 years More than 10 years Less than 2 years
  • 10. CAREER DEVELOPMENT AT JOHNSON & JOHNSON INC. • Johnson & Johnson Inc have well-defined processes and tools to help its employees drive their career in the direction that is most meaningful to them . These include:  a personal, customized development program  leadership training and online learning  guidelines for productive career development conversations with your managers  clear succession planning, supported by development programs that are designed to give you specific experiences and skills acquisition for your next target job  flexible career paths that can enable you to broaden your scope of experience through exposure to different disciplines and companies  career opportunities across three business segments
  • 11. CAREER DEVELOPMENT AT IBM • IBM has structured its career development framework around an expertise taxonomy, whereby everyone in the company uses the same “language” as it relates to skills and expertise. • The career development framework provides a structure for employees to follow specific guidance on how to grow skills in the various job roles and how to validate that they have gained such capability.  Expertise Assessment  Learning@IBM Explorer Website  Your Career Portlet  Individual Development Plan  Blue Opportunities  Classroom Training  e-learning  Mentoring  Tuition refund
  • 12. CHALLENGES IN CAREER MANAGEMENT Onboarding • Onboarding, also known as organizational socialization, refers to the mechanism through which new employees acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and behaviors to become effective organizational members and insiders. • Tactics used in this process include formal meetings, lectures, videos, printed materials, or computer-based orientations to introduce newcomers to their new jobs and organizations.
  • 13. ONBOARDING PROCESS AT DIFFERENT COMPANIES • InMobi is a performance based mobile ad network backed by Soft Bank and Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. InMobi partnered with MindTickle, a Gamification startup to leverage it‟s employee engagement and learning platform, AllAboard to deliver new hire orientation at InMobi as an online social game. The entire experience used a test-to-teach methodology, wherein the quiz questions / puzzles were designed such that while users with prior knowledge would score better, users with no prior knowledge of the subject matter could use their lateral thinking, hints and links to relevant online reading material that were provided along with the question.
  • 14. DEUTSCHE BANK • Deutsche Bank is a large and complex organisation and the gap between a new recruit receiving a job offer and starting work can be anything between two weeks and three months across geographies. • In a first for the banking industry, last year Deutsche Bank (DB) launched its @DB app, which can be downloaded for free by new post-offer recruits, from the iTunes Store. • The app has been designed to give new starts an idea of what it is like to work at DB. It features clear navigation, making it easier to use for a non-technical audience, a welcome video, an RSS news feed, checklist to help recruits get set for their first day, an office location finder, a direct link to social networking sites, biographies of senior managers, podcasts and a feedback function.
  • 15. DUAL-CAREER PATHS • A career path is a sequence of job positions involving similar types of work and skills that employees move through in the company • Traditional career path - Employee progresses vertically upward in organization from one specific job to the next. • Dual career path - Technical specialists contribute expertise without having to become managers. • The dual approach says that you can move up the scientific track and be paid at an equivalent level to a supervisor or a manager by being a really excellent scientist and bringing value through innovation, ideas, and scientific leadership.
  • 16. COMPANIES OFFERING DUAL CAREER PATHS • Eli Lilly and Company is an American global pharmaceutical company. Years ago, the company saw a trend where people who had excellent scientific skills were stepping away [from research] to pursue administrative work because there wasn't an opportunity for them to grow along technical paths. That‟s when the company put in the dual career ladder. • Air Products & Chemicals is another example among many chemical and drug producers with very similar outlooks toward having a ladder system. "A primary driver was simply that we wanted opportunities for career growth for our practicing scientists and engineers," says Linda Dragotta, human resources manager at Air Products. "We didn't want to have to move people into management roles to afford them that career growth."
  • 17. PLATEAUING • The point where the likelihood of additional hierarchical promotion is very remote; • The point where there are few internal opportunities for advancement; • A period in which an individual's learning rate does not improve; • A time of perceived or actual professional stagnation.
  • 18. DIFFERENT KINDS OF CAREER PLATAEUX • Structural Plateau When one has progressed to a point where the organizational structure prevents him or her from moving up, due to non-availability of vacancies in higher grades. • Content Plateau When one has mastered the job and there is no longer a sense of challenge in the current position. • Contribution Plateau When one has ceased growing and searching for learning opportunities to develop competencies and add value, becoming unable to respond to changing situations or to keep up with technological changes. • Damaged Reputation Plateau When critical behaviours or events put a temporary stall on career progression. • Life Plateau When one experiences a loss of identity, direction, meaning or self-esteem, or when one undergoes self-doubt in his or her life, not just in the job.
  • 19. DEALING WITH A CAREER PLATEAU • The strategies for dealing with a career plateau, whatever the kind, revolve around two main actions: reflection and reassessment.  Restructure your view of success  Manage expectations  Seek a career move  Explore new learning  Manage your reputation  Find your balance
  • 20. MANAGING CAREER BREAKS • A career break is a period of time out from employment. Traditionally, this is for mothers to raise children, but it is sometimes used for people taking time out of their career for personal development and/or professional development. • A career break is usually between one month and two years long. Six months to 2 years is the most common period of time for a career break. It's also possible to take a mini career break of less than one month, which enables people to try out career break activities without committing to longer periods of time.
  • 21. • A career break is not simply a period of unemployment. Career breakers usually do one or more of the following:  Travel  Voluntary work  Paid work abroad  Studying or training  Offering palliative care  Raising children  Staying up-to-date with (profession related) news  Recovering from accidents or illnesses • Tesco PLC is a British multinational grocery and general merchandise retailer headquartered in Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom. Tesco's Lifestyle Breaks give employees the chance to spend time with their children, renovate their house, go travelling, have plastic surgery - whatever takes their fancy.

Editor's Notes

  1. The company were losing good scientists over to administration and probably had people doing work that wasn't as much to their 'calling.' That's when we put in our original ladder
  2. This happens to most of us sooner or later.3. Individuals have significant control over the forces that create contribution-based plateau; if one lets this happen, his or her value will decline rapidly.4. Sometimes these may be self inflicted, sometimes by association with a particular department, supervisor or mission, and sometimes a combination of both. However, it is important to understand that reputation can vary over time for the same individual and that positive reputation can be restored.5. In many ways this is the most serious plateau, especially when combined with working in a post conflict context.
  3. Explore ways to feel successful on the job apart from 'moving up', such as lateral moves, taking on new and different assignments in an existing job, going more in-depth in your area of expertise or even changing your working area as a whole.Let go of the notion of regular promotions and instead concentrate on your job satisfiers. Enrich the status quo: seek out a special challenging assignment, such as a special project, additional task, covering someone's duties while he or she is away (job rotation), or committee work.Pursue a change within the organization, seek a geographical move to a new Duty Station or, perhaps, to a different organization. Move sideways (consider a cross-training) to find excitement and challenge through a new environment.Return to school, take training (IT, managerial, technical, supervisory, etc.), explore a sabbatical to develop a skill, register for a degree/non-degree/certificate programme, do a cross-training, acquire or perfect a UN language (in-situ, intensive study or self-study, individual tutors or CD-ROMs), maintain or expand your understanding of trends in your field (which can be done though effective networking or mentoring).5. Identify the origin of your damaged reputation: is it self-inflicted, related to a particular department, supervisor or mission, or a combination of both?Confront the origin of your bad reputation. Is it based on true events or made up? If made up, find a way to ensure that the truth is known.Assess your own behaviour and/or that of your department, supervisor or mission if necessary. Is there anything you can do to avoid the critical behaviours or events from re-happening? Take accountability for your actions and for the actions of your department or mission and make a commitment to improve.Counteractyour damaged reputation with positive and constructive acts and behaviours on a continuous manner.6. Find time for yourself and focus on the positive aspects of your life and on what makes you happy. Find new things or experiences to be excited about. Reassess your goals and the plans you have to achieve them; are you on the right path or does it need some readjustment?