Scientific Inquiry


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Scientific Inquiry

  1. 1. I. SCIENCE The process of having or gaining knowledge.
  2. 2. Scientist <ul><li>A scientist is a person who explores problems and answers questions about the natural world. </li></ul>
  3. 3. a. Observing <ul><li>Using 1 or more senses to gather information. </li></ul><ul><li>Senses include sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. </li></ul>
  4. 4. b. Predicting <ul><li>Making a forecast of what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence. </li></ul>
  5. 5. c. Inferring <ul><li>Explaining and interpreting the things you observe through your senses. </li></ul><ul><li>Not always correct. </li></ul><ul><li>Always based on reasoning from observed facts. </li></ul>
  6. 6. d. Scientific Attitudes <ul><li>Characteristics that maintain “knowledge seeking” attitudes. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Curiosity: Asking questions that no one has thought of before. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Honesty: Reporting truthful results. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open-minded: Accepting new and different ideas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creative: New ways of solving problems. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skeptical: Doubt idea’s until fully tested. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. II. SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY <ul><li>The method of studying that natural world and proposing explanations based on the collected evidence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to note that there in NO set path that inquiry must follow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations at any stage may lead to modifications of hypothesis or experiment. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. a. Posing Questions <ul><li>Inquiry begins with a problem or question about an observation or inferences from observation. </li></ul>
  9. 9. b. Hypothesis <ul><li>A possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to a scientific question. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be testable for gathered evidence to support or disprove the hypothesis </li></ul>
  10. 10. c. Designing an Experiment <ul><li>Must test hypothesis under controlled conditions set by the scientist (controlled experiment). </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists determine how one variable affects the results. </li></ul><ul><li>A variable is one of the factors that can change within the experiment. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Variables <ul><li>Manipulated (Independent _ X-axis) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What you are testing, the variable you can control, change, or manipulate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Responding (Dependent _ Y-axis) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What you are measuring, the variable you cannot control or change. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By controlling variables, scientists can eliminate the effects of other variables as factors in their results. </li></ul>
  12. 12. d. Collecting and Interpreting Data <ul><li>The facts, figures, and evidence gathered through observations. </li></ul><ul><li>Data tables provide organized ways to collect and record observations. </li></ul><ul><li>Graphs are used to analyze and interpret collected data. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Graphs <ul><li>Bar Graph </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Display data in separate or distinct categories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Line Graph </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Displays data to show how one variable changes in response to another variable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Circle Graph </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Display for all categories of a topic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. e. Drawing Conclusions <ul><li>A conclusion is a decision about how to interpret what you learned from the experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Make 1 of 2 decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data supports hypothesis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data does not support hypothesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Results suggest new questions that lead to new hypothesis and experiments. </li></ul>
  15. 15. f. Communication <ul><li>Sharing results through writing and speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Give talks at scientific meetings, exchange information on the Internet, or publish articles in scientific journals. </li></ul>
  16. 16. III. Scientific Theory <ul><li>Scientific theory is a well-tested concept explaining a wide range of observations. </li></ul><ul><li>Has withstood repeated tests. </li></ul><ul><li>If tests fail to support theory, scientists may change or abandon it. </li></ul>
  17. 17. IV. Scientific Law <ul><li>Scientific laws describe what is expected to happen every time under a particular set of conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Describes observed patterns in nature, but does not provide an explanation. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatedly tested and found true. </li></ul>