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# Scientific Processes

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Teaches students the basic steps to the scientific process.

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### Scientific Processes

1. 1. Notes 1.3 Scientific Process
2. 2. Research Question • Observations about the world around us help to frame a question. – Example: How do different amounts of sunshine affect plant growth?
3. 3. Background Information • Research about similar experiments and related concepts help the scientist to develop the hypothesis and organize the procedure.
4. 4. Hypothesis • Hypothesis = a preliminary answer to the research question . . . It is based on observations and background research. It must be testable. • The hypothesis is often stated: “If. . .then. . . because..” form.
5. 5. Procedure • The procedure= a list of specific steps to conduct the experiment. – Independent variable (IV) = the one condition changed by researcher – Dependent variable (DV) = the condition that changes as a result of the independent variable. (condition being observed & measured)
6. 6. Procedure continued…. •Control- The trial where the IV is not changed. •Constants- All of the other conditions held constant during the experiment. •Trials – The number of times the experiment is performed •Sample Size – The number of subjects tested or trials run
7. 7. Data • Data is often displayed in table & graph form. . . It may be numerical or behavioral data. – Tables first – Graphs second 0 50 100 1st Qtr 3rd Qtr East West North Body position Trial 1 Trial 2 Mean Flat Right side Left side
8. 8. Data Tables Data Table Title (IV/DV) Independent Variable Dependent Variable Trial 1 Dependent Variable Trial 2 Dependent Variable Trial 3 Calculated Value Level One Level Two Level Three
9. 9. Conclusions • Conclusions either support or reject the hypothesis. • Data must be cited to support the conclusion.
10. 10. Publishing –Information from the study should be shared with others using: – scientific journals – poster presentations – web sites
11. 11. Experimental Scenario I would like to test the effects of varying coffee ground concentrations (0%, 10%, 20%) as fertilizer on the growth in height in cm of my three Japanese Maple trees over six months. • What would I want to keep constant? • What is my independent variable? • What is my dependent variable? • What is my control? • Are there Multiple Trials?