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Transcript

  • 1. Scientific Method
  • 2. Vocabulary1. observation- information gained by using the senses.2. Inference- conclusion based on evidence of premises.3. Hypothesis- an explanation that is based on prior research or observation and that can be tested.
  • 3. What Are Scientific Methods?• Scientific Method- A series of steps followed to solve problems.• The steps are not always followed in the same order.
  • 4. What are the steps in the scientific method?• Ask a question• Form a Hypothesis• Test the hypothesis• Analyze the results• Draw a conclusion• Communicate results
  • 5. Ask a question• Scientists often ask questions after observation.• Observation- The process of obtaining information by using the senses.• Example- What is the effect of temperature on the speed a worm travels?
  • 6. Hypothesis• Hypothesis- An idea or explanation that is based on prior scientific research or observations and that can be tested.• Sometimes called an educated guess.
  • 7. Hypothesis continued• Usually stated as an if then sentence.• Example- If temperature increases, then the speed a worm travels will increase.
  • 8. Test the hypothesis• Scientists test the hypothesis by gathering data.• Data- any pieces of information acquired through observation or experimentation.• Sometimes a controlled experiment is used.
  • 9. Test hypothesis continued• Controlled experiments test only one factor at a time.• The one factor that is changed is called the variable.
  • 10. • The manipulated variable is the variable that the scientist purposely changes.• If I am testing the effect of temperature on earthworm travel speed then the manipulated variable is the temperature.
  • 11. • The responding variable is the variable that changes as a result of the manipulated variable.• In the worm example the responding variable is the speed that the worm travels.
  • 12. Test hypothesis continued again• Sometimes scientists test without an experiment by observing and collecting data.• Example- The scientist might observe birds to see what type of tree they nest in.
  • 13. Analyze the results• To analyze results scientists often use tables and graphs.• Example- Putting all of the measurements and into graphs and charts.
  • 14. Draw a conclusion• Decide whether the data supports the hypothesis or not.• If it does not support the hypothesis scientists may repeat the experiment to check for mistakes or ask a new question and form a new hypothesis.• Example- From the data it has been discovered that as temperature rises earthworm speed increases. One might wonder if the same is true in other types of worms.
  • 15. Communicate results• Scientists share results by writing reports or giving talks.• Science depends on sharing.• It allows others to repeat the experiment.• Openness and replication of experimental results keeps a scientists believability.